The Ancient Kingdom of Champa: An Enduring Power that Lasted over 1500 years in Southern Vietnam

The Ancient Kingdom of Champa: An Enduring Power that Lasted over 1500 years in Southern Vietnam

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The Kingdom of Champa was located in mainland Southeast Asia, and occupies the area which is today southern Vietnam. Like a number of other early Southeast Asian cultures, the Kingdom of Champa is not very well-known in the Western world. Nevertheless, thanks to its economy, this kingdom was an important regional power which was largely based on maritime trade. Additionally, it was due to these trade connections that the Kingdom of Champa came into contact with other polities, and was influenced by their cultures.

Po Nagar: The Founder of Champa

According to Cham tradition, the founder of Champa was a goddess known as Po Nagar. Legend said that Po Nagar was abandoned as a baby in a forest near Nha Trang. She was discovered by a woodcutter whilst he was returning home in the evening. The previously childless woodcutter and his wife raised her as if she was their own daughter. One day, Po Nagar, now a young lady, brought home a special piece of sandalwood, which she took good care of and did not allow anyone to touch.

A day came when she informed her foster parents that she was commanded to go to the Chinese Emperor’s court, where she would marry the crown prince. Although her foster parents initially forbade her from undertaking this journey, they eventually relented.

Po Nagar Cham towers at the mouth of Cái River, Nha Trang, Vietnam. ( Wikimedia Commons )

Po Nagar went to the seacoast, threw her piece of sandalwood into the sea, and disappeared. The piece of sandalwood was borne northwards by the currents, and reached the Chinese coast, where it was found by a fisherman in a net. Realizing that this was an object of great value, the fisherman brought it immediately to the palace, where it was given to the Emperor’s son.

The prince wrapped the sandalwood in a silk cloth, and kept it near him in the palace. That night, the cloth started to move, and when the prince inspected it, Po Nagar emerged. The Chinese crown prince and Po Nagar were soon married and they lived happily for the first few weeks of their married life.

Life After The Wedding

One day, however, Po Nagar told her husband that she wanted to visit her foster parents, as she had promised to do so before leaving them. The prince, however, denied her request, as he did not want her to be away from him for even a single day. As there was nothing that Po Nagar could do to change her husband’s mind, she went to the seashore, threw her sandalwood into the water, and vanished.

The prince was furious, and equipped a fleet to sail south to look for Po Nagar. This angered the Jade Emperor, Ngoc Hoang, who turned the prince’s ship into stone as it entered the harbor of Nha Trang. As for Po Nagar, she remained in Vietnam doing good deeds for the rest of her life. When she died, she became revered by both the Cham and the Vietnamese as their patroness.

The towers of Po Nagar are located on a hill in Southern Vietnam. ( Wikimedia Commons )

Historical Origins of the Kingdom of Champa and Relations with China

By comparison, the historical source for the origins of the Kingdom of Champa can be found in Chinese sources. The first mention of Champa is said to date back to 192 AD. At this point of time, the Kingdom of Champa was known as Lin-Yi. It has been said that this new entity emerged in what is today central Vietnam (the region of Hue to be more exact), when a local official successfully led a revolt against Chinese authority in the area. In both the legendary and historical accounts, it seems that Champa had some connection with the Chinese to the north.

This relationship with the Chinese continued throughout the history of Champa. The end of Han Dynasty in 220 AD marked the collapsed of a unified China for several centuries, and during the 6th century AD, the Cham raided the northern part of Vietnam, as they perceived the Southern Chen Dynasty, which ruled that area, as weak.

The Cham were defeated, however, by the Chinese general Pham Tu. When the Tang Dynasty came to power during the 7th century AD, the Kingdom of Champa ceased their aggressions against their northern neighbors for about two centuries. Additionally, diplomatic missions were even sent by the Cham kings to China.

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India’s Influence in Champa

Another power that played an important role in the history of Champa was India. It was this power to the west that contributed greatly to the culture of Cham society, as it was from India that Hinduism and Buddhism arrived on the shores of this kingdom.

This influence from India is visible in the art of the Chams. For instance, from the 4th century BC, Champa art often contained images of Hindu gods. However, it has been pointed out that these images had a unique Cham imprint that set it apart from its land of origin. For example, the Chams often depicted Shiva with a wide nose, thick lips, and a hint of a smile, all of which are a reflection of Cham, rather than Indian, culture.

India’s influence: Relief from Angkor ( Wikimedia Commons )

In addition to art, the influence of India can also be seen in the architecture of the Kingdom of Champa. This is perhaps most prominent in the My Son Sanctuary, a series of Hindu tower-temples located in Central Vietnam. These tower-temples were constructed over ten centuries, beginning in the 4th century AD, and were dedicated to various Hindu deities, including Vishnu, Krishna, and above all, Shiva - in the form of the Shiva lingam.

This Cham head of Shiva was made of electrum around 800 AD. ( Wikimedia Commons )

The Fall of the Kingdom of Champa

The Kingdom of Champa eventually came to an end in the early 18th century AD. Yet, the last strong king of the Chams was Che Nbong Nga, who ruled from 1360 to 1390 and attacked his northern neighbor, the Dai Viet, aggressively. It was only upon the death of Che Nbong Nga that the Chams withdrew back to the south.

The successful Vietnamese counter-attack began in 1402 and was only halted when the Ming Dynasty expanded into their territory. In 1428, however, the Vietnamese were able to push the Chinese back, and maintained good relations with the Cham. When the king of Champa died in 1441, the kingdom was on the brink of civil war, and the Vietnamese invaded. After 30 years, the majority of Cham territory was occupied by the Vietnamese. Nevertheless, a small Cham state still existed in the far south, and it survived until 1720. The end of this small state saw with it the fall of a great kingdom that lasted over 1500 years.

Featured image: The temples of My Son, built by the Kingdom of Champa. ( Wikimedia Commons ).

By: Ḏḥwty


Khmer Rouges massacred Champa people’s villagers in Cambodia, inilah yang dikatakan telah mendirikan kerajaan Melayu Champa. Kerajaan Islam Champa yang Hampir Tak Berbekas di Vietnam Asal Usul Wali Songo Kerajaan Islam Champa yang Hampir Tak Berbekas di Vietnam. View Kerajaan alam from BIZ at Sunway University College. Kerajaan Funan, Kerajaan Champa dan Kerajaan Angkor Kerajaan Funan dan.

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The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. They are well-known as the coolest and one of the smartest race on earth, many of senators in USA are Jews, even Einstein is. The king held annual jousting tournaments. Most of chaampa mentioned about the incoming Javanese forces to their land, which was probably a local testament of the empire’s expansive nature that once dominating the archipelago.

Jambi sent two more ambassadors to China in and Second, around the months of September and October is the Kate festival, which is a traditional holiday to honor and recognize national figures and heroes.

Some migrated to Cambodia.

This event is mentioned in Trailokyapuri Jiwu and Petak inscription, where Ranawijaya claimed that he already defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit as one Kingdom. It is a romantic narrative describing the love, courage and loyalty of Siti Zubaidah in seeking the release of her husband, Sultan Zainal Abidin, who was captured by Chinese princesses.

It’s not as easy as exterminating pests. Vietnamese-Cham relations after under Nguyen Phuc Chu were based on central-regional relations the role of the Cham ruler was more of a cultural and economic leader than a political one. These included the Chinese monk I Chingwho made several lengthy visits to Sumatra on his way to study at Nalanda University in India in andand the 11th century Bengali Buddhist scholar Atishawho played a major role in the development of Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet.

Inthe king of Champa sent a military force to assist the Sultan of Johore to fight against the Portuguese in Malacca. It was mentioned that the Javanese force was defeated in a buffalo fight. Kerajaan negeri siam yg sebenarnya And in the same manner, you’re asking that Champa-ian to give up on his heritage, cultural standings and what not?

Kkerajaan is nothing more than an ancient kingdom that got vanquished and destroyed in the past, just like Srivijaya, Langkasuka, Majapahit. Yang termasuk dalam pelarian itu ialah dua orang putera raja Champa, iaitu Indravarman dan Pau Liang di atas. Demak sent reinforcements under Sunan Ngudungwho later died in battle and was replaced by Sunan Kudusbut they came too late to save Kertabumi although they managed to repel the Ranawijaya army.

Ceramic sherds found around the Geding Suro temple complex have been revealed to be much more recent than previously assumed.

He describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan Tuban where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong and Chou Chang. The History of Singapore. Some of these varieties are mutually unintelligible from other forms of Arabic due to wide distances kegajaan time that created divergences in ierajaan.

CHAMPA. What is that country?

Constructed the Chudamani Vihara in NagapattinamIndia in The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. All the other hatred, racial issues and internal power struggle are the result of this nationalism. Do you hear about Rome in the recent news. If say I am from Zimbabwe or North Korea. Wilwatiktaalthough sometimes the natives refer to their kingdom as Bhumi Jawa or Mandala Jawa instead. Although some of temples dated from Majapahit period used andesite or sandstonethe red bricks is also a popular construction material.

The village was named Majapahitwhich was taken from the name of a fruit that had a bitter taste maja is the fruit name and pahit means bitter.

Man has never stop evolving, his culture has never stop evolving. Mengikut sejarah Cham, kebudayaan Hindu lebih terserlah di kalangan kaum Cham disebabkan mereka merupakan kaum pedagang dan pelaut yang mempunyai sejarah perhubungan yang lama dengan India dan Jawa.

During the last half year ofthe Indonesian government sponsored a massive exploration on the site that is believed to be the place where the palace of Majapahit once stood. Most of the Cham youth are graduating with high school diplomas and college degrees, especially in engineering and education.

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Srivijaya also maintained close relations with the Pala Empire in Bengal. The true nature of Majapahit suzerainty is still a subject of study and even has sparked controversy. One of them is Wan Ahmad Arshad. Retrieved 21 November The rulers of Majapahit was the dynastic continuity of the Singhasari kings, which started by Sri Ranggah Rajasathe founder of Rajasa dynasty in the late 13th century. Ada pula pendapat bahawa orang-orang Aceh adalah daripada keturunan orang Cham.

