Review: Volume 14 - Railways

Review: Volume 14 - Railways

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Launched in 2006, "The Modern Railway" is the indispensable guide to the UK Railway Industry. It guides its readers through the sometimes complex structure of today's railway, and is therefore popular with rail managers and staff, investors, regular travellers and the informed observer. This innovative annual publication details all parties involved in the operation, maintenance, manufacture, supply and management of the UK rail industry and gives an overview of developments in Europe. Edited by Modern Railways' Ken Cordner with contributions from Roger Ford, Howard Johnston, John Gough and other members of the team, "The Modern Railway Directory 2008" examines all aspects of: policy and finance; infrastructure maintenance and renewal; train operation (passenger and freight); Civil Engineering; Rolling Stock manufacture and maintenance; signal & telecommunications; rail innovations & exhibitions; and light rail & metro systems.

The Shelby Iron Works Collection in the University of Alabama Library

Jonathan Ware, an ironmaster from Lynn, Massachusetts, settled in central Alabama in 1825 and was for some years active in the iron business. In the 1840's his son, Horace Ware, established the Shelby Iron Company and with the financial help of a friendly planter erected a blast furnace at the village of Shelby, in Shelby County. The furnace was put in blast late in the decade and operated for a number of years without benefit of rail transportation.


North Dakota was first settled by Native Americans several thousand years ago. The major tribes in the area by the time of settlement were the Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara, Sioux, and Chippewa.

These tribes used at least 349 kinds of plants for food, medicine, dyes, and rope. [1] By the time European trade goods were making their way through native trade routes, the Mandan had developed an agricultural and trading society.

La Vérendrye was the first European to explore the area. He visited the Mandan tribes around 1738 and was astounded by their level of development. Limited trade with European powers followed through the end of the century. [2]

The Mandan villages played a key role in the native trade networks because of their location and permanency. Their location at the northernmost reaches of the Missouri River placed them near the closest portages to the Hudson Bay basin and thus the fastest access to European traders. Additionally, valuable Knife River flint was produced not far from the villages. [ citation needed ]

During the 19th century, a number of Indians entered into treaties with the United States. Many of the treaties defined the territory of the different tribes in North Dakota. [ citation needed ]

Settlers Edit

In 1861, the area that is now North Dakota was incorporated into the new Dakota Territory along with what is now South Dakota. On November 2, 1889, North Dakota and South Dakota became separate states.

Eager to attract immigrants, state officials broadcast widely pamphlets and newspaper accounts celebrating the "Myth of North Dakota." This myth included: 1) the myth of the garden 2) the "work and win" philosophy that promise to the realization of the American Dream of home ownership through hard work and 3) an image of an empire in the making, settled by good and just people. [3] The settlers came by 1910, with the largest numbers comprising German Americans, Scandinavian Americans, and Americans from the East Coast colloquially known as Yankees the Yankees concentrated in the towns and cities, while the others became wheat farmers.

Railroads Edit

The success of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Great Northern Railroad was based on the abundant crops and rapidly increasing settlement in the Red River Valley along the Minnesota border between 1871 and 1890. The initial role of the railroads in opening this area was to commercial agriculture, the relation of James B. Power to "bonanza" farming, the tremendous immigration to this valley between 1878 and 1884, and the extensive efforts of Power and James J. Hill to promote agricultural diversification constitute an important chapter in railroad colonization history. [4]

The railroad was the engine of settlement for the state. Major development occurred in the 1870s and 1880s. The Northern Pacific Railroad was given land grants by the federal government so that it could borrow money to build its system. [5] The federal government kept every other section of land, and gave it away to homesteaders. At first the railroad sold much of its holdings at low prices to land speculators in order to realize quick cash profits, and also to eliminate sizable annual tax bills. By 1905 the railroad company land policies changes when it realized it had been a costly mistake to have sold much of the land at wholesale prices. With better railroad service and improved methods of farming the Northern Pacific easily sold what had been heretofore "worthless" land directly to farmers at very good prices. By 1910 the railroad's holdings in North Dakota had been greatly reduced. [6] Meanwhile, the Great Northern Railroad energetically promoted settlement along its lines in the northern part of the state. [7] The Great Northern bought its lands from the federal government—it received no land grants—and resold them to farmers one by one. It operated agencies in Germany and Scandinavia that promoted its lands, and brought families over at low cost. [8] The battle between James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway and Edward Pennington's 'Soo Line Railroad' to control access across northern North Dakota resulted in nearly 500 miles of new track and more than 50 new town sites in one year. Many of the town sites were never settled, and were abandoned. [9]

Germans from Russia Edit

Germans from Russia were the most traditional of German-speaking arrivals. They were Germans who had lived for generations throughout the Russian Empire, but especially along the Volga River in Russia. Their ancestors had been invited to Russia in the 1760s to introduce more advanced German agriculture methods to rural Russia. They retained their religion, culture and language, but the Russian monarchy gradually eroded the relative autonomy they had been promised. Many found it necessary to emigrate to avoid conscription and preserve their culture. About 100,000 immigrated by 1900–1950, settling primarily in North and South Dakota, Kansas and Nebraska. The south-central part of North Dakota became known as "the German-Russian triangle".

These immigrants saw themselves a downtrodden ethnic group having an entirely different experience from the German Americans who had immigrated from Germany they settled in tight-knit communities that retained their German language and culture. They raised large families, built German-style churches, buried their dead in distinctive cemeteries using cast iron grave markers, and created choir groups that sang German church hymns. Many farmers specialized in sugar beets — still a major crop in the upper Great Plains. During World War I their identity was challenged by anti-German sentiment. By the end of the World War II, the German language, which had always been used with English for public and official matters, was in serious decline. Today their descendants speak English and German persists mainly in singing groups. Despite the loss of their language, the ethnic group remains distinct and has left a lasting impression on the American West. [10] [11]

On May 14, 1889 the Constitutional Convention was held in Bismarck where the Dakota Territory was admitted into the Union as two states. [12]

Many entrepreneurs built stores, shops, and offices along Main Street. The most handsome ones used pre-formed, sheet iron facades, especially those manufactured by the Mesker Brothers of St. Louis. These neoclassical, stylized facades added sophistication to brick or wood-frame buildings throughout the state. [13]

Retail stores Edit

In the rural areas farmers and ranchers depended on small local general stores that had a limited stock and slow turnover they could make enough profit to stay in operation only by selling at high prices. Prices were not marked on each item instead the customer negotiated a price. Men did most of the shopping, since the main criteria was credit rather than quality of goods. Indeed, most customers shopped on credit, paying off the bill when crops or cattle were later sold the owner's ability to judge credit worthiness was vital to his success. [14]

In the cities consumers had much more choice, and bought their dry goods and supplies at locally owned department stores. They had a much wider selection of goods than in the country general stores, and provided tags that gave the actual selling price. In an era before credit cards, the department stores provided limited credit to selected customers everyone else paid cash. They set up attractive displays and, after 1900, window displays as well. Their clerks—usually men before the 1940s—were experienced salesmen whose knowledge of the products appealed to the better educated middle-class housewives who did most of the shopping. The keys to success were a large variety of high-quality brand-name merchandise, high turnover, reasonable prices, and frequent special sales. The larger stores sent their buyers to Denver, Minneapolis, and Chicago once or twice a year to evaluate the newest trends in merchandising and stock up on the latest fashions. By the 1920s and 1930s, large mail-order houses such as Sears, Roebuck & Co. and Montgomery Ward provided serious competition, so the department stores relied even more on salesmanship, and close integration with the community. [15] [16]

Politics Edit

From the late 19th century, North Dakota's politics was generally dominated by the Republican Party. The Populist movement made little headway among the ethnic farmers. A representative leader was John Miller (1853–1908). Born in New York of Scottish ancestry, he came to North Dakota during the bonanza farm period, 1878–89. A Republican, he entered politics and was elected as the state's first governor, serving two years, after which he devoted his time to farm management. The greatest victory he won as governor was the defeat of a charter for a state lottery. He returned to his bonanza farm business and organized the John Miller Land Company in 1896. Miller became president of the newly incorporated Chaffee-Miller Milling Company in 1906. He was interested in numerous projects for civic and social improvement until his death in 1908. [17]

Republican Senator Asle Gronna was reflected the attitudes of his region – progressive and isolationist. He blamed munition makers for the preparedness movement and World War I and was part of the "little group of willful men," so labeled by President Woodrow Wilson. In 1919, he was a staunch isolationist who opposed the League of Nations treaty because it further entangled the United States in foreign relationships and limited national decision making. Gronna failed to win reelection in 1920. [18]

Langer and the NPL Edit

The Non-Partisan League (NPL) was initially a faction of the Republican Party which ran farmers as candidates in the Republican primaries. Formed in 1915 with its roots in agrarian populism, it was strongest in the north-central and northwestern areas of the state, where Norwegian Americans predominated. The NPL advocated state control to counter the power of the railroads, the banks and the cities. Some of its programs remain in place to this day, notably a state-owned bank and state-owned mill and grain elevator. Conservatives, based in the towns and cities, fought back, and Republican primaries were the scene of intense political battles. [19] [20]

In 1916, Lynn Frazier led the Nonpartisan League in a right-wing populist movement that gained control of North Dakota's lower house and won 79% of the popular vote in North Dakota's gubernatorial election of 1916. Campaigning as Republicans against Democrats supported by intellectuals and liberal reformers espousing collectivist and corporate farming, the NPL gained a large share of the rural and agrarian vote. It also elected John Miller Baer to the United States House of Representatives. In the 1918 elections, the NPL won control of both houses of the legislature, and afterwards enacted a significant portion of its populist platform. It established state-run enterprises such as a railroad, the North Dakota Mill and Elevator, and the Bank of North Dakota. The NPL also set up a Home Building Association, to aid people in financing and building houses. The legislature passed a graduated state income tax, distinguishing between earned and unearned income authorized a state hail insurance fund, and established a workmen's compensation fund that assessed employers. In addition, the device of popular recall of elected officials was enacted whereby the first governor in U.S. history to be recalled was to be Frazier during his third term. The populist movement embodied by it extended into Canada in the form of the Alberta Non-Partisan League. [21] [22]