Meskipun demikian, oleh sebab begitu sisa-sisa golongan Champa itu, mereka berusaha dengan sedaya-upaya untuk mempertahankan sekurang-kuragnya lembaga Kerajaannya, Lambang Kebangsaanya yang terakhir.

One theory holds that the people of Champa were descended from settlers who reached the Southeast Asian mainland from Borneo about the time of the Sa Huỳnh culture, though genetic evidence points to exchanges with India. [1] : 317 Sa Huỳnh sites are rich in iron artifacts, by contrast with the Đông Sơn culture sites found in northern Vietnam and elsewhere in mainland Southeast Asia, where bronze artifacts are dominant. The Cham language is part of the Austronesian family. According to one study, Cham is related most closely to modern Acehnese. [2]

Founding legend Edit

Cham tradition says that the founder of the Cham state was Lady Po Nagar. She hailed from Khánh Hòa Province, in a peasant family in the mountains of Dai An. Spirits assisted her when she drifted on a piece of sandalwood to China, where she married a Chinese crown prince, the son of the Emperor of China, with whom she had two children. She then became Queen of Champa. [3] When she returned to Champa to visit her family, the Prince refused to let her go, but she flung the sandalwood into the ocean, disappeared with her children and reappeared at Nha Trang to her family. When the Chinese prince tried to follow her back to Nha Trang, she was furious and turned him and his fleet into stone. [4] [5] [6]

The Sa Huỳnh culture Edit

The Sa Huỳnh culture was a late prehistoric metal age society on the central coast of Viet Nam. In 1909, urns containing cremated remains and grave goods were discovered at Thanh Duc, near Sa Huỳnh, a coastal village located south of Da Nang. Since then, many more burials have been found, from Huế to the Đồng Nai river delta. The jar burials contain bronze mirrors, coins, bells, bracelets, axes and spearheads, iron spearheads, knives and sickles, and beads made of gold, glass, carnelian, agate and nephrite. Radiocarbon dating of the Sa Huỳnh culture remains range from 400 BC to the first or second century AD. The Sa Huỳnh exchanged items along maritime trade routes with Taiwan and the Philippines. "At present, the consensus of all evidence points to a relatively late intrusive settlement of this region by sea from Borneo, a move which stimulated the rise of Sa Huỳnh, and then the development of the Cham states." [1] : 211–217

Lâm Ấp Edit

To the Chinese, the country of Champa was known as 林邑 Linyi [7] in Mandarin and Lam Yap in Cantonese and to the Vietnamese, Lâm Ấp (which is the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation of 林邑). It had been founded in 192 AD [8] [9] in the region of modern Huế by Khu Liên, a local leader rebelling against the Han dynasty. [1] : 323 Over the next several centuries, Han forces made repeated unsuccessful attempts to retake the region. [10]

From its neighbor Funan to the west, Lâm Ấp soon came under the influence of Indian civilization. [11] Scholars locate the historical beginnings of Champa in the 4th century, when the process of Indianization was well underway. It was in this period that the Cham people began to create stone inscriptions in both Sanskrit and in their own language, for which they created a unique script. [12] One such Sanskrit inscription, the Vo Canh stele Pallava Grantha inscription hails from the early Cham territory of Kauthara, and establishes the descendant of the local Hindu king related to the Funan kingdom, Sri Mara. [13] [14] [15] [16] He is identified with both Champa founder Khu Liên and Fan Shih-man of Funan. [17] [18] [19]

The Book of Jin has some records about Lam Ap during the 3rd to 5th centuries. Fan Wen (范文) became the king in 336. He attacked and annexed Daqijie, Xiaoqijie, Ship, Xulang, Qudu, Ganlu, and Fudan. Fan Wen sent a message and paid tribute to the Chinese Emperor, and the message was "written in barbarian characters". [1] : 323–324 Lam Ap sometimes maintained the tributary status and sometimes was hostile to the Jin dynasty, and the Commandery of Rinan (日南, Chinese:Rinan, Vietnamese:Nhật Nam) was frequently under attack from Lam Ap. [20]

The first king acknowledged in the inscriptions is Bhadravarman, [21] [22] who reigned from 380 to 413. At Mỹ Sơn, King Bhadravarman established a linga called Bhadresvara, [1] : 324 whose name was a combination of the king's own name and that of the Hindu god of gods Shiva. [23] The worship of the original god-king under the name Bhadresvara and other names continued through the centuries that followed. [24]

The capital of Lâm Ấp at the time of Bhadravarman was the citadel of Simhapura, the "Lion City" at present-day Trà Kiệu, located along two rivers and had a wall eight miles in circumference. A Chinese writer described the people of Lâm Ấp as both warlike and musical, with "deep eyes, a high straight nose, and curly black hair." [25] : 49–50 [26]

According to Chinese records, Sambhuvarman (Fan Fan Tche) was crowned king of Lâm Ấp in 529. Inscriptions credit him with rehabilitating the temple to Bhadresvara after a fire. Sambhuvarman also sent delegations and tribute to China and unsuccessfully invaded what is now northern Vietnam. [27] George Cœdès states that this was actually Rudravarman, followed by his son Sambhuvarman their combined reigns extended from 529 to 629. [1] : 325 [25] : 70–72 When the Vietnamese gained a brief independence under the Early Lý dynasty (544-602), King Lý Nam Đế sent his general, Pham Tu, to pacify the Chams after they raided southern border, in 543 the Chams were defeated. [28]

In 605, a general Liu Fang (劉方) [1] : 325–326 of the Chinese Sui dynasty invaded Lâm Ấp, won a battle by luring the enemy war-elephants into an area booby-trapped with camouflaged pits, massacred the defeated troops, and captured the capital. [29] [30] [31] Sambhuvarman rebuilt the capital and the Bhadravarman temple at Mỹ Sơn, then received Chenla King Mahendravarman's ambassador. [1] : 326 In the 620s, the kings of Lâm Ấp sent delegations to the court of the recently established Tang dynasty and asked to become vassals of the Chinese court. [32]

Chinese records report the death of the last king of Lâm Ấp in 756. [1] : 325 Thereafter for a time, the Chinese referred to Champa as "Hoan Vuong" or "Huanwang". [33] The earliest Chinese records using a name related to "Champa" are dated 877 however, such names had been in use by the Cham themselves since at least 629, and by the Khmer since at least 657. [34]

Champa at its peak Edit

From the 7th to the 10th centuries, the Cham controlled the trade in spices and silk between China, India, the Indonesian islands, and the Abbasid empire in Baghdad. They supplemented their income from the trade routes not only by exporting ivory and aloe, but also by engaging in piracy and raiding. [35]

Religious foundations at Mỹ Sơn Edit

By the second half of the 7th century, royal temples were beginning to appear at Mỹ Sơn. The dominant religious cult was that of the Hindu god Shiva, but temples were also dedicated to Vishnu. Scholars have called the architectural style of this period Mỹ Sơn E1, in reference to a particular edifice at Mỹ Sơn that is regarded as emblematic of the style. Important surviving works of art in this style include a pedestal for a linga that has come to be known as the Mỹ Sơn E1 Pedestal and a pediment depicting the birth of Brahma from a lotus issuing from the navel of the sleeping Vishnu. [36]

In an important stone inscription dated 657, found at Mỹ Sơn, King Prakasadharma, who took on the name Vikrantavarman I at his coronation, claimed to be descended through his mother from the Brahman Kaundinya and the serpent princess Soma, the legendary ancestors of the Khmer of Cambodia. This inscription underlines the ethnic and cultural connection of Champa with the Khmer Empire, its perennial rival to the west. It also commemorates the king's dedication of a monument, probably a linga, to Shiva. [37] Another inscription documents the king's almost mystical devotion to Shiva, "who is the source of the supreme end of life, difficult to attain whose true nature is beyond the domain of thought and speech, yet whose image, identical with the universe, is manifested by his forms." [38]

Temporary preeminence of Kauthara Edit

In the 8th century, during the time when the Chinese knew the country as "Huanwang", the political center of Champa shifted temporarily from Mỹ Sơn southward to the regions of Panduranga and Kauthara, [25] : 94–95 centered around the temple complex of Po Nagar near modern Nha Trang that was dedicated to the indigenous Earth goddess Yan Po Nagar. [39] : 47–48 In 774, raiders from Java disembarked in Kauthara, burned the temple of Po Nagar, and carried off the image of Shiva. The Cham king Satyavarman pursued the raiders and defeated them in a naval battle. In 781, Satyavarman erected a stele at Po Nagar, declaring that he had regained control of the area and had restored the temple. In 787, Javanese raiders destroyed a temple dedicated to Shiva near Panduranga. [25] : 91 [40]

Javanese raids Edit

In 767, Tonkin coast was hit by Java (Daba) and Kunlun raids, [41] [42] [43] around modern day Hanoi the capital of Tonkin (Annam). [44] [45] Around Son-tay they were vanquished at the hands of Chang Po-i the governor, after the Kunlun and Java (Shepo) assaulted Tongking in 767. [46]

Champa was subsequently assaulted by Javanese or Kunlun vessels in 774 and 787. [47] [48] [49] In 774 an assault was launched on Po-Nagar in Nha-trang where the pirates demolished temples, while in 787 an assault was launched on Phang-rang. [50] [51] [52] Several Champa coastal cities suffered naval raids and assault from Java. Java armadas was called as Javabala-sanghair-nāvāgataiḥ (Java armadas) which are recorded in Champa epigraphs. [53] [54] All of these raids believed was launched by the Sailendras, ruler of Java and Srivijaya. [55] [56] [57] The possible cause of Srivijaya Sailendras assault on Champa was probably prompted by commerce rivalry on serving Chinese market. The 787 epigraph was in Yang Tikuh while the 774 epigraph was Po-nagar. [58] [59]

In Kauthara province in 774, Champa's Siva-linga temple of Po Nagar was assaulted and demolished. [60] Champa source mentioned their invader as foreigners, sea-farers, eaters of inferior food, of frightful appearance, extraordinarily black and thin. [61] The 774 assault by the Javanese happened in the rule of Isvaraloka (Satyavarman). [62] [63] Cham record mentioned that their country was hit by ferocious, pitiless, dark-skinned sea raiders, which modern historians believed to by Javanese. Java had commercial and cultural links to Champa. [64] And assault was initiated on Cambodia. Javanese raid was launched via the Pulo Condor island. Malaya, Sumatra or Java all could have been the origin of the assaulters. [65] The Kauthara Nha Trang temple of Po Nagar was ruined when ferocious, pitiless, dark-skinned men born in other countries, whose food was more horrible than corpses, and who were vicious and furious, came in ships . . . took away the [temple linga], and set fire to the temple. In 774 according to the Nha Trang epigraph in Sanskrit by the Chams. Men born in other lands, living on other foods, frightful to look at, unnaturally dark and lean, cruel as death, passing over the sea in ships assaulted in 774. [66]

In 787, warriors from Java borne over in ships assaulted Champa. In Phan-rang the Sri Bhadradhipatlsvara temple was arsoned by seaborne Java troops in 787, [67] [68] when Indravarman was in power at the hands of the Javanese. It was mentioned the armies of Java, having come in vessels of the 787 assault, and of the previous assault, that Satyavarman, the King of Champa vanquished them as they were followed by good ships and beaten at sea and they were men living on food more horrible than cadavers, frightful, completely black and gaunt, dreadful and evil as death, came in ships in the Nha-trang Po Nagar epigraph in Sanskrit, which called hem men born in other countries. The ruin of the temple at Panduranga in 787 came at the hands of the assaulters.