William Langer (1886–1959) in 1916 was elected state attorney general on the NPL ticket, one of the few urban men in the farm group. Langer closed brothels in Minot, became a federal marshal to raid a Minnesota brewery, and enforced school attendance laws. He turned the NPL into a political machine. Elected governor at the nadir of the Great Depression in 1932, Langer declared a debt moratorium, stopped foreclosures, and raised the price of wheat paid by the state-owned grain elevator to the state's wheat farmers. He also solicited 5% of each state employee's salary for an NPL newspaper, which led to federal conspiracy charges, an initial criminal conviction, and his removal from office in 1934. He was later acquitted and was reelected governor in 1936. Langer moved to the US Senate in 1940, where he served until 1959. Despite his overt political opportunism and rumors about his taking bribes, Langer's interventions during the depression overshadowed any charges of corruption in the minds of voters. [23]

After 1945 Edit

Isolationism Edit

In the 1940s and 1950s, the state's Congressional delegation comprised Senators William Langer and Milton R. Young and Representatives William Lemke and Usher Lloyd Burdick. In foreign policy they formed an isolationist bloc that opposed American involvement in the Cold War, and opposed the United Nations, the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Korean War, the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization, the Formosa Resolution, and the Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957. They reflected the isolationist spirit that dominated the German American element in the state, and was likewise strong among Scandinavian Americans. [24] Burdick's isolationism reflected his deep fears of communism and world government and, in turn, the threat they could pose to the sovereignty of the United States. Many of his constituents saw global entanglements, particularly war, as obvious dangers to the state's agricultural economy and lifestyle. His sharpest criticisms came in the wake of the outbreak of war in Korea. Burdick is remembered best for his independent voting behavior, his advocacy for the downtrodden, and his leadership in building a rhetoric of opposition to the UN in the United States. [25]

NPL merges with Democratic Party Edit

By the 1950s, the NPL had changed from a political alternative to a facet of North Dakota's political establishment. A group of young insurgents in 1956 merged the NPL into the Democratic Party. While the governorship of the state has been held approximately the same amount of time by both parties since the Democratic-NPL party was formed in 1956, the state legislature has been dominated by Republicans.

Farming Edit

North Dakota has long been the most agricultural state in the Union. Farms have increased in acreage and decreased in number. Tenancy is diminishing as technological advances are made, and more fertilizer is being used. Cash grains are being replaced by feed grains and roughage, and because of the soilbank and wheat acreage allotments, over 30 percent of the crop land is not harvested. The farm standard of living is high as the farm population decreases. Schools and churches are reduced in number by consolidation and merger. [26]

Since 2000, the state has experienced rapid growth, largely due to the oil boom in western North Dakota's oil-rich Bakken shale. A 2013 census report listed North Dakota's population at an all-time high of 723,393 residents, making North Dakota the fastest growing state in the nation. The population boom reverses nearly a century of flat population numbers. [27]

The profile of the newcomers shows that compared to long-term residents, they generally are younger (60% were between 21 and 40 years old) and better educated (45% were college graduates and another 35% reported some college or postsecondary vocational-technical school experience). The migrants were motivated more by quality of life values than economic incentives reasons for moving most often cited were desire for a safer place to live (58%), desire to be closer to relatives (54%), lower cost of living (48%), and quality of the natural environment (47%). These residents represent a productive cohort of people who were needed to augment population strata that were severely depleted by the out-migration of the 1980s. [28]

In his History of North Dakota, historian Elwyn B. Robinson identified themes in North Dakota history: [29]

  • Dependence
  • Radicalism
  • Economic disadvantage
  • The "too-much mistake"
  • Adjustment

Robinson's history is to date the only comprehensive history of the state, but his analysis has drawn fire. His assertion of a "too-much mistake" in particular, is controversial. By this Robinson meant that North Dakota had too many farms, railroad miles, roads, towns, banks, schools, government institutions, churches, and people for suitable living in a subhumid grassland. Either the state will revert to a natural grassland, have a future similar to its past, or come to grips with the "too-much-mistake" and rationally control government and the advantages of new technology. Some politicians, including Joe Satrom, blame the book for (un)inspiring a generation of leaders to lower their expectations for the state's future. [30]

The land of North Dakota has been a central theme in North Dakotan literature. In fiction, poetry, autobiography, drama, history, travel publications and websites, recurring theme regarding North Dakota's land include: its beauty, unforgivingness, solace, starkness, uniformity, and the hard work it demands to survive and thrive. Many of the state's writers focus on the relationship of the people and the land. The landscape has not significantly changed since first impressions were recorded, and the relationship between people and land has likewise changed little. [31]

The American Dream and Franklin’s Erratas:

Eighteenth century America was driven primarily by an awareness of expansion. The modern reader may have some difficulty grasping how Colonial Americans defined the America dream as being one of endless possibility. Franklin’s classification of the American dream implied an ideal that everyone had the chance to achieve the Jeffersonian ideal of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. For Franklin, the American dream was possible for anyone who had the willingness to work hard and honestly. In Franklin’s estimation, anyone who would abide by this maxim would either achieve success or be emulated for their effort. Even those who did not achieve their goal would still have made a contribution to their nation because they followed the understanding that hard labor and honesty are qualities that everyone must strive for. Benjamin Franklin has traditionally been defined as a self-made man and rugged American individualist. The Autobiography is structured primarily around several errata that Franklin learned from throughout his life. For section two of my essay I will be defining errata as a mistake in printing or writing. What I will be arguing is that Franklin was a constant reviser of not only written work but also by of the way he lived his life and that the way to achieve the American dream was to constantly correct one’s errors until these errors were eradicated into good personal qualities or at least to have learned never to commit them again. My definition of rugged American individualism is that it was a persistent form of self-reliance in attaining a goal and success in conveying a message. Franklin’s first erratum was when he assumed responsibility of his brother James’ newspaper. During the pre-revolutionary era James Franklin’s newspaper, the New England Courant, published an article that urged against the Assembly. This article had James Franklin “censur’d and imprision’d for a Month by the Speaker’s Warrant” (Franklin 21) for what Benjamin Franklin termed “not discovering its authors.” Perhaps James Franklin’s unwillingness to divulge the author’s identity was either because he wrote the piece himself or that he agreed with the article’s content. Benjamin Franklin assumed responsibility of the paper to prevent it from ceasing publication. In order to free his brother, Franklin signed a new indenture that assured the Assembly would discharge his brother. Franklin’s great regret was that the “fresh Difference arising between my brother and me, I took it upon me to assert my Freedom, presuming that he would not venture to produce new Indentures” (21). Franklin simply assumed that his brother would accept the new changes made to the newspaper as though they were his own. Franklin later understood his error of having been “too savvy and provoking” by having assumed that his brother would share the same perspective he had and to never make a similar supposition again. What Franklin intended in his Autobiography was to explain to his readership how he understood his errors and how and why to correct them. Writing therefore became Franklin’s manner of explaining his wrongs and explicitly stating that he will never commit that particular wrong again. Franklin’s mode of conveying his sage was an effective one given that the reader is drawn into the narrative by Franklin’s assertive tone and will likely not commit the same errors.

Benjamin Franklin’s second errata occurs several pages later when he realizes that Vernon will never remit him the money required to clear their debt. After lifting Franklin Vernon from the river Franklin recalled how he and Vernon hardly exchanged a civil Word afterwards and A West Indian Captain who has commission to procure a Tutor for the Sons of a Gentleman at Barbados, happening to meet with him, agreed to carry him tither. He left me then, promising to remit me the first Money he should receive in order to discharge the Debt. But I never heard of him after.—The Breaking into this Money of Vernon’s was one of the first great Errata of my Life” (35). What Franklin learnt was to remain self-reliant in market economy and not to rely too heavily on other people’s promises. Franklin and Vernon hardly ever “exchanged a civil word” because the money in question came between them. Since Vernon’s new employment made Franklin expendable, Vernon had no need to communicate with Franklin. What Franklin realized was to be careful in partnerships involving money because one partner my abandon the other once they receive a more lucrative offer elsewhere. With every errata that Franklin corrected he reformed himself by understanding his mistakes and learnt never to make the same mistake again.

The most interesting of Franklin’s errata is the third one because it is the only error he was unable to correct. The error Franklin committed was to have spent all his earnings with Ralph “in going to Plays and other Places of Amusement” (44). Franklin warned his readership to avoid frivolous spending no matter how much one earns or has saved because such spending was why he was unable to pay his passage. Had Franklin saved his money he would have been able to move more freely. Franklin was unable to fully correct this erratum because he could never reclaim the money he spent. Franklin did redeem himself because he spent his money wisely from then on. While at Palmer’s Franklin was assigned to work on the second edition of Woollaston’s Religion of Nature. Franklin had great doubts about some of Woollaston’s theories so he composed a pamphlet entitled A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain. Although Mr. Palmer recognized Franklin as an industrious young man, he nonetheless “expostulated” (44) Franklin’s reasoning considering it abominable. Franklin considered publishing a counter to Woollaston’s theories another errata of his life because he did not receive his superior’s authorization before releasing the text. What Franklin learned was that at work one must always verify with their superiors if their actions are acceptable or not and to always build on constructive criticism. Benjamin Franklin’s errata were not always about money or business affairs but about restraint and morality. Having grown fond of Mrs. T, Franklin attempted “familiarities … which she repulsed with a proper Resentment” (46). Franklin blames this lapse in morality to the fact that she was “under no religious Restraints” and presumed his importance to her because he assisted Mrs. T a great deal financially. By giving Mrs. T to ward him off with “a proper resentment,” Franklin gives women a great degree of power that most other early American male writers would not allow. Mrs. T then becomes the moral point of reference that set Franklin back on the right moral track that he needed to follow in order to realize the American dream. Women therefore play a pivotal role in Franklin’s ideal because they must ensure that men control their sexual inhibitions.