Champa was an important commerce link between China and Srivijaya. [69] [70] [71] The Majapahit and their predecessors the Javanese Mataram had ties with Champa. [72]

The Buddhist dynasty at Indrapura Edit

In 875, King Indravarman II founded a new northern dynasty at Indrapura [25] : 123 (Dong Duong near Da Nang in modern Vietnam). Eager to claim an ancient lineage, Indravarman declared himself the descendant of Bhrigu, the venerable sage whose exploits are detailed in the Mahabharata, and asserted that Indrapura had been founded by the same Bhrigu in ancient times. [73] From 877 onward, the Chinese knew Champa as "Cheng-cheng", discontinuing their use of the term "Huan-wang." [39] : 47 Indravarman II repulsed an invasion by the Khmer King Yasovarman I. [39] : 54

Indravarman was the first Cham monarch to adopt Mahayana Buddhism as an official religion. At the center of Indrapura, he constructed a Buddhist monastery (vihara) dedicated to the bodhisattva Lokesvara. [25] : 123 The foundation, regrettably, was devastated during the Vietnam War. Thankfully, some photographs and sketches survive from the prewar period. In addition, some stone sculptures from the monastery are preserved in Vietnamese museums. Scholars have called the artistic style typical of the Indrapura the Dong Duong Style. The style is characterized by its dynamism and ethnic realism in the depiction of the Cham people. Surviving masterpieces of the style include several tall sculptures of fierce dvarapalas or temple guardians that were once positioned around the monastery. The period in which Buddhism reigned as the principal religion of Champa came to an end in approximately 925, at which time the Dong Duong Style also began to give way to subsequent artistic styles linked with the restoration of Shaivism as the national religion. [74]

Kings belonging to the dynasty of Indrapura built a number of temples at Mỹ Sơn in the 9th and 10th centuries. Their temples at Mỹ Sơn came to define a new architectural and artistic style, called by scholars the Mỹ Sơn A1 Style, again in reference to a particular foundation at Mỹ Sơn regarded emblematic for the style. With the religious shift from Buddhism back to Shaivism around the beginning of the 10th century, the center of Cham religion also shifted from Dong Duong back to Mỹ Sơn. [75]

Attrition through conflict with Đại Việt and the Khmer Edit

Interesting parallels may be observed between the history of northern Champa (Indrapura and Vijaya) and that of its neighbor and rival to the west, the Khmer civilization of Angkor, located just to the north of the great lake Tonlé Sap in what is now Cambodia. The foundation of the Cham dynasty at Indrapura in 875 was followed by the foundation of the Khmer empire at Roluos in 877 by King Indravarman I, who united two previously independent regions of Cambodia. The parallels continued as the two peoples flourished from the 10th through 12th centuries, then went into gradual decline, suffering their ultimate defeat in the 15th century. In 982, King Lê Hoàn of Đại Việt sent army invaded Champa, sacked Indrapura and beheaded Champa king. The new Champa king agreed to pay tributes to Vietnamese court every year until 1064. In 1238, the Khmer lost control of their western possessions around Sukhothai as the result of a Thai revolt. The successful revolt not only ushered in the era of Thai independence but also foreshadowed the eventual abandonment of Angkor in 1431, following its sack by Thai invaders from the kingdom of Ayutthaya, which had absorbed Sukhothai in 1376. The decline of Champa was roughly contemporaneous with that of Angkor and was precipitated by pressure from Đại Việt of what is now northern Vietnam, culminating in the conquest and obliteration of Vijaya in 1471. [25] : 249–251

Trade Edit

According to the Daoyi Zhilue documents, around the 11th century Chinese merchants who went to Cham ports in Champa married Cham women, to whom they regularly returned after trading voyages. [76] A Chinese merchant from Quanzhou, Wang Yuanmao, traded extensively with Champa and married a Cham princess. [77]

Khmer invasions of Kauthara Edit

In 944 and 945, Khmer troops from Cambodia invaded the region of Kauthara. [78] Around 950, the Khmer under Rajendravarman II pillaged the temple of Po Nagar and carried off the statue of the goddess. [25] : 124 In 960, the Cham King Jaya Indravaman I sent a delegation with tribute to the first king of the Chinese Song dynasty, which had been established in Kaifeng around 960. In 965, the king restored the temple at Po Nagar and reconstructed the statue of the goddess to replace the one stolen by the Khmer. [25] : 124 [39] : 56 [79]

War with Đại Cồ Việt and the abandonment of Indrapura Edit

In the latter half of the 10th century, the kings of Indrapura waged war against the Vietnamese. The Viet had spent the better part of the century securing and consolidating their independence from the Chinese. Following the defeat of the Chinese fleet by king Ngô Quyền in the Battle of Bạch Đằng in 938, the country had gone through a period of internal turmoil until its final reunification by king Dinh Bo Linh in 968 under the name Đại Cồ Việt kingdom, and the establishment of a capital at Hoa Lư near modern Ninh Bình. [80]

In 979, the Cham King Parameshvaravarman I (Phê Mi Thuê to the Viet) sent a fleet to attack Hoa Lư in support of dissatisfied prince Ngô Nhật Khánh following the Vietnamese civil war of twelve warlords. However, the ill-fated expedition was scuttled by a typhoon. [39] : 56 In 982, King Lê Hoàn of Đại Cồ Việt sent an ambassador to Indrapura. When the ambassador was detained, Lê Hoàn decided to attack the Cham capital. Viet troops sacked Indrapura and killed Parameshvararman I. [25] : 124 They carried off women from the king's entourage, gold, silver, and other precious objects. [39] : 57 As a result of these setbacks, the Cham abandoned Indrapura around 1000. From 986 to 989, Lưu Kỳ Tông (or Liu Ke-Tsong in Chinese record), a Vietnamese merchant in Indrapura, alleged took the throne of the Cham king and reigned the country for 3 years. The center of Champa was relocated south to Vijaya in modern Bình Định. [25] : 125 [81] After this, Champa also demanded this status, to be officially part of China, sending large amounts of tribute to the Chinese. When the Vietnamese sent Cham prisoners to China, the Chinese sent them back to Champa in 992. [25] : 125 [82]

Several Chinese accounts record Cham arriving on Hainan. When the Cham capital fell in 982 to Vietnam, several Cham fled to Hainan during the Song dynasty. [25] : 125 [39] : 57 [83] After the fall of the capital Indrapura, some Cham fled to Guangzhou as well. They became ancestors of the modern day Utsuls on Hainan, who are Muslims and still speak a Cham language. [84]

Champa rice was introduced from Champa to China during the reign of Emperor Zhenzong of Song.

Sack of Vijaya by the Việt Edit

Conflict between Champa and Đại Việt did not end, however, with the abandonment of Indrapura. Champa suffered further Viet attacks in 1021 and 1026. [25] : 139 In 1044, a catastrophic battle resulted in the death of the Cham King Sa Dau and the sack of Vijaya by Đại Việt under Lý Thái Tông. The invaders captured elephants and musicians and even the Cham queen Mi E, who preserved her honor by throwing herself into the waves as her captors attempted to transport her to their country. [85] Thirty thousand Cham were killed. [39] : 60 [86] Champa began to pay tribute to the Viet kings, including a white rhinoceros in 1065 and a white elephant in 1068 sent to Lý Thánh Tông. [39] : 185 In 1068, however, the King of Vijaya Rudravarman III (Che Cu) attacked Đại Việt in order to reverse the setbacks of 1044. Again the Cham were defeated, and again Đại Việt captured and burned Vijaya. These events were repeated in 1069 when Lý Thánh Tông took a fleet to Champa, torched Vijaya, and captured Rudravarman III. [39] : 62 The Champa king eventually purchased his freedom in exchange for three northern districts of his realm. [25] : 140–141 [39] : 62 [87] [88] Taking advantage of the debacle, a leader in southern Champa rebelled and established an independent kingdom. The northern kings were not able to reunite the country until 1084. [39] : 73 [89]

Khmer invasions of northern Champa Edit

In 1074, King Harivarman IV took the throne, restoring the temples at Mỹ Sơn and ushering in a period of relative prosperity. Harivarman made peace with Đại Việt but provoked war with the Khmer of Angkor. [25] : 152,154 [39] : 72 In 1080, a Khmer army attacked Vijaya and other centers in northern Champa. Temples and monasteries were sacked and cultural treasures were carried off. After much misery, Cham troops under King Harivarman were able to defeat the invaders and restored the capital and temples. [90]