Benjamin Franklin did not regard owning money to be shameful provided that one paid their debts off honestly. Paying his debt to Mr. Vernon for the money he borrowed was done honestly and without deceit. After writing a careful letter of explanation, Mr. Vernon allowed Franklin a little more time to pay “the Principle with Interest & many Thanks” (65). Franklin quickly qualified his statement by asserting that “that Erratum was now in some degree corrected.” Franklin never tried to avoid Mr. Vernon or make a promise that he was unable to keep. By paying his debts in an honest and timely manner, Franklin achieved life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness because not only did he pay his debts through hard work, but also because he did so honestly with Mr. Vernon from beginning to end. Franklin’s last errata is perhaps the most important one because he learned not to place money over love. Franklin erroneously placed money over love by leaving Miss. Read in England to pursue work in America. The proposed marriage between Franklin and Miss. Read was considered “invalid” (70) because husband and wife were not to be separated for several months at a time. Miss. Read then married another man who mysteriously disappeared while he was in great debts. On September 1, 1730 Franklin retuned to England to marry Miss. Read and settle with her in America despite the possibility of having to accept responsibility of her previous husband’s debts. Together Franklin and Miss. Read “attended shop together” (71), “throve together”, and “mutually endeavored to make each other happy.” Franklin was able to correct his error because he managed to find a way to place love over money while still prospering financially. Moreover, Franklin and his new wife both participated equally in the shop. Such a partnership demonstrated how a couple who truly loves on another will overcome all obstacles. Furthermore, by being able to correct this errata, Franklin learned from his mistakes and was able to profit as though the error never occurred. By correcting these errata, Franklin achieved the America dream because he was able to learn from his mistakes. Franklin’s awareness and persistence is what has made him an enduring figure in World History. The American dream in Autobiography can therefore be seen as a continual process of self-awareness and the willingness to attain perfection.

Active Allyship

The world recently lost a long-time LGBTQ+ advocate and the co-organizer of the first HRC Atlanta Gala Dinner, Winston Johnson, who died in May at age 79. Johnson was born in Valdosta, Georgia, in 1941 and said he knew by age 12 that he was gay, but he told no one for many years. He met his long-time partner Leon Allen in the ‘60s, and they were together for 42 years until Leon passed away. They kept their relationship a secret for decades, as homosexuality was a “firing offense” at Eastern Airlines. Further, as Johnson noted, they could not get insurance, flying benefits, or loans as a couple, unlike straight couples.

Coretta Scott King first met Winston Johnson at the Atlanta Airport on April 5, 1968 as she was returning from Memphis with the body of her assassinated husband, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Johnson was one of three Eastern Airlines employees trusted with taking good care of VIPs who flew with Eastern. On that day, he was hosting Abigail McCarthy, the wife of presidential candidate Sen. Eugene McCarthy at the airport during a long layover. When he asked her if she knew King, McCarthy replied that they were good friends. Johnson took her to meet the plane carrying King when it landed. King and McCarthy met and embraced, and then King invited McCarthy to come to her home and visit. Johnson drove McCarthy to the King home, where she spent an hour or so in the home consoling King, among other friends like Harry Belafonte.

That was the beginning of a close relationship between Johnson and King. He became her Eastern Airlines personal concierge, taking her to the airport and back home often, as she travelled to raise money for the King Center and to advocate for a national holiday that would honor the birthday of Dr. King. As he got to know King, Johnson and his partner Allen started volunteering at the King Center and for the Atlanta chapters of the NAACP and the United Negro College Fund.

In 1986, Johnson was devastated by the U.S. Supreme Court’s 5-4 ruling in Bowers v. Hardwick, upholding Georgia’s anti-sodomy criminal law and ruling that the Constitution did not protect private, sexual acts between two consenting adults. He decided to disclose to King that he and Allen were gay and a long-time couple. King responded that she had known that from early on. Johnson then asked her if she would do something really important for the LGBTQ movement and speak in favor of LGBTQ rights at the upcoming National Human Rights Campaign Dinner in New York City. Johnson recalled her saying: “Tell me where and when, and I’ll be there. I know Martin would be with you on this, and he may have beaten me to it.” That speech in 1986 was King’s first public support of LGBTQ rights, a cause she championed until her death in 2006.

Johnson said he wasn’t that surprised that King so quickly agreed to his request, as he knew that she was close to Bayard Rustin, an openly gay man who had worked closely with Dr. King and was the key organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. Johnson and Allen then organized the first HRC Atlanta Gala Dinner in 1988, and the organization established an award in their names to honor their service to the LGBTQ community. Johnson passed away in Atlanta on May 11 after a long battle with cancer.

As a congressman, John Lewis was a long-time supporter of the LGBTQ community, no doubt partly because of his work with Bayard Rustin in the Civil Rights Movement. He wrote a piece for the Boston Globe in which he noted:

“I’ve heard the reasons for opposing civil marriage for same sex couples. Cut through the distractions, and they stink of the same fear, hatred, and intolerance I have known in racism and in bigotry. I have fought too hard and too long against discrimination based on race and color not to stand up against discrimination based on sexual orientation.”

A few weeks later, the Massachusetts Supreme Court became the first state court to recognize gay marriages. Rep. Lewis regularly appeared at LGBTQ events, such as the annual October Atlanta Pride Parade, long before many other elected officials.

As we know, sadly we lost Rep. Lewis and many other Civil Rights icons in 2020, when he lost his battle with cancer on July 17, 2020. The hearse and caravan carrying Rep. Lewis’ casket to his celebration of life service at the historic Ebenezer Baptist Church made a special trip through the heart of Midtown, home to many LGBTQ residents and businesses. It stopped in the middle of the intersection of Piedmont Avenue and Tenth Street, where the permanent crosswalks on all four sides are painted proudly in the Gay Pride Flag colors of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Hundreds of members of the local LGBTQ community and their allies and other fans of Rep. Lewis turned out one last time to say thanks and goodbye.

Allies do make a difference, and thanks to Coretta Scott King and Rep. John Lewis for actively allying with strong advocates like Bayard Rustin and Winston Johnson to build strong relationships that take a stand for equality, justice, and change for all.


Background Edit

Before National Review ' s founding in 1955, the American right was a largely unorganized collection of people who shared intertwining philosophies but had little opportunity for a united public voice. They wanted to marginalize the antiwar, noninterventionistic views of the Old Right. [8]

In 1953, moderate Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was president, and many major magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post, Time, and Reader's Digest were strongly conservative and anticommunist, as were many newspapers including the Chicago Tribune and St. Louis Globe-Democrat. A few small-circulation conservative magazines, such as Human Events and The Freeman, preceded National Review in developing Cold War Conservatism in the 1950s. [9]

Early years Edit

In 1953, Russell Kirk published The Conservative Mind, which traced an intellectual bloodline from Edmund Burke [10] to the Old Right in the early 1950s. This challenged the notion among intellectuals that no coherent conservative tradition existed in the United States. [10]

A young William F. Buckley Jr. was greatly influenced by Kirk's concepts. Buckley had money his father grew rich from oil fields in Mexico. He first tried to purchase Human Events, but was turned down. He then met Willi Schlamm, the experienced editor of The Freeman they would spend the next two years raising the $300,000 necessary to start their own weekly magazine, originally to be called National Weekly. [11] (A magazine holding the trademark to the name prompted the change to National Review.) The statement of intentions read: [12]

Middle-of-the-Road, qua Middle of the Road, is politically, intellectually, and morally repugnant. We shall recommend policies for the simple reason that we consider them right (rather than “non-controversial”) and we consider them right because they are based on principles we deem right (rather than on popularity polls). The New Deal revolution, for instance, could hardly have happened save for the cumulative impact of The Nation and The New Republic, and a few other publications, on several American college generations during the twenties and thirties.

Contributors Edit

On November 19, 1955, Buckley's magazine began to take shape. Buckley assembled an eclectic group of writers: traditionalists, Catholic intellectuals, libertarians and ex-Communists. The group included: Russell Kirk, James Burnham, Frank Meyer, and Willmoore Kendall, Catholics L. Brent Bozell and Garry Wills. The former Time editor Whittaker Chambers, who had been a Communist spy in the 1930s and was now intensely anti-Communist, became a senior editor. In the magazine's founding statement Buckley wrote: [13]

The launching of a conservative weekly journal of opinion in a country widely assumed to be a bastion of conservatism at first glance looks like a work of supererogation, rather like publishing a royalist weekly within the walls of Buckingham Palace. It is not that of course if National Review is superfluous, it is so for very different reasons: It stands athwart history, yelling Stop, at a time when no other is inclined to do so, or to have much patience with those who so urge it.

As editors and contributors, Buckley especially sought out intellectuals who were ex-Communists or had once worked on the far Left, including Whittaker Chambers, William Schlamm, John Dos Passos, Frank Meyer and James Burnham. [14] When James Burnham became one of the original senior editors, he urged the adoption of a more pragmatic editorial position that would extend the influence of the magazine toward the political center. Smant (1991) finds that Burnham overcame sometimes heated opposition from other members of the editorial board (including Meyer, Schlamm, William Rickenbacker, and the magazine's publisher William A. Rusher), and had a significant effect on both the editorial policy of the magazine and on the thinking of Buckley himself. [15]

Mission to conservatives Edit

National Review aimed to make conservative ideas respectable, [3] in an age when the dominant view of conservative thought was, as expressed by Columbia professor Lionel Trilling: [16]

[L]iberalism is not only the dominant but even the sole intellectual tradition. For it is the plain fact that nowadays there are no conservative or reactionary ideas in general circulation. the conservative impulse and the reactionary impulse do not. express themselves in ideas but only. in irritable mental gestures which seek to resemble ideas.