Around 1080, a new dynasty from the Korat Plateau in modern Thailand occupied the throne of Angkor in Cambodia. Soon enough, the kings of the new dynasty embarked on a program of empire-building. Rebuffed in their attempts to conquer Đại Việt in the 1128, 1132, and 1138, [25] : 160 they turned their attention to Champa. In 1145, a Khmer army under King Suryavarman II, the founder of Angkor Wat, occupied Vijaya, ending the reign of Jaya Indravarman III, and destroying the temples at Mỹ Sơn. [39] : 75–76 The Khmer king then attempted the conquest of all of northern Champa. In 1149, however, the ruler of the southern principality of Panduranga, King Jaya Harivarman I, defeated the invaders and had himself consecrated king of kings in Vijaya. [39] : 76 He spent the rest of his reign putting down rebellions in Amaravati and Panduranga. [25] : 164–165 [91]

Sack of Angkor by the Cham Edit

In 1167, King Jaya Indravarman IV ascended to the throne in Champa. An inscription characterized him as brave, well-versed in weapons, and knowledgeable of philosophy, Mahayana theories, and the Dharmasutra. [25] : 165 [92] After securing peace with Đại Việt in 1170, Jaya Indravarman invaded Cambodia with inconclusive results. In 1177, however, his troops launched a surprise attack against the Khmer capital of Yasodharapura from warships piloted up the Mekong River to the great lake Tonlé Sap in Cambodia. The invaders sacked the capital in 1177, [39] : 78–79 killed the Khmer king Tribhuvanaditya, [25] : 164,166 and made off with much booty. [93]

China transferred crossbow technology to Champa. [94] When the Chams sacked Angkor they used the Chinese siege crossbow. [95] [96] Crossbows were given to the Chams by China. [97] Crossbows and archery while mounted were instructed to the Cham by a Chinese in 1171. [98]

Conquest of Vijaya by the Khmer Edit

The Khmer were rallied by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who drove the Cham from Cambodia in 1181. When Jaya Indravarman IV launched another attack against Cambodia in 1190, Jayavarman VII appointed a Cham prince named Vidyanandana to lead the Khmer army. Vidyanandana defeated the invaders and proceeded to occupy Vijaya and to capture Jaya Indravarman IV, whom he sent back to Angkor as a prisoner. [25] : 170–171 [39] : 79

Adopting the title of Shri Suryavarmadeva (or Suryavarman), Vidyanandana made himself king of Panduranga. He made Prince In, a brother-in-law of Jayavarman VII, "King Suryajayavarmadeva in the Nagara of Vijaya" (or Suryajayavarman). In 1191 a revolt at Viajaya drove Suryajayavarman back to Cambodia and enthroned Jaya Indravarman V. Vidyanandana occupied Viajaya, killed both Jaya Indravarman IV and Jaya Indravarman V, then "reigned without opposition over the Kingdom of Champa," [39] : 79 but he declared his independence from Cambodia. [99] Khmer troops attempted unsuccessfully to regain control over Champa throughout the 1190s. In 1203, finally, Jayavarman VII's general Yuvaraja Mnagahna On Dhanapati Grama defeated Suryavarman, sending him into exile. [39] : 79–80 Champa effectively became a province of Angkor, not to regain its independence until 1220. [25] : 171 [100] Jaya Paramesvaravarman II was crowned in 1226 and built his palace in Shri Vijaya, restoring the Champas to power. Trần Thái Tông sent a punitive expedition against Champa for its continued piracy of the Đại Việt coast, bringing back the Champa Queen Bo-da-la and the king's concubines as prisoners in 1252. Indravarman V was crowned in 1266, [25] : 192 in time to become subject to the Mongols as "Imperial Prince of the second rank". [39] : 81–82

Invasion of the Mongols Edit

When the Chinese Song dynasty fell to the Mongols, its loyalists fled to Champa where they plotted the reconquest of China. [101] In the 1270s, Kublai Khan had established his capital and dynasty at Beijing and had toppled the southern Chinese Song dynasty. By 1280, he would turn his attention to the Cham and Viet kingdoms located in the territory of modern Vietnam.

In 1283, Mongol troops of the Yuan dynasty under General Sogetu (Sagatou, So Tou, So To, or Sodu) invaded Champa and occupied Vijaya after capturing the citadel of Mou-cheng. However, Indravarman V fled into the mountains. Despite dispersion the Champa troops on a number of occasions, the Mongols were not "progressing one step into a country where they suffered from the heat, illness, and a lack of supplies." Trần Thánh Tông and then Trần Nhân Tông, just like Indravarman V, "obstinately refused" to present themselves to the Mongol Court or make any "act of vassalage", and refused the Mongols passage through Việt Nam. [39] : 82–86

Thus the invasion of Champa had little lasting effect. Then, in 1285, the Mongol commander Togan was defeated and Sogetu was killed in a botched invasion of Đại Việt. By then, the Mongols "had lost a great number of men and officers. without having obtained any sizeable advantage." [39] : 86 [102] However, Indravarman V did send an ambassador to Kublai on 6 Oct. 1285. [25] : 192–193

Chế Mân Edit

In 1307, the Cham King Jaya Simhavarman III (Chế Mân), the founder of the still extant temple of Po Klong Garai in Panduranga, ceded two northern districts to Đại Việt in exchange for the hand in marriage of a Viet princess, Huyền Trân. [25] : 217 Not long after the nuptials, the king died, and the princess returned to her northern home in order to avoid a Cham custom that would have required her to join her husband in death. [39] : 86–87 However, the lands that Chế Mân had rashly ceded were not returned. In order to regain these lands, and encouraged by the decline of Đại Việt in the course of the 14th century, the troops of Champa began to make regular incursions into the territory of their neighbor to the north. [103]

Chế Chi and Chế Anan Edit

Chế Mân's son, Chế Chi, was captured in 1312 by Trần Anh Tông and died a prisoner in Gia-lam Palace. Champa thus became a Vietnamese province. Chế Anan was able to win back its independence in 1326. [39] : 89–91

The Franciscan friar Odoric of Pordenone visited Champa in the 1320s.

Chế Bồng Nga — the Red King Edit

The last strong king of the Cham was Chế Bồng Nga, or Che Bunga, who ruled from 1360 until 1390. [25] : 237–238 In Vietnamese stories he is called The Red King. Chế Bồng Nga apparently managed to unite the Cham lands under his rule, and by 1372 he was strong enough to attack and almost conquer Đại Việt from the sea.

Cham forces sacked Thăng Long, the capital city of Đại Việt (located at the site of modern Hanoi), in 1371 and then again in 1377. This second attack was soon after Trần Duệ Tông died attacking Vijaya. [39] : 93–94 Champa attacks in 1380, 1382, and 1383 were checked by the Vietnamese General Hồ Quý Ly, future founder of the Hồ dynasty. Chế Bồng Nga was finally stopped in 1390 during another assault on the Vietnamese capital, when his royal barge received a musketry salvo. [39] : 107–109

This was the last serious offensive by the Cham against Đại Việt, but it helped spell the end of the Trần dynasty, which had forged its reputation in the wars against the Mongols a century earlier, but which now revealed itself as weak and ineffective in the face of the Cham invasions. [104]

Defeat and destruction of Vijaya by Đại Việt Edit

During the reign of the Hongwu Emperor in Ming China, Champa sent tribute to China to garner Chinese help in the wars with Vietnam. The Hongwu Emperor was dead set against military actions in the region of Southeast Asia, merely rebuking the Vietnamese for their offensive. [105] In 1401 and 1402, Hồ Quý Ly sent expeditions against Champa, forcing Jaya Simhavarman V to relinquish half of his territory. Jaya Simhavarman V was able to regain his territory when the Yongle Emperor captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương during the Ming–Hồ War of 1407. Jaya Simhavarman V and his son Nauk Glaun Vijaya then engaged in raiding the Khmer's under Ponhea Yat. [25] : 238 [39] : 111–114 China was asked to deal with Vietnam by Champa. [106] Hostilities against Champa were initiated by the new Vietnamese dynasty. [107]

Following raids by Maha Vijaya into Hoa-chau in 1444 and 1445, Đại Việt Emperor Lê Nhân Tông, under the leadership of Trịnh Khả, launched an invasion of Champa in 1446. The attack was successful, Vijaya fell to the invaders, and "Maha Vijaya" was taken prisoner. Maha Qui-lai was then made Emperor of Champa. [39] : 115

After the Champa king P'an-Lo T'ou-Ts'iuan, Tra-Toan, attacked Hoa-chau in 1469, Đại Việt emperor Lê Thánh Tông led a retaliatory invasion the following year with a vanguard fleet of 100,000 men, followed by 150,000 support civilians and settlers more ten days later. Vijaya was captured in 1471, along with Tra-Toan and 30,000 other Cham, while 60,000 Cham were killed. Tra-Toan "fell ill and died near Nghe An aboard the junk that was taking him away." [39] : 116–118 Champa kingdoms were reduced to principality status and autonomous regimes, which allowed Vietnamese court collect taxes from Champa people every year. [108]

According to linguistic study Acehnese people of northern Sumatra and Cham are related through the Aceh–Chamic languages. At least 60,000 Cham people were killed and 30,000 were taken as slaves by the Vietnamese army. The capital of Vijaya was obliterated. As a result of the victory, Lê Thánh Tông annexed the principalities of Amaravati and Vijaya. This defeat caused the first major Cham emigration, particularly to Cambodia and Malacca. [109]

The trade in Vietnamese ceramics was damaged due to the plummet in trade by Cham merchants after the invasion. [110] After the war, the Vietnamese navy took patrol over the South China sea trade routes, established Hoi An as the trade city, freely exporting Vietnamese products to Southeast Asia. Vietnamese influences and immigrants now extended into the Central Highland and Mekong Delta. [108]

The Chinese scholar 吳樸 Wu Pu recommended that to help stop the Vietnamese, China should help resuscitate the Champa Kingdom. [111]

Later history of Champa Edit

What remained of historical Champa was the southern principality of Panduranga, where the Cham general Bo Tri-tri proclaimed himself king, and offered vassalage to Lê Thánh Tông. [39] : 118 Under the protection of Dai-Viet, it preserved some of its independence. This was the starting point of the modern Cham Lords in the principality of Panduranga (Phan Rang, Phan Ri and Phan Thiết).

The Portuguese's fort on Malacca was counterattacked by the Johor Sultanate along with an expeditionary force from Champa in 1594. Cambodia was the refuge of Chams who fled along with Po Chien after Champa lost more lands in 1720 to the Vietnamese. [112]

When the Ming dynasty in China fell, Chinese refugees fled south and extensively settled on Cham lands and in Cambodia. [113] Most of these Chinese were young men, and they took Cham women as wives. Their children identified more with Chinese culture. This migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries. [114]

The Vietnamese subjugated Phú Yên in 1578, Cam Ranh in 1653, and Tran Thuan Than in 1692. Cham provinces were seized by the Nguyễn Lords. [115] An anti-Vietnamese rebellion by the Cham occurred in 1728 after the passing away of their ruler Po Saktiraydaputih. [116] Panduranga, the last remnant of the Cham Kingdom, fell in 1832 to the Emperor Minh Mạng. [117] : 158 [118]

The Cham Muslim leader Katip Suma was educated in Kelantan and came back to Champa to declare a Jihad against the Vietnamese after Emperor Minh Mạng's annexation of Champa. [119] [120] [121] [122] The Vietnamese coercively fed lizard and pig meat to Cham Muslims and cow meat to Cham Hindus against their will to punish them and assimilate them to Vietnamese culture. [123]

Modern status Edit

Today, the Chams are recognized as one of official 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam. [124] Ethnic Chams in the Mekong Delta have also been economically marginalized and pushed into poverty by Vietnamese policies, with ethnic Vietnamese Kinh settling on majority Cham land with state support, and religious practices of minorities have been targeted for elimination by the government. [125]


The various people arrived on territory, that constitutes the modern state of Vietnam in many stages, often separated by thousands of years. Australo-Melanesians were the first to settle in numbers during the Paleolithic and by around 30,000 years ago are present in all regions of Southeast Asia. In most lands they were eventually displaced from the coastal lowlands and pushed to the uplands and hinterlands by later immigrants. [10] The territories of modern central and southern Vietnam, originally not belonging to the Vietnamese kingdom were only conquered between the 14th and 18th centuries. The indigenous peoples of those lands had developed a distinct culture from the ancient Vietnamese in the Red River Delta region. The ancient Sa Huỳnh culture of present-day central Vietnam is known for the quantities of iron objects and decorative items made from glass, semi-precious and precious stones such as agate, carnelian, rock crystal, amethyst, and nephrite. [11] The Sa Huỳnh, who maintained an extensive trade network were most likely the predecessors of the Cham people. [12]

The Cham people, who for over one thousand years settled in, controlled and civilized present-day central and southern coastal Vietnam from around the 2nd century AD are of Austronesian origin. The southernmost sector of modern Vietnam, the Mekong Delta and its surroundings was until the 18th century an integral part, yet of shifting significance of the Austroasiatic Proto-Khmer - and Khmer principalities, like Funan, Chenla, the Khmer Empire and the Khmer kingdom. [13] [14] [15]

The classic core population, the Lạc Việt of the rice-farming Phung Nguyen culture and future nation builders, who had found themselves in the Red River basin are predominantly descendants of ancient agricultural communities of the Yangtze and southern and central China region, who have arrived in Indochina around 2000 years BC. [ citation needed ] [16] [17]

Situated on the southeast edge of monsoon Asia, much of ancient Vietnam enjoyed a combination of high rainfall, humidity, heat, favorable winds, and fertile soil. These natural sources combined to generate an unusually prolific growth of rice and other plants and wildlife. This region's agricultural villages held well over 90 percent of the population. The high volume of rainy season water required villagers to concentrate their labor in managing floods, transplanting rice, and harvesting. These activities produced a cohesive village life with a religion in which one of the core values was the desire to live in harmony with nature and with other people. The way of life, centered in harmony, featured many enjoyable aspects that the people held beloved. Example included people not needing many material things, enjoyment of music and poetry, and living in harmony with nature. [18]

Fishing and hunting supplemented the main rice crop. Arrowheads and spears were dipped in poison to kill larger animals such as elephants. Betel nuts were widely chewed and the lower classes rarely wore clothing more substantial than a loincloth. Every spring, a fertility festival was held which featured huge parties and sexual abandon. Since around 2000 BC, stone hand tools and weapons improved extraordinarily in both quantity and variety. Pottery reached a higher level of technique and decoration style. The Vietnamese people were mainly agriculturists, growing the wet rice Oryza, which became the main staple of their diet. During the later stage of the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, the first appearance of bronze tools took place despite these tools still being rare. By about 1000 BC, bronze replaced stone for about 40 percent of edged tools and weapons, rising to about 60 percent. Here, there were not only bronze weapons, axes, and personal ornaments, but also sickles and other agriculture tools. Toward the closure of the Bronze Age, bronze accounts for more than 90 percent of tools and weapons, and there are exceptionally extravagant graves – the burial places of powerful chieftains – containing some hundreds of ritual and personal bronze artifacts such as musical instruments, bucket-shaped ladles, and ornament daggers. After 1000 BC, the ancient Vietnamese people became skilled agriculturalists as they grew rice and kept buffaloes and pigs. They were also skilled fishermen and bold sailors, whose long dug-out canoes traversed the eastern sea

Hồng Bàng dynasty Edit

According to a legend which first appeared in the 14th century book Lĩnh nam chích quái, the tribal chief Lộc Tục (c. 2919 – 2794 BC) proclaimed himself as Kinh Dương Vương and founded the state of Xích Quỷ in 2879 BC, that markes the beginning of the Hồng Bàng dynastic period. However, modern Vietnamese historians assume, that statehood was only developed in the Red River Delta by the second half of 1st millennium BC. Kinh Dương Vương was succeeded by Sùng Lãm (c. 2825 BC – ?). The next royal dynasty produced 18 monarchs, known as the Hùng Kings, who renamed their country Văn Lang. [19] The administrative system includes offices like Lạc tướng, Lạc hầu and Bố chính. [20] Great numbers of metal weapons and tools excavated at various Phung Nguyen culture sites in northern Indochina are associated with the beginning of the Copper Age in Southeast Asia. [21] Furthermore, the beginning of the Bronze Age has been verified for around 500 B.C. at Đông Sơn. The local Lạc Việt community had developed a highly sophisticated industry of quality bronze production, processing and the manufacturing of tools, weapons and exquisite Bronze drums. Certainly of symbolic value they were intended to be used for religious or ceremonial purposes. The craftsmen of these objects required refined skills in melting techniques, in the Lost-wax casting technique and acquired master skills of composition and execution for the elaborate engravings. [22] [23]

The Legend of Thánh Gióng tells of a youth, who leads the Văn Lang kingdom to victory against the Chinese invaders, saves the country and goes straight to heaven. [24] [25] He wears iron armor, rides an armored horse and wields an iron sword. [26] The image implies a society of a certain sophistication in metallurgy as well as An Dương Vương's Legend of the Magic Crossbow, a weapon, that can fire thousands of bolts simultaneously, seems to hint at the extensive use of archery in warfare. The about 1,000 traditional craft villages of the Hồng River Delta near and around Hanoi represented throughout more than 2,000 years of Vietnamese history the national industrial and economic backbone. [27] Countless, mostly small family run manufacturers have over the centuries preserved their ethnic ideas by producing highly sophisticated goods, built temples and dedicated ceremonies and festivals in an unbroken culture of veneration for these legendary popular spirits. [28] [29] [30]

Âu Lạc kingdom (257–179 BC) Edit

By the 3rd century BC, another Viet group, the Âu Việt, emigrated from present-day southern China to the Hồng River delta and mixed with the indigenous Văn Lang population. In 257 BC, a new kingdom, Âu Lạc, emerged as the union of the Âu Việt and the Lạc Việt, with Thục Phán proclaiming himself "An Dương Vương" ("King An Dương"). Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the Âu Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). [31]

After assembling an army, he defeated and overthrew the eighteenth dynasty of the Hùng kings, around 258 BC. He then renamed his newly acquired state from Văn Lang to Âu Lạc and established the new capital at Phong Khê in the present-day Phú Thọ town in northern Vietnam, where he tried to build the Cổ Loa Citadel (Cổ Loa Thành), the spiral fortress approximately ten miles north of that new capital. However, records showed that espionage resulted in the downfall of An Dương Vương. At his capital, Cổ Loa, he built many concentric walls around the city for defensive purposes. These walls, together with skilled Âu Lạc archers, kept the capital safe from invaders.

Nanyue (180 BC–111 BC) Edit

In 207 BC, the former Qin general Chao T'o (pinyin: Zhao Tuo) established an independent kingdom in the present-day Guangdong/Guangxi area of China's southern coast. [32] He proclaimed his new kingdom as Nam Việt (pinyin: Nanyue), to be ruled by the Triệu dynasty. [32] Triệu Đà later appointed himself a commandant of central Guangdong, closing the borders and conquering neighboring districts and titled himself "King of Nam Viet". [32] In 179 BC, he defeated King An Dương Vương and annexed Âu Lạc. [33]

The period has been given some controversial conclusions by Vietnamese historians, as some consider Triệu's rule as the starting point of the Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general whereas others consider it still an era of Vietnamese independence as the Triệu family in Nam Việt were assimilated into local culture. [34] They ruled independently of what then constituted the Han Empire. At one point, Triệu Đà even declared himself Emperor, equal to the Han Emperor in the north. [32]

First Chinese domination (111 BC–40 AD) Edit

In 111 BC, Han China invaded Nam Việt and established new territories, dividing Vietnam into Giao Chỉ (pinyin: Jiaozhi), now the Red River delta Cửu Chân from modern-day Thanh Hóa to Hà Tĩnh and Nhật Nam (pinyin: Rinan), from modern-day Quảng Bình to Huế. While governors and top officials were Chinese, the original Vietnamese nobles (Lạc Hầu, Lạc Tướng) from the Hồng Bàng period still managed in some of the highlands. During this period, Buddhism was introduced into Vietnam from India via the Maritime Silk Road, while Taoism and Confucianism spread to Vietnam through the Chinese rules. [35]