William Buckley Jr. said of the purpose of National Review:

[National Review] stands athwart history, yelling Stop, at a time when no one is inclined to do so, or to have much patience with those who so urge it… it is out of place because, in its maturity, literate America rejected conservatism in favor of radical social experimentation…since ideas rule the world, the ideologues, having won over the intellectual class, simply walked in and started to…run just about everything. There never was an age of conformity quite like this one, or a camaraderie quite like the Liberals’. [17]

National Review promoted Barry Goldwater heavily during the early 1960s. Buckley and others involved with the magazine took a major role in the "Draft Goldwater" movement in 1960 and the 1964 presidential campaign. National Review spread his vision of conservatism throughout the country. [18]

The early National Review faced occasional defections from both left and right. Garry Wills broke with National Review and became a liberal commentator. Buckley's brother-in-law, L. Brent Bozell Jr. left and started the short-lived traditionalist Catholic magazine, Triumph in 1966.

Defining the boundaries of conservatism Edit

Buckley and Meyer promoted the idea of enlarging the boundaries of conservatism through fusionism, whereby different schools of conservatives, including libertarians, would work together to combat what were seen as their common opponents. [3]

Buckley and his editors used his magazine to define the boundaries of conservatism—and to exclude people or ideas or groups they considered unworthy of the conservative title. Therefore, they attacked the John Birch Society, George Wallace, and anti-Semites. [3] [19]

Buckley's goal was to increase the respectability of the conservative movement as Rich Lowry noted: "Mr. Buckley's first great achievement was to purge the American right of its kooks. He marginalized the anti-Semites, the John Birchers, the nativists and their sort." [20]

In 1957, National Review editorialized in favor of white leadership in the South, arguing that "the central question that emerges. is whether the White community in the South is entitled to take such measures as are necessary to prevail, politically and culturally, in areas where it does not predominate numerically? The sobering answer is Yes – the White community is so entitled because, for the time being, it is the advanced race." [21] [22] By the 1970s National Review advocated colorblind policies and the end of affirmative action. [23]

In the late 1960s, the magazine denounced segregationist George Wallace, who ran in Democratic primaries in 1964 and 1972 and made an independent run for president in 1968. During the 1950s, Buckley had worked to remove anti-Semitism from the conservative movement and barred holders of those views from working for National Review. [24] In 1962 Buckley denounced Robert W. Welch Jr. and the John Birch Society as "far removed from common sense" and urged the Republican Party to purge itself of Welch's influence. [25]

After Goldwater Edit

After Goldwater was defeated by Lyndon Johnson in 1964, Buckley and National Review continued to champion the idea of a conservative movement, which was increasingly embodied in Ronald Reagan. Reagan, a longtime subscriber to National Review, first became politically prominent during Goldwater's campaign. National Review supported his challenge to President Gerald Ford in 1976 and his successful 1980 campaign.

During the 1980s National Review called for tax cuts, supply-side economics, the Strategic Defense Initiative, and support for President Reagan's foreign policy against the Soviet Union. The magazine criticized the Welfare state and would support the Welfare reform proposals of the 1990s. The magazine also regularly criticized President Bill Clinton. It first embraced, then rejected, Pat Buchanan in his political campaigns. A lengthy 1996 National Review editorial called for a "movement toward" drug legalization. [26]

In 1985, National Review and Buckley were represented by attorney J. Daniel Mahoney during the magazine's $16 million libel suit against The Spotlight. [27]

Victor Davis Hanson, a regular contributor since 2001, sees a broad spectrum of conservative and anti-liberal contributors:

In other words, a wide conservative spectrum—paleo-conservatives, neo-conservatives, tea-party enthusiasts, the deeply religious and the agnostic, both libertarians and social conservatives, free-marketeers and the more protectionist—characterizes National Review. The common requisite is that they present their views as a critique of prevailing liberal orthodoxy but do so analytically and with decency and respect. [28]

The magazine has been described as "the bible of American conservatism". [29]

Daniel McAdams of the paleoconservative Ron Paul Institute contends the National Review has evolved from a publication in the William Buckley tradition of conservatism to an outlet articulating primarily neoconservative perspectives with its emphasis on using military action abroad. [30]

Donald Trump Edit

In 2015, the magazine published an editorial entitled "Against Trump," calling him a "philosophically unmoored political opportunist" and announcing its opposition to his candidacy for the Republican nomination for president. [31] Since Trump's election to the presidency, the National Review editorial board has continued to criticize him. [32] [33] [34]

However, contributors to National Review and National Review Online take a variety of positions on Trump. Lowry and Hanson support him, [35] while National Review contributors such as Ramesh Ponnuru and Jonah Goldberg have remained critical of Trump. [36] In a Washington Post feature on conservative magazines, T.A. Frank noted: "From the perspective of a reader, these tensions make National Review as lively as it has been in a long time." [37]

The senior editorial staff of the magazine and the website described then-President Trump's conduct between the 2020 elections and the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol as "impeachable," but, unlike frequent contributor Matthew Continetti, opposed an immediate impeachment trial due to procedural hurdles and inopportune timing. [38] [39]

A popular feature of National Review is the web version of the magazine, National Review Online ("N.R.O."), which includes a digital version of the magazine, with articles updated daily by National Review writers, and conservative blogs. The on-line version is called N.R.O. to distinguish it from the paper magazine. It also features free articles, though these deviate in content from its print magazine. The site's editor is Philip Klein.

Each day, the site posts new content consisting of conservative, libertarian, and neoconservative opinion articles, including some syndicated columns, and news features.

  • The Corner[40] – postings from a select group of the site's editors and affiliated writers discussing the issues of the day
  • Bench Memos[41] – legal and judicial news and commentary

Markos Moulitsas, who runs the liberal Daily Kos web-site, told reporters in August 2007 that he does not read conservative blogs, with the exception of those on N.R.O.: "I do like the blogs at the National Review—I do think their writers are the best in the [conservative] blogosphere," he said. [42]

The N.R.I. works in policy development and helping establish new advocates in the conservative movement. National Review Institute was founded by William F. Buckley Jr. in 1991 to engage in policy development, public education, and advocacy that would advance the conservative principles he championed. [43]

In 2019, the Whittaker Chambers family had NRI stop an award in Chambers' name following award to people whom the family found objectionable. [44] [45] [46]

As with most political opinion magazines in the United States, National Review carries little corporate advertising. The magazine stays afloat from subscription fees, donations, and black-tie fundraisers around the country. The magazine also sponsors cruises featuring National Review editors and contributors as lecturers. [29] [47]

Buckley said in 2005 that the magazine had lost about $25,000,000 over 50 years. [48]

National Review sometimes endorses a candidate during the primary election season. Editors at National Review have said, "Our guiding principle has always been to select the most conservative viable candidate." [49] This statement echoes what has come to be called "The Buckley Rule". In a 1967 interview, in which he was asked about the choice of presidential candidate, Buckley said, "The wisest choice would be the one who would win. I'd be for the most right, viable candidate who could win." [50] The magazine did not endorse either of the two major-party candidates during the 2020 presidential election, and instead published individual articles titled "Trump: Yes," "Trump: No" and "Trump: Maybe" by Andrew McCarthy, Ramesh Ponnuru, and Charles C.W. Cooke, respectively. [51] [52] [53]

The following candidates were officially endorsed by National Review:

  • 1956: Dwight Eisenhower
  • 1960: No endorsement[54]
  • 1964: Barry Goldwater
  • 1968: Richard Nixon[54]
  • 1972: John M. Ashbrook[54]
  • 1976: Ronald Reagan
  • 1980: Ronald Reagan
  • 1984: Ronald Reagan
  • 1988: George H.W. Bush
  • 1992: No endorsement
  • 1996: No endorsement
  • 2000: George W. Bush
  • 2004: No endorsement
  • 2008: Mitt Romney (primary), [55]John McCain (general) [56]
  • 2012: No endorsement[54]
  • 2016: Ted Cruz[57]
  • 2020: No endorsement[58]

The magazine's current editor-in-chief is Rich Lowry. Many of the magazine's commentators are affiliated with think-tanks such as The Heritage Foundation and American Enterprise Institute. Prominent guest authors have included Newt Gingrich, Mitt Romney, Peter Thiel, and Ted Cruz in the on-line and paper edition.

Notable current contributors Edit

Current and past contributors to National Review (N.R.) magazine, National Review Online (N.R.O.), or both:

Notable past contributors Edit

Washington editors Edit

Barack Obama Edit

In June 2008, six days after Hillary Clinton conceded to Barack Obama in the Democratic primary, National Review correspondent Jim Geraghty published an article encouraging the Obama campaign to release the candidate's birth certificate in order "to squash all the conspiracy theories once and for all." Geraghty's column notes that it was unlikely that Obama was born in Kenya. Attorney Loren Collins, who has tracked the origins of birther movement for years, says that Geraghty may have "unwittingly shined a national spotlight on a fringe internet theory." [60] Geraghty's article "became fodder for cable television." [61] In a 2009 editorial, the National Review editorial board called conspiracies about Obama's citizenship "untrue," writing: "Like Bruce Springsteen, he has a lot of bad political ideas but he was born in the U.S.A." [62]

One National Review article said that Obama's parents could be communists because “for a white woman to marry a black man in 1958, or ’60, there was almost inevitably a connection to explicit Communist politics”. [63] [64]

Climate change Edit

According to Philip Bump of The Washington Post, National Review "has regularly criticized and rejected the scientific consensus on climate change". [65] In 2014, climate scientist Michael E. Mann sued the National Review after columnist Mark Steyn accused Mann of fraud and referenced a quote from Competitive Enterprise Institute writer Rand Simberg that called Mann "the Jerry Sandusky of climate science, except that instead of molesting children, he has molested and tortured data." [66] [67] [68] Civil liberties organizations such as the ACLU and the Electronic Frontier Foundation and several publications such as The Washington Post expressed support for National Review in the lawsuit, filing amicus briefs in their defense. [69]

In 2015, the magazine published an intentionally deceptive graph that suggested that there was no climate change. [65] [70] [71] The graph set the lower and upper bounds of the chart at -10 and 110 degree Fahrenheit and zoomed out so as to obscure warming trends. [71]

In 2017, National Review published an article alleging that a top NOAA scientist claimed that National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration engaged in data manipulation and rushed a study based on faulty data in order to influence the Paris climate negotiations. [72] The article largely repeated allegations made in the Daily Mail without independent verification. [73] The scientist in question later rebuked the claims made by National Review, noting that he did not accuse NOAA of data manipulation but instead raised concerns about "the way data was handled, documented and stored, raising issues of transparency and availability". [72]

On March 19, 2021, the Superior Court of the District of Columbia ruled that the National Review did not libel Michael E. Mann. [74] [75]

Ann Coulter 9/11 column Edit

Two days after the 9/11 attacks, National Review published a column by Ann Coulter where she wrote of Muslims, "This is no time to be precious about locating the exact individuals directly involved in this particular terrorist attack. We should invade their countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity. We weren’t punctilious about locating and punishing only Hitler and his top officers. We carpet-bombed German cities we killed civilians. That’s war. And this is war." [76] National Review later called the column a "mistake" and fired Coulter as a contributing editor. [77]

Jeffrey Epstein Edit

In 2019, The New York Times reported that National Review was one of three news outlets (along with Forbes and HuffPost) that had published stories written by Jeffrey Epstein's publicists. [78] The National Review article was written by Christina Galbraith, Epstein's publicist at the time the article was published in 2013. The National Review bio for Galbraith described her as a science writer. National Review retracted the article in July 2019 with apologies and spoke of new methods being used to better filter freelance content. [78]

Dinesh D'Souza Edit

Political commentator and National Review contributor Dinesh D'Souza said that billionaire George Soros was a "collection boy for Hitler and the Nazis," attacked Roy Moore accuser Beverly Young Nelson and said that accusations of sexual misconduct against Roy Moore were “most likely fabricated,” and described Rosa Parks as an "overrated Democrat". David French, then-senior writer at the National Review, tweeted "What has happened to you?" in response to D'Souza's comment about Nelson. [79] [80] D'Souza was removed from the magazine's masthead in August 2020. [81]

A biographical manga about Tajiri released this May in Japan detailed the series’ creation and contained even more unused designs. James Turner, who designs Pokémon at Game Freak, tweeted pictures of some of the manga’s pages.

This manga about the life and times of Satoshi Tajiri - the man who came up with Pokémon and our CEO at Game Freak - is now on sale!
The manga is one of a series teaching kids about notable figures.
I love hearing about the early days of Game Freak.

— James Turner (@JamesTurner_42) May 16, 2018

From the Satoshi Tajiri manga.
Early designs of Pokémon, including ones that didn’t make the cut.
Interesting, huh?

— James Turner (@JamesTurner_42) May 16, 2018

The Pokémon numbered 56, 62, and 68, as well as the Pokémon immediately to the left of 68, have never appeared in the franchise officially. 56 appears to be a spiky deer, while 62 looks like a cross between a crocodile and one of those basilisks from Dark Souls’ infamous Blighttown. Scroll down in the tweet thread and you’ll find plenty of fan art for these beasts.

The Life, Legend, and Legacy of Pocahontas

Beginning in June of 1995, Pocahontas emerged to the public as a sexy late adolescent/early adult female who betrayed her people for her lover, the dashingly handsome Captain John Smith, only to have him wounded and whisked back to England, while she waves his ship adieu from an overlooking cliff. Although romantic, it was unfortunately untrue.

Pocahontas Saves The Life of John Smith

The Disney movie stimulated a backlash by historians who sought to broadcast the 'true' story of Pocahontas. Henry James once wrote, "The facts of history are bad enough the fictions are, if possible, worse."[1] But, where did Disney's version originate? Why did Disney change history if that is what it did? What are the current notions regarding the 'Indian maiden?' What is America's fascination with this 'Indian princess?' Beginning with Captain Smith's own words from the early 1600s and following a chronological technique up to the present day, these questions, among others, will be answered in the ensuing essay and, perhaps, a 'truer' history of Pocahontas may come to light.

Beginning in 1608, John Smith wrote numerous works relating to his travels and, in particular, the Jamestown settlement. While most historians use his works as a source for the Pocahontas story, discrepancies do exist. In Smith's "True Relation" printed in 1608, Smith wrote that he and Powhatan agreed upon a truce, but there is no mention of the noble Pocahontas or the savage Powhatan trying to slay the hero.[2] "Generall Historie" not printed until 1623 paints a very different picture of the same event. Smith wrote that "the Queene of Appamatuck" washed and "feasted" him and it was only after a "long consultation" that "great stones" were destined for Smith's head whereupon they were "to beat out his brains." Pocahontas, "the Kings dearest daughter" laid her own head over Smith's "to save him from death."[3]

"Generall Historie" mentions Pocahontas another time, when Powhatan's 'dearest jewel' traveled through the 'irksome woods' in the 'dark night' to warn Smith of an attack.[4] As Rountree notes, "this 'history' was written seven years after her [Pocahontas'] death, two years after her husband's [John Rolfe's] death and after most of the other early eyewitnesses to the Jamestown Colony were deceased. Hardly anybody was left to challenge Smith's new version of events."[5]

Printed in 1612, Smith's "The Proceedings" (a collection of writings from various authors) mentions our 'Indian princess.' Richard Pots and William Phettiplace wrote that while Pocahontas was "not past thirteen or fourteen years of age," she often was seen at the fort and clearly "respected" Captain Smith. Pots and Phettiplace also noted that even if Smith had married Powhatan's daughter "her marriage could no way have entitled him by any right to the kingdom, nor was it ever suspected he had ever such a thought, or more regarded her, or any of them, then in honest reason. "[6] Clearly there were no romantic elopements planned between the older Captain and the young 'maiden.'

In 1855, W.C. Armstrong incorporated Smith's previous works into his own narrative examining the life of Captain John Smith. Smith was the hero of the story, and Armstrong often wrote in Smith's own words, especially regarding the heathen 'savages.' Pocahontas was merely a ray of hope in the new savage world the colonists hoped to civilize. "Her [Pocahontas'] deeds have covered a multitude of their [heathen savages – the Powhatans] sins," Armstrong wrote whenever a person wanted to think about the atrocities of the heathens, their hearts would soften because there must have been at least one "fine element" existing or Pocahontas would never had the saving characteristics which she did.[7]So according to Armstrong's version, Pocahontas not only saved the colonists and assisted in establishing a great nation that was to be, but she also saved her people from stereotypes of their utter corruption and sinfulness.

According to John R. Musick's Pocahontas: The Story of Virginia published in 1894, Captain John Smith was the "real hero" Smith was "patriotic, brave, and unselfish." Musick wrote that "a careful study of his [Smith's] books and the works of contemporaneous authors lead one to believe that he [Smith] passionately loved Pocahontas. That she loved him no one can doubt." Musick continued that the only reason Pocahontas married Rolfe, was that Rolfe had tricked Pocahontas into believing Smith was dead. "Cheated of her love and deceived by the man who had married her, the poor girl did not long survive the knowledge that Smith lived, but died of a broken heart at Gravesend."[8] Musick never incorporated a bibliography, footnotes, or endnotes to support his legend of Pocahontas—perhaps none existed. But, Shakespeare himself could not have written a more tragic love saga than Musick's history of Pocahontas and her Captain-o.

Jumping to 1906, Ella Loraine Dorsey, published Pocahontas using Smith's writings as her primary source. Conveying the idea that Pocahontas, 'the Indian princess,' welcomed the Europeans with open arms, sheltering and protecting them, not only to justify their being in the Americas, but also to sanctify their presence, Dorsey wrote "it was not until the little Snow Feather of Powhata[n] took under her special care the English soldier Captain John Smith and his handful of adventurers, that the Anglo-Saxon race found a permanent foothold in the new world."[9] While historically Pocahontas was helpful to the colonists of Jamestown, Dorsey magnifies her myth for ". it is not too much to say that this young girl did more to influence the fate of the Western continent than any other woman in the world, except Queen Isabella."[10] Dorsey seemed content with the image of Pocahontas as sanctifier and as one of the heathens the colonists 'saved.' "She lives civilly and lovingly with him [Rolfe], and I [Sir Thomas Dale] trust will increase in goodness, as the knowledge of God increaseth in her."[11] Thus it was that through the colonists 'saving' Pocahontas in exchange for her 'assistance,' Pocahontas sanctified the colonists 'conquering' the 'new, savage' world. Dorsey concluded her book with, "of all the figures that loom against the green background of the primeval forest none is so distinct, none so undimmed in its soft luster, as Pocahontas of the Gentle Heart."[12]

Also published in 1906 was Garber's Pocahontas. The story was told in the first person by a woman who had spoken with Omawada, the Indian handmaid of the Princess Pocahontas. According to Garber's story, Pocahontas had a vision, "that the God who made the heavens, and the earth and all things therein, wished her to befriend the white man, who was coming o'er the ocean," and, thus, Pocahontas threw herself upon John Smith and saved his life, just as God wanted.[13] According to Garber's interpretation of 'the princess' legend, Pocahontas was destined by God to save Smith, Jamestown, and the future colonists for they were to establish a country as He had pre-destined.

Published the following year, The Jamestown Princess: Pocahontas Legends was a collection of poetry dedicated to the 'Indian princess.' These biased and slanted poems exemplified the myth-legend of Pocahontas. Such lines as "For she seemed to peer through the ages / Glimpsing improvements to come / Through imperfect mental lenses / Came to her vision, our home."[14] As if her own home and time was not suitable to herself, that she had to look ahead to times later when the Whites had dominated the continent. On the subject of Pocahontas' baptism, the poetry continues, "Love's union in our colony needed faith's immortal sign / As foundation for a nation ordered by thought Divine / . God saw with favor, smiled upon, and peopled it in pride / Caused English heart to want and take an Indian for its bride." This quote implies first that no Englishman would ever consider himself worthy of marrying an Indian unless Divine intervention occurred and secondly, that through the union of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, the continent of America became her dowry.