Trưng Sisters' rebellion (40–43) Edit

In February 40 AD, the Trưng Sisters led a successful revolt against Han Governor Su Dung (Vietnamese: Tô Định) and recaptured 65 states (including modern Guangxi).Trưng Trắc, angered by the killing of her husband by Su Dung, led the revolt together with her sister, Trưng Nhị. Trưng Trắc later became the Queen (Trưng Nữ Vương). In 43 AD, Emperor Guangwu of Han sent his famous general Ma Yuan (Vietnamese: Mã Viện) with a large army to quell the revolt. After a long, difficult campaign, Ma Yuan suppressed the uprising and the Trung Sisters committed suicide to avoid capture. To this day, the Trưng Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. [36]

Second Chinese domination (43–544) Edit

Learning a lesson from the Trưng revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. [37] The Vietnamese elites were educated in Chinese culture and politics. A Giao Chỉ prefect, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord for forty years and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese monarchs. [38] [39] Shi Xie pledged loyalty to Eastern Wu of the Three Kingdoms era of China. The Eastern Wu was a formative period in Vietnamese history. According to Stephen O'Harrow, Shi Xie was essentially "the first Vietnamese." [40] Nearly 200 years passed before the Vietnamese attempted another revolt. In 248 a Yue woman, Triệu Thị Trinh with her brother Triệu Quốc Đạt, popularly known as Lady Triệu (Bà Triệu), led a revolt against the Wu dynasty. Once again, the uprising failed. Eastern Wu sent Lu Yin and 8,000 elite soldiers to suppress the rebels. [41] He managed to pacify the rebels with a combination of threats and persuasion. According to the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (Complete Annals of Đại Việt), Lady Triệu had long hair that reached her shoulders and rode into battle on an elephant. After several months of warfare she was defeated and committed suicide. [42]

First Cham kingdom (192–629) Edit

At the same time, in present-day Central Vietnam, there was a successful revolt of Cham nations in 192. Chinese dynasties called it Lin-Yi (Lin village Vietnamese: Lâm Ấp). It later became a powerful kingdom, Champa, stretching from Quảng Bình to Phan Thiết (Bình Thuận).

Funan kingdom (68–550) Edit

In early first century AD, on the lower Mekong, the first Indianized kingdom of Southeast Asia which the Chinese called them Funan emerged and became the great economic power in the region, its capital Óc Eo attracted merchants from China, India and even Rome. The first ruler of Funan, Kaundinya I established relations with Imperial China. Funan is said to be the first Khmer state, otherwise Austronesian, or multiethnic. According to Chinese annals, the last king of Funan, Rudravarman (r. 514–545) sent many embassy to China. Also according to Chinese annals, Funan might have been conquered by another kingdom called Chenla around 627 AD, ended the kingdom of Funan. [43]

Kingdom of Vạn Xuân (544–602) Edit

In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation and the end of the Tang dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục. All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were those led by Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, who ruled the briefly independent Van Xuan kingdom for almost half a century, from 544 to 602, before Sui China reconquered the kingdom. [44]

Third Chinese domination (602–905 AD) Edit

During the Tang dynasty, northern Vietnam was put under Annan Protectorate from 679 AD to 866 AD. With its capital around modern Bắc Ninh, Annan became a flourishing trading outpost, receiving goods from the southern seas. Around the 7th century, the Vietic peoples (ancestors of the Vietnamese) probably migrated from the Annamites to the Red River Delta. From 858 to 864, Nanzhao army from Yunnan aided with local Vietnamese rebels attacked the Tang Annan and destroyed the Chinese army of 150,000. In 866, Chinese jiedushi Gao Pian recaptured the city and drove out the Nanzhao army. He renamed the city to Daluocheng (大羅城, Đại La thành).

In 866, Annan was renamed Tĩnh Hải quân. Early in the 10th century, as China became politically fragmented, successive lords from the Khúc clan, followed by Dương Đình Nghệ, ruled Tĩnh Hải quân autonomously under the Tang title of Jiedushi (Vietnamese: Tiết Độ Sứ), (governor), but stopped short of proclaiming themselves kings.

Autonomous era (905–938) Edit

Since 905, Tĩnh Hải circuit had been ruled by local Vietnamese governors like an autonomous state. [45] Tĩnh Hải circuit had to paid tributes for Later Liang dynasty to exchange political protection. [46] In 923, the nearby Southern Han invaded Jinghai but was repelled by Vietnamese leader Dương Đình Nghệ. [47] In 938, the Chinese state Southern Han once again sent a fleet to subdue the Vietnamese. General Ngô Quyền (r. 939–944), Dương Đình Nghệ's son-in-law, defeated the Southern Han fleet at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (938). He then proclaimed himself King Ngô, established a monarchy government in Cổ Loa and effectively began the age of independence for Vietnam.

The basic nature of Vietnamese society changed little during the nearly 1,000 years between independence from China in the 10th century and the French conquest in the 19th century. Viet Nam, named Dai Viet (Great Viet) was a stable nation, but village autonomy was a key feature. Villages had a unified culture centered around harmony related to the religion of the spirits of nature and the peaceful nature of Buddhism. While the king was the ultimate source of political authority, a saying was, "The King's Laws end at the village gate". The king was the final dispenser of justice, law, and supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, as well as overseer of religious rituals. Administration was carried out by mandarins who were trained exactly like their Chinese counterparts (i.e. by rigorous study of Confucian texts). Overall, Vietnam remained very efficiently and stably governed except in times of war and dynastic breakdown. Its administrative system was probably far more advanced than that of any other Southeast Asian states and was more highly centralized and stably governed among Asian states. No serious challenge to the king's authority ever arose, as titles of nobility were bestowed purely as honors and were not hereditary. Periodic land reforms broke up large estates and ensured that powerful landowners could not emerge. No religious/priestly class ever arose outside of the mandarins either. This stagnant absolutism ensured a stable, well-ordered society, but also resistance to social, cultural, or technological innovations. Reformers looked only to the past for inspiration. [48]

Literacy remained the province of the upper classes. Initially, Chinese was used for writing purposes, but by the 11th century, a set of derivative characters known as Chữ Nôm emerged that allowed native Vietnamese words to be written. However, it remained limited to poetry, literature, and practical texts like medicine while all state and official documents were written in Classical Chinese. Aside from some mining and fishing, agriculture was the primary activity of most Vietnamese, and economic development and trade were not promoted or encouraged by the state. [49]

Independent era (939–1407) Edit

Ngô, Đinh, & Early Lê dynasties (938–1009) Edit

Ngô Quyền in 939 declared himself king but died after only 5 years. His untimely death after a short reign resulted in a power struggle for the throne, resulting in the country's first major civil war, the upheaval of the Twelve Warlords (Loạn Thập Nhị Sứ Quân). The war lasted from 944 to 968 until the clan led by Đinh Bộ Lĩnh defeated the other warlords, unifying the country. [50] Đinh Bộ Lĩnh founded the Đinh dynasty and proclaimed himself Đinh Tiên Hoàng (Đinh the Majestic Emperor) and renamed the country from Tĩnh Hải quân to Đại Cồ Việt (literally "Great Viet"), with its capital in the city of Hoa Lư (modern-day Ninh Bình Province). The new emperor introduced strict penal codes to prevent chaos from happening again. He then tried to form alliances by granting the title of Queen to five women from the five most influential families. Đại La became the

In 979, Emperor Đinh Tiên Hoàng and his crown prince Đinh Liễn were assassinated by Đỗ Thích, a government official, leaving his lone surviving son, the 6-year-old Đinh Toàn, to assume the throne. Taking advantage of the situation, Song China invaded Đại Cồ Việt. Facing such a grave threat to national independence, the commander of the armed forces, (Thập Đạo Tướng Quân) Lê Hoàn took the throne, replaced the house of Đinh and established the house of Lê. A capable military tactician, Lê Hoan realized the risks of engaging the mighty Song troops head on thus he tricked the invading army into Chi Lăng Pass, then ambushed and killed their commander, quickly ending the threat to his young nation in 981. The Song dynasty withdrew their troops and Lê Hoàn was referred to in his realm as Emperor Đại Hành (Đại Hành Hoàng Đế). [51] Emperor Lê Đại Hành was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa.

Emperor Lê Đại Hành's death in 1005 resulted in infighting for the throne amongst his sons. The eventual winner, Lê Long Đĩnh, became the most notorious tyrant in Vietnamese history. He devised sadistic punishments of prisoners for his own entertainment and indulged in deviant sexual activities. Toward the end of his short life – he died at the age of 24. Lê Long Đĩnh had become so ill that he had to lie down when meeting with his officials in court. [52]

Lý dynasty, Trần dynasty & Hồ dynasty (1009–1407) Edit

When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009, a palace guard commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. [53] This event is regarded as the beginning of another golden era in Vietnamese history, with the following dynasties inheriting the Lý dynasty's prosperity and doing much to maintain and expand it. The way Lý Công Uẩn ascended to the throne was rather uncommon in Vietnamese history. As a high-ranking military commander residing in the capital, he had all opportunities to seize power during the tumultuous years after Emperor Lê Hoàn's death, yet preferring not to do so out of his sense of duty. He was in a way being "elected" by the court after some debate before a consensus was reached. [54]

The Lý monarchs are credited for laying down a concrete foundation for the nation of Vietnam. In 1010, Lý Công Uẩn issued the Edict on the Transfer of the Capital, moving the capital Đại Cồ Việt from Hoa Lư, a natural fortification surrounded by mountains and rivers, to the new capital in present-day Hanoi, Đại La, which was later renamed Thăng Long (Ascending Dragon) by Lý Công Uẩn, after allegedly seeing a dragon flying upwards when he arrived at the capital. [55] [56] Moving the capital, Lý Công Uẩn thus departed from the militarily defensive mentality of his predecessors and envisioned a strong economy as the key to national survival. The third emperor of the dynasty, Lý Thánh Tông renamed the country "Đại Việt" (大越, Great Viet). [57] Successive Lý emperors continued to accomplish far-reaching feats: building a dike system to protect rice farms founding the Quốc Tử Giám [58] the first noble university and establishing court examination systemm to select capable commoners for government positions once every three years organizing a new system of taxation [59] establishing humane treatment of prisoners. Women were holding important roles in Lý society as the court ladies were in charge of tax collection. Neighboring Dali kingdom's Vajrayana Buddhism traditions also had influences on Vietnamese beliefs at the time. Lý kings adopted both Buddhism and Taoism as state religions. [60]