In 1916, Virginia Watson published The Princess Pocahontas. "To most who have read of the early history of Virginia only in our school histories, Pocahontas is merely a figure in one dramatic scene—her rescue of John Smith. We see her in one mental picture only, kneeling beside the prostrate Englishman, her uplifted hands warding off the descending tomahawk." Watson attempted to correct the stereotype by nourishing the "new spirit of understanding. We [Watson and other scholars of her time] are finding out how often it was the Indian who was wronged and the white men who wronged him."[15]

Watson asserted the following two notions regarding the Indian girl's importance: the colony at Jamestown and the future United States would have perished if not for the 'protection and aid' of Pocahontas, and to a lesser extent, Pocahontas is to Jamestown (and ultimately the United States) what Joan of Arc is to France.[16] While attempting to rectify the stereo-typical image of Pocahontas and acknowledging the 'white man's' wrong-doings (in part), her book still sanctifies European domination with Pocahontas' heroism and approval.

Garnett used a different approach in the 1930s to convey his notions of the Indian maiden he wrote her history in historical fiction novel format from an omniscient viewpoint in an 'unbiased perspective.' By employing this omniscient and unbiased perspective, Garnett is continuing the 'new spirit of understanding' alluded to by Watson. While Garnett, perhaps because he was a British writer, seems unconcerned with the sanctification Pocahontas image, rather he empresses 'the heathen savage' rejecting her idolatrific past due to the heroic Christians who fought to 'save' her. Garnett ended his novel with her deathbed in England, where as, she coughing up blood and convulsing, thinks of Jesus' crucifixion, whereby "she smiled she was happy, and so fell limply into death."[17] In this work, she was the perfect exemplar of savage heathen turning noble savage via British 'salvation.'

With World War II underway, Mildred Criss' book Pocahontas: Young American Princess, "the sympathetic and absorbing story of Pocahontas is most timely, because in the early days of American civilization the courageous Indian Princess was willing to die for the best in her Indian way of living, which had so much in common with all that we are fighting for today."[18] Criss divides her work into three main sections: White Doe, White Warrior, and Romance, ending with the marriage proposal of John Rolfe to Pocahontas in hopes of a lasting truce emerging through their love. Criss simply used Pocahontas as propaganda for the war and aspirations toward lasting peace.

Also, in the 1950s, Lawson, speaking of the statues of Pocahontas and John Smith at Jamestown wrote, "look at the figures of the sturdy Captain and the slim Indian maiden [and] dream anew of that great love whose memory has endured for centuries in the minds and hearts of men."[20]By 1953, when Graham published The Story of Pocahontas, the stereotype had increasingly worsened. Graham's historical fiction novel of the 'Indian princess' is certainly more fiction than historical fact. Her inaccuracies are not only outrageous but also prolific, especially since she proclaims to be of Native American descent. Her entire work is imbued with patriarchal imprisonment and articulates the message of Pocahontas as the heathen savage that was savable, being the only one to see the importance of the colonists, and thus betrayed her people. According to Graham, even Pocahontas' capture by the colonists was for her own benefit, as she brought about a truce, found 'salvation,' and 'correctly' assimilated into the 'white' world. Graham ended her 'novel' with the image of the chapel in Gravesend where the mighty Pocahontas is buried. Though she is dead, her story lives, for the church has been named after her, and through the countless people who gather there to worship, her legend will live on.[19]

The 1960s in America with its cultural and social turmoil was a blessing for the image of the 'Indian princess.' In 1969, Barbour published Pocahontas and Her World. Barbour began with the disclaimer that, "the tale has been told countless times, always by white men. But to see Pocahontas as she was, we must think of her as an Indian, in an Indian setting. Pocahontas was a child of the forest."[21] Barbour sheds new light on Smith's 'rescue' writing, "The ceremony of which Smith had been the object was almost certainly a combination of mock execution and salvation, in token of adoption into Powhatan's tribe. Powhatan himself was probably his [Smith's] foster-father, but Pocahontas had been chosen to act in his stead. Relations with the dangerous Englishmen were still problematical, and Powhatan must stand aloof."[22]

While Barbour wrote of Pocahontas' kidnapping by Samuel Argall, her stay at Jamestown, and her baptism and marriage were more of peace treaty securities than noble savage transformations. Barbour portrayed Pocahontas in her own world, with her own people, and, in doing that, argued against the sanctification and noble savage her image so often portrays.

In 1976, Mossiker published Pocahontas: The Life and the Legend. Mossiker agreed with Barbour that 'Smith's rescue' might have simply been an adoption ceremony in their culture. Throughout her book, Mossiker dispelled the fiction of the Pocahontas legend and presented the facts as historians of that time knew them. In the 1970s society was still reeling from the turmoil of the 1960s, still trying to seek 'true' identities. It was during all this, Mossiker wrote her version of the 'Indian maiden.' Mossiker believed that even though facts are coming to light, society wants to hold to the fictional legend, society wanted to believe "the tableau vivant at the altar-stone—the death defying embrace, white man and red woman a swoon with love and terror—seems fixed, frozen in time, indelibly imprinted on the mind's eye, reminding us that at least once in our history, there existed the possibility of interracial accommodation. For that one fleeting moment—with the blood-thirsty blades arrested in midair—came a flicker of hope that on this continent, at least, there would be no cause to mourn man's inhumanity to man."[23]

In 1979, Anderson published the article "The Best of Two Worlds: The Pocahontas Legend as Treated in Early American Drama" for The Indian Historian writing, "Pocahontas served as the perfect embodiment of the resolution of the conflict that faced the White man in all his dealings with Indians. Pocahontas' saving the life of John Smith, her later baptism, and her marriage to John Rolfe, all provide means by which the Indian can be idealized and at the same time remain subordinate to the White man."[24] Anderson's scathing article against the inaccuracies and inferior mindset of the Pocahontas story railed the plays that have been created for her legend. Anderson summed it up that,

The Pocahontas legend allowed Americans to ease their consciences about coming to America and edging the Indians further and further West it perpetuated the delusion that America was a unique land, in which they could live in harmony with nature while enjoying the blessings of Western civilization. The plays. salved the consciences of the White Americans, who were eager to look on their own nation as bringing together the best of two worlds."[25]

Anderson's work furthered the idea of the search for 'true identities' that encompassed the 1960s and 1970s. Anderson was not afraid to write what she believed and her work was published by Native Peoples.

The decade prior to the Millennium was a turbulent time for the Pocahontas legend. Beginning in 1990, Rountree wrote Pocahontas' People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. This scholarly work originated out of her thesis dissertation and shed new light on the 'rescue' of John Smith. Rountree notes that according to Powhatan traditions they never would have welcomed Smith, feasted and consulted with him, and then beat his brains out on an altar stone. Rountree expressed that this theory was "highly unlikely." Furthermore, Rountree asserted, that while adoption procedures were in occurrence by other tribes (i.e. Iroquois), Smith never acknowledged the event as a ritual and no sequence of subsequent or identical events are ever recorded.[28] Rountree continues in her work describing Pocahontas not as an Angel or savior, but as a young girl existing within her people and their customs. She often visited the fort and played with the English boys, earning herself the nickname "Little Wanton" (Little Mischievous One).[29]According to Rountree, Pocahontas was not a savior, nor a symbol of noble savagery, rather she was a girl, part of the Powhatan tribe, a tribe that would adhere to the myth of 'vanishing Indians.'[30]

In the mid 1990s, following opinions of Pocahontas such as 'the Indian maiden' being the "first lady of Native Americans," remembered for her kindness and love for all people.[31]And "though she was only twenty-two or twenty-three years old, her courage and intelligence had already saved many lives in colonial America,"[32] the genesis of Walt Disney'sPocahontas came from co-director Mike Gabriel who "wanted to do a Western." The Pocahontas narrative was perfect for depicting two cultures coming together and, also, it "furnished source material that could easily conform to the coming-of-age and romantic dictates of the Disney formula as well as provide a spunky heroine as protagonist in the mold of Ariel. Belle. and Jasmine."[33] During the inception of this movie, "Disney's Pocahontas (dir. Mike Gabriel and Eric Goldberg) promised [it] to be an intriguing departure from the usual, male-centered story line, as well as the general [false] portrayal of American Indians." Furthermore, Disney publicists asserted that "in every aspect of the storytelling, the filmmakers tried to treat Pocahontas with the respect she deserved and present a balanced and informed view of the Native American culture. [and] we also tried to tap into Pocahontas' spirituality and the spirituality of the Native Americans, especially in the way they relate to nature." Just before its release, Russell Means said, "When I first read the script, I was impressed with the beginning of the film. In fact, I was overwhelmed by it. It tells the truth about the motives for Europeans initially coming to the so-called New World. I found it astounding that Americans and the Disney Studios are willing to tell the truth." [34]

Upon release of the film, Disney's executives and representatives said things like, "Moviemakers shouldn't be handcuffed when using real stories as jumping-off places for works of entertainment." and "We never wanted to do a docu-drama, but something that was inspired by legend."[35] If Disney did not want it to be historically accurate, then why did they employ (and never listen to) Native American advisors, including chief Native American consultant, Shirley "Little Dove" Custalow McGowan? This was because Disney was structuring a plot to support the 'Disney game plan' and increase profits with an assimilated Pocahontas loving and saving John Smith, both of whom are approximately the same age, thus sanctifying the colonists at Jamestown and, ultimately, the present-day United States. Disney furthered Kidwell's argument that this myth of colonization is not a 'real' person but a myth—a savior of European colonialism who explicitly betrayed her people for passion and, ultimately, submitted to the men of the dominant society.[36]

According to O'Brien, "a case study approach was used to reveal that the company [Disney] has relied on the same basic formula for the creation of its animated films since 1938. This formula works to alter the messages of the classic fairy tales in order to foreground the ideals of conservatism, patriarchy, and Puritanism."[37] Thus, Disney had a format and they fit the Pocahontas story into their format. One might ask, why is it even necessary to investigate a Disney movie? According to Bush,

only a thorough examination of popular cultural sources can provide an adequate explanation for the continuing vitality of such historical legends and how most Americans understand their history. A scholarly understanding of the numerous popular historical portrayals of Captain John Smith and Pocahontas is essential to bridging the gap between popular and scholarly history. Popular cultural forms rely on the continued support of the general public and therefore serve as excellent cultural barometers to historians who are willing to open themselves to unconventional sources.[38]

This pitiful portrayal of a girl from the once proud people, the Powhatans, ignited the powder keg for future historians and authors to correct the 'popular' version.

In 2004, Allen published Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat. In an interview, Allen said that she "relied on the Mossiker book a lot, but her [Mossiker] story of Pocahontas is largely concerned with the English. Pocahontas has at best a supporting role to the central story. what I wanted to do in my book was to make Matoaka [Pocahontas] the central figure." The goal of Allen's book was to "take Pocahontas from the situation of victim to that of actor from object to subject of her own story."[39] Allen also incorporated her own Laguna Pueblo traditions into this 'hybrid' account of Pocahontas for an exciting and refreshingly new account of the 'Indian maiden.'

Also in 2004, numerous books and articles offering opinions about Pocahontas were published. Camilla Townsend wrote that "when we allow her [Pocahontas'] own story to unfold, we see not only that she herself was more than we thought, but that the moment of this country's inception was different from what we have been led to believe. when we consider the real events of Pocahontas' life, we learn more not only about another human being but about our own past, and ourselves."[40] An article Kutsuzawa Kiyomi wrote titled "Disney's Pocahontas: Reproduction of Gender, Orientalism, and the Strategic Construction of Racial Harmony in the Disney Empire" effectively argued "that an analysis of Disney's Pocahontas reveals the strategic tension between the plea for a multicultural world, on the one hand, and the reproduction of the structure of a white, western, and male domination on the other."[41]

Clearly by 2004, new arguments were being entertained with new points of view being analyzed. In 2005, Jill Peters wrote that "these stories [Pocahontas myth] have been created. in the collective American consciousness because these strong, Native 'princesses' not only helped European-American men establish the nation, but also realized the 'superiority' of white civilization." Peters continued that the "Indian princess imagery was constructed to equate Native women with the virgin frontier, both to be subdued and conquered."[42] Peters concluded that "the new American mythology was constructed because, like the mythology of the Greeks, it explains the beginning and building of a 'great society.'"[43] The same year, Helen C. Rountree wrote Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. This scholarly work was written from Rountree's enthohistorical perspective using anthropology in conjunction with written record. It encompasses Pocahontas with the Powhatan people and examines the English "not as heroes, but as strangers, invaders, even squatters."[44]

In 2007, Neil Rennie put a new spin on the Pocahontas saga in writing Pocahontas: Little Wanton: Myth, Life, & Afterlife. Never before had anyone examined her myths, the facts of her life, and the lasting effects of her afterlife and published their findings. Rennie separated her afterlife according to how various literati wanted her portrayed. Pocahontas in history was the "wonderful humanitarian" Pocahontas in prose was simply "She" in paint she was "more feminine than Indian" she was the heroine of America filled with patriotism for a great nation on the stage, she was the "gentle/noble savage" Pocahontas in verse was "that heroic maid" while in biography she was the broken-hearted finally, Pocahontas at the movies was simply the "little wanton."[45] Rennie's point is simply that her legend belongs to each individual who takes it and makes it their own the individual 'real life' Pocahontas does not exist in an afterlife based in truth.

The same year, a very different story of Pocahontas emerged. "The Powhatan history of Pocahontas has been orally passed down from generation to generation. You have not read this story before this is the first written history of Pocahontas by her own people. It is vastly different from the history you have been taught from school, novels and movies."[46] It is startling to read the opening sentence, "The story of Pocahontas is first and foremost a great love story." Yet, further reading identifies not the romantic love between the "Indian princess" and Smith or Rolfe, but the moving force of love within Pocahontas' life, the spiritual bond and filial affection between Pocahontas and her father, Chief Powhatan Wahunsenaca and the love they had for the Powhatan people. [47]

Custalow, in writing his people's oral traditions of the girl, places her in context with her people. While other historians and authors have attempted this in previous years, none succeeded as Custalow has done. According to Mattaponi oral tradition, Pocahontas was the Powhatan peace symbol. The Powhatan people extended their arms in friendship via Pocahontas, and colonists kidnapped and murdered the Powhatan peace symbol, Pocahontas.

Whether she should be seen as a sanctifier, a noble savage, as the Powhatan peace symbol, or as the little wanton remains debatable, but what must always be kept in mind is that she was a real, living, breathing female of the Powhatan tribe. Perhaps we will never know the 'true history' of Pocahontas, though countless claims have been made in the previous four hundred years. Perhaps Charlotte Gullick said it best, "We need to remember that because of both the historical documents and the fluid nature of a life so integrally connected to the manito aki, we will never entirely know Pocahontas."[48] Perhaps the point is not in trying to quantify the 'true history' of her, for in doing so we mythifize her. Perhaps. but then again, perhaps not?


Abrams, Ann Uhry. The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999.

Accorsi, William. My Name is Pocahontas. New York: Holiday House, 1992.

Allen, Paula Gunn. Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat. New York, Harper Collins Publishing Inc., 2004.

Anderson, Marilyn J. "The Best of Two Worlds: The Pocahontas Legend as Treated in Early American Drama." The Indian Historian. Vol. 12 No. 2. 1979. (pp. 54-64)

Armstrong, W.C. (author & compiler) The Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith Comprising An Account of His Travels in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, includingThe Early History of Virginia and New England. Hartford: Silas Andrus & Son, 1855.

Barbour, Philip L. (editor) The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580-1631. Volumes I – III. The University of North Carolina Press: 1986.

Barbour, Philip L. Pocahontas and Her World: A Chronicle of America's First Settlement in Which Is Related the Story of the Indians and the Englishmen- Particularly Captain John Smith, Captain Samuel Argall, and Master John Rolfe. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969.

Braxton, Joanne M. and Paula Gunn Allen. "Pocahontas' Voice: A Conversation with Paula Gunn Allen." The Women's Review of Books. Vol. 21, No. 8 May 2004. (pp. 13)

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Jamestown:1544-1699. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Bush, Marcella M. "From Mythic History to Historic Myth: Captain John Smith and Pocahontas in Popular History." Dissertation from Bowling Green State University, 1997.

Cole, Anna Cunningham. The Jamestown Princess: Pocahontas legends. Portsmouth: Press of Whitson & Shepard, 1907.

Collier, Christopher and James Lincoln Collier. Clash of Cultures: Prehistory-1638. New York: Marshall Cavendish Publishing, 1998.

Cox, Gail Diane. "The American Princess in London." The American History Illustrated. Vol. 13 Issue 6. 1978 (pp. 4-7, 47-50)

Criss, Mildred. Pocahontas: Young American Princes. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1943.

Custalow, Dr. Linwood "Little Bear" and Angela L. Daniel "Silver Star." The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History: From the Sacred History of the Mattaponi Reservation People. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2007.

D'Aulaire, Ingri & Edgar Parin. Pocahontas. New York: Double Day & Co. Inc, 1946.

Dale, Sir Thomas. Letter to the Bishop of London, June 18, 1613-14. Old Churches, Ministers, and Families of Virginia. Vol I. (pp.79)

Donaldson, Beth. "Pocahontas as Gift: Gender and Diplomacy on the Anglo-Powhatan Frontier" Jasat.

Dorsey, Ella Loraine. Pocahontas. Washington D.C.: The Howard Press, Illustrated Second Edition, 1906.

Edgerton, Gary, and Kathy Merlock Jackson. "Redesigning Pocahontas: Disney, the 'White Man's Indian'and the Marketing of Dreams" Journal of Popular Film and Television. 24.2, 1996 (pp. 90-98)

Ellis, Edward S. Pocahontas: A Princess of the Woods. New York: McLoughlin Brothers, circa 1912.

Feest, Christian F. The Powhatan Tribes. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1990.

Fletcher, John Gould. John Smith- Also Pocahontas. New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1972.

Garber, Virginia Armistead. Pocahontas. New York: Broadway Publishing Co., 1906.

Garnett, David. Pocahontas or the Nonparell of Virginia. London: Chatto & Windus, 1933.

Graham, Shirley. The Story of Pocahontas. New York: Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, 1953.

Head, Judith. America's Daughters: 400 Years of American Women. Los Angeles: Perspective Publishing,1999.

Holler, Anne. Pocahontas: Powhatan Peacemaker. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1993. h,

Kidwell, Clara Sue. "Indian Women as Cultural Mediators." American Society for Ethnohistory. 39:2, 1992. (pp. 97-107)

Kiyomi, Kutsuzawa. "Disney's Pocahontas: Reproduction of Gender, Orientalism, and the Strategic Construction of Racial Harmony in the Disney Empire." Atlantis. Special Issue 2, 2004. (pp. 43-63)

Lawson, Marie. Pocahontas and Captain John Smith: The Story of the Virginia Colony. New York: Random House, 1950.

LeMaster, Michelle. "Book Reviews: Pocahontas: (De)Constructing an American Myth." The William andMary Quarterly. Vol. 62, Issue 4.

Mossiker, Frances. Pocahontas: The Life and the Legend. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976.

Musick, John R. Pocahontas: A Story of Virginia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1894.

O'Brien, Pamela Colby. "The Happiest Films on Earth: A Textual and Contextual Analysis of How and Why Walt Disney Altered the Fairy Tales and Legends of Snow White,Cinderella, The Little Mermaid, and Pocahontas." Dissertation from Indiana University, 2003.