The Vietnamese during Lý dynasty had one major war with Song China, and a few invasive campaigns against neighboring Champa in the south. [61] [62] The most notable conflict took place on Chinese territory Guangxi in Late 1075. Upon learning that a Song invasion was imminent, the Vietnamese army under the command of Lý Thường Kiệt, and Tông Đản used amphibious operations to preemptively destroy three Song military installations at Yongzhou, Qinzhou, and Lianzhou in present-day Guangdong and Guangxi, and killed 100,000 Chinese. [63] [64] The Song dynasty took revenge and invaded Đại Việt in 1076, but the Song troops were held back at the Battle of Như Nguyệt River commonly known as the Cầu river, now in Bắc Ninh province about 40 km from the current capital, Hanoi. Neither side was able to force a victory, so the Vietnamese court proposed a truce, which the Song emperor accepted. [65] Champa and the powerful Khmer Empire took advantage of Đại Việt's distraction with the Song to pillage Đại Việt's southern provinces. Together they invaded Đại Việt in 1128 and 1132. [66] Further invasions followed in the subsequent decades. [67]

Toward the declining Lý monarch's power in late 12th century, the Trần clan from Nam Định eventually rise to power. [68] In 1224, powerful court minister Trần Thủ Độ forced the emperor Lý Huệ Tông to become a Buddhist monk and Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Huệ Tông's 8-year-old young daughter, to become ruler of the country. [69] Trần Thủ Độ then arranged the marriage of Chiêu Hoàng to his nephew Trần Cảnh and eventually had the throne transferred to Trần Cảnh, thus begun the Trần dynasty. [70]

Trần Thủ Độ viciously purged members of the Lý nobility some Lý princes escaped to Korea, including Lý Long Tường. After the purge, the Trần emperors ruled the country in similar manner to the Lý kings. Noted Trần monarch accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. The Trần dynasty also adopted a unique way to train new emperors: when a crown prince reached the age of 18, his predecessor would abdicate and turn the throne over to him, yet holding the title of Retired Emperor (Thái Thượng Hoàng), acting as a mentor to the new Emperor.

During the Trần dynasty, the armies of the Mongol Empire under Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan invaded Annam in 1258, 1285, and 1287-88. Annam repelled all attacks of the Yuan Mongols during the reign of Kublai Khan. Three Mongol armies said to have numbered from 300,000 to 500,000 men were defeated. [ disputed – discuss ] The key to Annam's successes was to avoid the Mongols' strength in open field battles and city sieges—the Trần court abandoned the capital and the cities. The Mongols were then countered decisively at their weak points, which were battles in swampy areas such as Chương Dương, Hàm Tử, Vạn Kiếp and on rivers such as Vân Đồn and Bạch Đằng. The Mongols also suffered from tropical diseases and loss of supplies to Trần army's raids. The Yuan-Trần war reached its climax when the retreating Yuan fleet was decimated at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288). The military architect behind Annam's victories was Commander Trần Quốc Tuấn, more popularly known as Trần Hưng Đạo. In order to avoid further disastrous campaigns, the Tran and Champa acknowledged Mongol supremacy. [ citation needed ]

In 1288, Venetian explorer Marco Polo visited Champa and Đại Việt.

It was also during this period that the Vietnamese waged war against the southern kingdom of Champa, continuing the Vietnamese long history of southern expansion (known as Nam tiến) that had begun shortly after gaining independence in the 10th century. Often, they encountered strong resistance from the Chams. After the successful alliance with Champa during the Mongol invasion, king Trần Nhân Tông of Đại Việt gained two Champa provinces, located around present-day Huế, through the peaceful means of the political marriage of Princess Huyền Trân to Cham king Jaya Simhavarman III. Not long after the nuptials, the king died, and the princess returned to her northern home in order to avoid a Cham custom that would have required her to join her husband in death. [71] Champa was made a tributary state of Vietnam in 1312, but ten years later they regained independence and eventually waged a 30-years long war against the Vietnamese, in order to regain these lands and encouraged by the decline of Đại Việt in the course of the 14th century. Cham troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar, r. 1360 - 1390) killed king Trần Duệ Tông through a battle in Vijaya (1377). [72] Multiple Cham northward invasions from 1371 to 1390 put Vietnamese capital Thăng Long and Vietnamese economy in destruction. [73] However, in 1390 the Cham naval offensive against Hanoi was halted by the Vietnamese general Trần Khát Chân, whose soldiers made use of cannons. [74]

The wars with Champa and the Mongols left Đại Việt exhausted and bankrupt. The Trần family was in turn overthrown by one of its own court officials, Hồ Quý Ly. Hồ Quý Ly forced the last Trần emperor to abdicate and assumed the throne in 1400. He changed the country name to Đại Ngu and moved the capital to Tây Đô, Western Capital, now Thanh Hóa. Thăng Long was renamed Đông Đô, Eastern Capital. Although widely blamed for causing national disunity and losing the country later to the Ming Empire, Hồ Quý Ly's reign actually introduced a lot of progressive, ambitious reforms, including the addition of mathematics to the national examinations, the open critique of Confucian philosophy, the use of paper currency in place of coins, investment in building large warships and cannons, and land reform. He ceded the throne to his son, Hồ Hán Thương, in 1401 and assumed the title Thái Thượng Hoàng, in similar manner to the Trần kings. [75]

Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427) Edit

In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần monarchs, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. [76] The Hồ family came to an end after only 7 years in power. The Ming occupying force annexed Đại Ngu into the Ming Empire after claiming that there was no heir to Trần throne. Vietnam, weakened by dynastic feuds and the wars with Champa, quickly succumbed. The Ming conquest was harsh. Vietnam was annexed directly as a province of China, the old policy of cultural assimilation again imposed forcibly, and the country was ruthlessly exploited. [77] However, by this time, Vietnamese nationalism had reached a point where attempts to sinicize them could only strengthen further resistance. Almost immediately, Trần loyalists started a resistance war. The resistance, under the leadership of Trần Quý Khoáng at first gained some advances, yet as Trần Quý Khoáng executed two top commanders out of suspicion, a rift widened within his ranks and resulted in his defeat in 1413. [78]

Restored era (1428–1527) Edit

Later Lê dynasty – primitive period (1427–1527) Edit

In 1418, Lê Lợi was the son of a wealthy aristocrat in Thanh Hóa, led the Lam Sơn uprising against the Ming from his base of Lam Sơn (Thanh Hóa province). Overcoming many early setbacks and with strategic advice from Nguyễn Trãi, Lê Lợi's movement finally gathered momentum. In September 1426, the Lam Sơn rebellion marched northward, ultimately defeated the Ming army in the Battle of Tốt Động – Chúc Động in south of Hanoi by using cannons. [79] Then Lê Lợi's forces launched a siege at Đông Quan (now Hanoi), the capital of the Ming occupation. The Xuande Emperor of Ming China responded by sent two reinforcement forces of 122,000 men, but Lê Lợi staged an ambush and killed the Ming commander Liu Shan in Chi Lăng. [78] Ming troops at Đông Quan surrendered. The Lam Sơn rebels defeated 200,000 Ming soldiers. [80]

In 1428, Lê Lợi reestablished the independent of Vietnam under his House of Lê. Lê Lợi renamed the country back to Đại Việt and moved the capital back to Thăng Long, renamed it Đông Kinh. In 1429, he introduced the Thuận Thiên code, largely based on the Tang Code, with severe charges for gambling, bribery and corruption. [81] [82] Lê Lợi granted a land reform in 1429 that took lands from people who collaborated with the Chinese and distributed them among landless peasants and soldiers. With his reform, national economy, commerce, trade and private industries were well-revived. Vietnamese merchants were actively in the South China sea maritime trading networks with their bases in Chu Đậu and Vân Đồn. Modern archaeological evidence of 14th-17th century Vietnamese goods in the Southeast Asian countries of Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, even in Japan and Turkey, proven the presences of these trading networks as Vietnam was a regional and international ceramic and silk manufacturer at the time. [83] [84] [85] From 1428, Vietnam entered the Early modern Era. [86]

The Lê emperors carried out land reforms to revitalize the economy after the war. Unlike the Lý and Trần kings, who were more influenced by Buddhism, the Lê emperors leaned toward Confucianism. A comprehensive set of laws, the Hồng Đức code was introduced in 1483 with some strong Confucian elements, yet also included some progressive rules, such as the rights of women. Art and architecture during the Lê dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during previous Lý and Trần dynasties. The Lê dynasty commissioned the drawing of national maps and had Ngô Sĩ Liên continue the task of writing Đại Việt's history up to the time of Lê Lợi. Emperor Lê Thánh Tông opened hospitals and had officials distribute medicines to areas affected with epidemics.

Overpopulation and land shortages stimulated a Vietnamese expansion south. In 1471, Le troops led by Emperor Lê Thánh Tông invaded Champa and captured its capital Vijaya. This event effectively ended Champa as a powerful kingdom, although some smaller surviving Cham states lasted for a few centuries more. It initiated the dispersal of the Cham people across Southeast Asia. With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. However, despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Vietnamese settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and they are now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. Vietnamese armies also raided the Mekong Delta, which the decaying Khmer Empire could no longer defend. The city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood. In 1479, Lê Thánh Tông also campaigned against Laos in the Vietnamese–Lao War and captured its capital Luang Prabang, in which later the city was totally ransacked and destroyed by the Vietnamese. He made further incursions westwards into the Irrawaddy River region in modern-day Burma before withdrawing. After the death of Lê Thánh Tông, Vietnam fell into a swift decline (1497–1527), with 6 rulers in within 30 years of failing economy, natural disasters and rebellions raged through the country. European traders and missionaries, reaching Vietnam in the midst of the Age of Discovery, were at first Portuguese, and started spreading Christianity since 1533. [87]

Decentralized period (1527–1802) Edit

Mạc & Later Lê dynasties – restored period (1527–1788) Edit

The Lê dynasty was overthrown by its general named Mạc Đăng Dung in 1527. He killed the Lê emperor and proclaimed himself emperor, starting the Mạc dynasty. After defeating many revolutions for two years, Mạc Đăng Dung adopted the Trần dynasty's practice and ceded the throne to his son, Mạc Đăng Doanh, and he became Thái Thượng Hoàng.