Peters, Jill. "The Role of Pocahontas and Sacagawea in the Creation of New American Mythology." Midwestern Folklore. Vol. 31, Issue 1, 2005. (pp. 16-26)

Price, David A. Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, & the Heart of A New Nation. NewYork: Random House Inc., 2003.

Rennie, Neil. Pocahontas, Little Wanton: Myth, Life & Afterlife. London: Bernard Quaritch Ltd., 2007.

Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas' People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Though Four Centuries. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman and London, 1990.

----------- "Pocahontas: The Hostage Who Became Famous" Sifters. Perdue, Theda (editor). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001

----------- Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005.

Seymour, Flora Warren. Pocahontas: Brave Girl. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1946.

Smith, E. Boyd. The Story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1906.

Smith, John. The Capture and Release of Captain John Smith, including His Rescue from Death by Pocahontas. The University of Michigan Printing Office: Reprinted for The Clements Library Associates, 1960.

Sundquist, Asebrit. Pocahontas & Co: The Fictional American Indian Woman in Nineteenth Century Literature: A Study of Method. New Jersey: Humanities Prss International, Inc., 1987.

Townsend, Camilla. Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma. New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.

Watson, Virginia. The Princess Pocahontas. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Co., 1916.


[1] Barbour, Philip L. Pocahontas and Her World. post title page.

[2] Barbour, Philip L. (editor) The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580-1631. "True Relation" p. C2r-C3r

[3] Barbour, Philip L. (editor) The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580-1631. "Generall Historie" p. Third Book (p. 151)

[5] Rountree, Helen C. "Pocahontas: The Hostage Who Became Famous" Sifters. (editor: Purdue, Theda) p. 14

[6] Barbour, Philip L. (editor) The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, 1580-1631. "The Proceedings" p. [103] (p. 274)

[7] Armstrong, W.C. The Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith. p. 228

[8] Musick, John R. Pocahontas: The Story of Virginia. p. iii-iv

[9] Dorsey, Ella Loraine. Pocahontas. p.3

[13] Garber, Virginia Armistead. Pocahontas. P. 5

[14] Cole, The Jamestown Princess: Pocahontas Legends. P. 18

[15] Watson, Virginia. The Princess Pocahontas. p. v

[17] Garnett, David. Pocahontas or the Nonparell of Virginia. p. 344

[18] Criss, Mildred. Pocahontas: Young American Princess. insert.

[19] Graham, Shirley. The Story of Pocahontas. p. 178

[20] Lawson, Marie. Pocahontas and Captain John Smith: The Story of the Virginia Colony. p. 185

[21] Barbour, Philip L. Pocahontas and Her World. p. 1

[23] Mossiker, Frances. Pocahontas: The Life and the Legend. p. 336-7

[24] Anderson, Marilyn J. "The Best of Two Worlds: The Pocahontas Legend as Treated in Early American Drama." The Indian Historian. p. 54

[25] Anderson, Marilyn J. "The Best of Two Worlds: The Pocahontas Legend as Treated in Early American Drama." The Indian Historian. p. 59

[26] Sundquist, Asebrit. Pocahontas & Co: The Fictional American Indian Woman in Nineteenth-Century Literature: A Study of Method. p. 17

[28] Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas' People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. p. 39

[31] Accorsi, William. My Name is Pocahontas. p. 23

[32] Head, Judith. America's Daughters: 400 Years of American Women. p. 13

[33] Edgerton, Gary and Kathy Merlock Jackson. "Redesigning Pocahontas: Disney, the 'White Man's Indian' and the Marketing of Dreams." p. 91

[34] Edgerton, Gary and Kathy Merlock Jackson. "Redesigning Pocahontas: Disney, the 'White Man's Indian' and the Marketing of Dreams." p. 92

[36] Kidwell, Clara Sue. "Indian Women as Cultural Mediators." p. 98

[37] O'Brien, Pamela Colby. "The Happiest Films on Earth: A Textual and Contextual Analysis of How and Why Walt Disney Altered the Fairy Tales and Legends of Snow White,Cinderella, The Little Mermaid, and Pocahontas." p. vi

[38] Bush, Marcella M. "From Mythic History to Historic Myth: Captain John Smith and Pocahontas in Popular History." p. ii-iii

[39] Braxton, Joanne M. and Paula Gunn Allen. "Pocahontas' Voice: A Conversation with Paula Gunn Allen" p. 13

[40] Townsend, Camilla. Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma. p. xi.

[41] Kiyomi, Kutsuzawa. "Disney's Pocahontas: Reproduction of Gender, Orientalism, and the Strategic Construction of Racial Harmony in the Disney Empire." p. 44

[42] Peters, Jill. "The Role of Pocahontas and Sacagawea in the Creation of New American Mythology." p. 16

[44] Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown.

[45] Rennie, Neil. Pocahontas: Lttle Wanton: Myth, Life and Afterlife. p.97-155.

[46] Custalow, Linwood "Little Bear" and Angela L Daniel "Silver Star." The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History: From the Sacred History of the Mattaponi Reservation People. p. xxiii

[48] Allen, Paula Gunn. Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat. Introduction.

Characteristics of Successful Partnerships

Several studies of successful arm’s-length partnerships have noted their key recurring characteristics.4 Free exchange of information (e.g., sharing cost and demand data) and coordinated decision making reduce the inefficiencies inherent in less collaborative relationships. Mutual trust is crucial to reassuring firms that information shared with a partner will not be used against them. Longer-term commitment to the partnership encourages parties to invest in further improvement of the joint supply chain to mutual advantage. Helper and Sako distinguish between what they call “exit” and “voice” relationships in the latter, firms and their suppliers cooperate to resolve problems rather than abandoning their partnerships. Although “voice” relationships function better, according to observations, they are relatively rare. Dyer has described the changes in supplier-management practices at Chrysler in some detail.

Read the Full Article


About the Authors

Charles J. Corbett is assistant professor of operations and technology management, the John E. Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.Joseph D. Blackburn is the James A. Speyer Professor of Production Management and acting dean, Owen Graduate School of Management, Vanderbilt University.Luk N. Van Wassenhove is the Henry Ford Professor of Manufacturing and director of the Centre for Integrated Manufacturing and Service Operations at INSEAD.


1. H.L. Lee, V. Padmanabhan, and S. Whang, “The Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains,” Sloan Management Review, volume 38, Spring 1997, pp. 93–102.

2. J.L.S. Byrnes, “Baxter’s Stockless System: Redefining the Business,” unpublished manuscript, 1993.

3. J.H. Dyer, “How Chrysler Created an American Keiretsu,” Harvard Business Review, volume 74, July–August 1996, pp. 42–56.

4. E. Anderson and B. Weitz, “The Use of Pledges to Build and Sustain Commitment in Distribution Channels,” Journal of Marketing Research, volume 29, February 1992, pp. 18–34 and

A.J. Magrath and K.G. Hardy, “Building Customer Partnerships,” Business Horizons, volume 37, January–February 1994, pp. 24–28.

5. S.R. Helper, “How Much Has Really Changed between U.S. Automakers and Their Suppliers?”Sloan Management Review, volume 32, Summer 1991, pp. 15–28

S.R. Helper and M. Sako, “Supplier Relations in Japan and the United States: Are They Converging?” Sloan Management Review, volume 36, Spring 1995, pp. 77–84 and

J.P. MacDuffie and S. Helper, “Creating Lean Suppliers: Diffusing Lean Production Throughout the Supply Chain,” California Management Review, volume 39, Summer 1997, pp. 118–151 and

J.L.S. Byrnes and R.D. Shapiro, “Intercompany Operating Ties: Unlocking the Value in Channel Restructuring” (Boston: Harvard Business School, working paper 92-058, 1991).

8. Company names and various other details have been disguised for reasons of confidentiality. More detailed versions of this study are available as teaching cases from INSEAD, titled “Pellton International: Partnerships or Tug of War?” (Parts A, B, and C).

9. M.L. Fisher, “What Is the Right Supply Chain for Your Product?” Harvard Business Review, volume 75, March–April 1997, pp. 105–116.

10. Byrnes and Shapiro (1991)

Institute of Industrial Engineers, “Beyond the Basics of Reengineering: Survival Tactics for the ‘90s,” 1994 and

R.L. Manganelli and M.M. Klein, The Reengineering Handbook: A Step-by-Step Guide to Business Transformation (New York: American Management Association, 1994).

Institute of Industrial Engineers, “Beyond the Basics of Reengineering: Survival Tactics for the ‘90s,” 1994 and

R.L. Manganelli and M.M. Klein, The Reengineering Handbook: A Step-by-Step Guide to Business Transformation (New York: American Management Association, 1994).

11. Byrnes and Shapiro (1991), p. 21.

12. T.H. Davenport, Process Innovation: Reengineering Work Through Information Technology (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1993).

13. Byrnes and Shapiro (1991) and

Institute of Industrial Engineers (1994).

P.M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Doubleday, 1990).

15. Byrnes and Shapiro (1991).

Institute of Industrial Engineers (1994).

17. T.J. Allen, Managing the Flow of Technology: Technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Information Within the R&D Organization (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1977).

18. R.F. Lynch and T.J. Werner, Continuous Improvement: Teams & Tools (Atlanta, Georgia: QualTeam, Inc., 1992).

19. D.J. Bowersox and P.J. Daugherty, “Logistics Paradigms: The Impact of Information Technology,” Journal of Business Logistics, volume 16, number 1, 1995, pp. 65–80 and

M. Hammer and J. Champy, Reengineering the Corporation (A Manifesto for Business Revolution) (London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1993).

20. For discussions of mapping with examples, see:

Lynch and Werner (1992) and

Manganelli and Klein (1994).

21. Lynch and Werner (1992) and

H.J. Harrington, Business Process Improvement: The Breakthrough Strategy for Total Quality, Productivity, and Competitiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991).

22. General redesign principles can be found in:

Hammer and Champy (1993) and

24. For discussions of change management and project management, see, for example:

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