Meanwhile, Nguyễn Kim, a former official in the Lê court, revolted against the Mạc and helped king Lê Trang Tông restore the Lê court in the Thanh Hóa area. Thus a civil war began between the Northern Court (Mạc) and the Southern Court (Restored Lê). Nguyễn Kim's side controlled the southern part of Annam (from Thanhhoa to the south), leaving the north (including Đông Kinh-Hanoi) under Mạc control. [88] When Nguyễn Kim was assassinated in 1545, military power fell into the hands of his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm. In 1558, Nguyễn Kim's son, Nguyễn Hoàng, suspecting that Trịnh Kiểm might kill him as he had done to his brother to secure power, asked to be governor of the far south provinces around present-day Quảng Bình to Bình Định. Hoàng pretended to be insane, so Kiểm was fooled into thinking that sending Hoàng south was a good move as Hoàng would be quickly killed in the lawless border regions. [89] However, Hoàng governed the south effectively while Trịnh Kiểm, and then his son Trịnh Tùng, carried on the war against the Mạc. Nguyễn Hoàng sent money and soldiers north to help the war but gradually he became more and more independent, transforming their realm's economic fortunes by turning it into an international trading post. [89]

The civil war between the Lê-Trịnh and Mạc dynasties ended in 1592, when the army of Trịnh Tùng conquered Hanoi and executed king Mạc Mậu Hợp. Survivors of the Mạc royal family fled to the northern mountains in the province of Cao Bằng and continued to rule there until 1677 when Trịnh Tạc conquered this last Mạc territory. The Lê monarchs, ever since Nguyễn Kim's restoration, only acted as figureheads. After the fall of the Mạc dynasty, all real power in the north belonged to the Trịnh lords. Meanwhile, the Ming court reluctantly decided on a military intervention into the Vietnamese civil war, but Mạc Đăng Dung offered ritual submission to the Ming Empire, which was accepted. Since late 16th century, trades and contacts between Japan and Vietnam increased as they established relationship in 1591. [90] The Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan and governor Nguyễn Hoàng of Quảng Nam exchanged total 34 letters from 1589 to 1612, and a Japanese town was established in the city of Hội An in 1604. [90]

Trịnh & Nguyễn lords Edit

In the year 1600, Nguyễn Hoàng also declared himself Lord (officially "Vương", popularly "Chúa") and refused to send more money or soldiers to help the Trịnh. He also moved his capital to Phú Xuân, modern-day Huế. Nguyễn Hoàng died in 1613 after having ruled the south for 55 years. He was succeeded by his 6th son, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, who likewise refused to acknowledge the power of the Trịnh, yet still pledged allegiance to the Lê monarch. [91]

Trịnh Tráng succeeded Trịnh Tùng, his father, upon his death in 1623. Tráng ordered Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên to submit to his authority. The order was refused twice. In 1627, Trịnh Tráng sent 150,000 troops southward in an unsuccessful military campaign. The Trịnh were much stronger, with a larger population, economy and army, but they were unable to vanquish the Nguyễn, who had built two defensive stone walls and invested in Portuguese artillery.

The Trịnh–Nguyễn War lasted from 1627 until 1672. The Trịnh army staged at least seven offensives, all of which failed to capture Phú Xuân. For a time, starting in 1651, the Nguyễn themselves went on the offensive and attacked parts of Trịnh territory. However, the Trịnh, under a new leader, Trịnh Tạc, forced the Nguyễn back by 1655. After one last offensive in 1672, Trịnh Tạc agreed to a truce with the Nguyễn Lord Nguyễn Phúc Tần. The country was effectively divided in two.

Advent of Europeans & southward expansion Edit

The West's exposure to Annam and Annamese exposure to Westerners dated back to 166 AD [92] with the arrival of merchants from the Roman Empire, to 1292 with the visit of Marco Polo, and the early 16th century with the arrival of Portuguese in 1516 and other European traders and missionaries. [92] Alexandre de Rhodes, a Jesuit priest from the Papal States, improved on earlier work by Portuguese missionaries and developed the Vietnamese romanized alphabet chữ Quốc ngữ in Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum in 1651. [93] Jesuits in the 17th century established a firm foundation of Christianity in both domains of Đàng Ngoài (Tonkin) and Đàng Trong (Cochinchina). [94] Various European efforts to establish trading posts in Vietnam failed, but missionaries were allowed to operate for some time until the mandarins began concluding that Christianity (which had succeeded in converting up to a tenth of the population by 1700) was a threat to the Confucian social order since it condemned ancestor worship as idolatry. Vietnamese authorities' attitudes to Europeans and Christianity hardened as they began to increasingly see it as a way of undermining society.

Between 1627 and 1775, two powerful families had partitioned the country: the Nguyễn lords ruled the South and the Trịnh lords ruled the North. The Trịnh–Nguyễn War gave European traders the opportunities to support each side with weapons and technology: the Portuguese assisted the Nguyễn in the South while the Dutch helped the Trịnh in the North. The Trịnh and the Nguyễn maintained a relative peace for the next hundred years, during which both sides made significant accomplishments. The Trịnh created centralized government offices in charge of state budget and producing currency, unified the weight units into a decimal system, established printing shops to reduce the need to import printed materials from China, opened a military academy, and compiled history books.

Meanwhile, the Nguyễn lords continued the southward expansion by the conquest of the remaining Cham land. Việt settlers also arrived in the sparsely populated area known as "Water Chenla", which was the lower Mekong Delta portion of the former Khmer Empire. Between the mid-17th century to mid-18th century, as the former Khmer Empire was weakened by internal strife and Siamese invasions, the Nguyễn Lords used various means, political marriage, diplomatic pressure, political and military favors, to gain the area around present-day Saigon and the Mekong Delta. The Nguyễn army at times also clashed with the Siamese army to establish influence over the former Khmer Empire.

Tây Sơn dynasty (1778–1802) Edit

In 1771, the Tây Sơn revolution broke out in Quy Nhơn, which was under the control of the Nguyễn lord. [95] The leaders of this revolution were three brothers named Nguyễn Nhạc, Nguyễn Lữ, and Nguyễn Huệ, not related to the Nguyễn lord's family. In 1773, Tây Sơn rebels took Quy Nhơn as the capital of the revolution. Tây Sơn brothers' forces attracted many poor peasants, workers, Christians, ethnic minorities in the Central Highlands and Cham people who had been oppressed by the Nguyễn Lord for a long time, [96] and also attracted to ethnic Chinese merchant class, who hope the Tây Sơn revolt will spare down the heavy tax policy of the Nguyễn Lord, however their contributions later were limited due to Tây Sơn's nationalist anti-Chinese sentiment. [95] By 1776, the Tây Sơn had occupied all of the Nguyễn Lord's land and killed almost the entire royal family. The surviving prince Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (often called Nguyễn Ánh) fled to Siam, and obtained military support from the Siamese king. Nguyễn Ánh came back with 50,000 Siamese troops to regain power, but was defeated at the Battle of Rạch Gầm–Xoài Mút and almost killed. Nguyễn Ánh fled Vietnam, but he did not give up. [97]

The Tây Sơn army commanded by Nguyễn Huệ marched north in 1786 to fight the Trịnh Lord, Trịnh Khải. The Trịnh army failed and Trịnh Khải committed suicide. The Tây Sơn army captured the capital in less than two months. The last Lê emperor, Lê Chiêu Thống, fled to Qing China and petitioned the Qianlong Emperor in 1788 for help. The Qianlong Emperor supplied Lê Chiêu Thống with a massive army of around 200,000 troops to regain his throne from the usurper. In December 1788, Nguyễn Huệ–the third Tây Sơn brother–proclaimed himself Emperor Quang Trung and defeated the Qing troops with 100,000 men in a surprise 7 day campaign during the lunar new year (Tết). There was even a rumor saying that Quang Trung had also planned to conquer China, although it was unclear. During his reign, Quang Trung envisioned many reforms but died by unknown reason on the way march south in 1792, at the age of 40. During the reign of Emperor Quang Trung, Đại Việt was in fact divided into three political entities. [98] The Tây Sơn leader, Nguyễn Nhạc, ruled the centre of the country from his capital Qui Nhơn. Emperor Quang Trung ruled the north from the capital Phú Xuân Huế. In the South. He officially funded and trained the Pirates of the South China Coast – one of the most strongest and feared pirate army in the world late 18th century–early 19th century. [99] Nguyễn Ánh, assisted by many talented recruits from the South, captured Gia Định (present-day Saigon) in 1788 and established a strong base for his force. [100]

In 1784, during the conflict between Nguyễn Ánh, the surviving heir of the Nguyễn lords, and the Tây Sơn dynasty, a French Roman Catholic prelate, Pigneaux de Behaine, sailed to France to seek military backing for Nguyễn Ánh. At Louis XVI's court, Pigneaux brokered the Little Treaty of Versailles which promised French military aid in exchange for Vietnamese concessions. However, because of the French Revolution, Pigneaux's plan failed to materialize. He went to the French territory of Pondichéry (India), and secured two ships, a regiment of Indian troops, and a handful of volunteers and returned to Vietnam in 1788. One of Pigneaux's volunteers, Jean-Marie Dayot, reorganized Nguyễn Ánh's navy along European lines and defeated the Tây Sơn at Qui Nhơn in 1792. A few years later, Nguyễn Ánh's forces captured Saigon, where Pigneaux died in 1799. Another volunteer, Victor Olivier de Puymanel would later build the Gia Định fort in central Saigon. [ citation needed ]

After Quang Trung's death in September 1792, the Tây Sơn court became unstable as the remaining brothers fought against each other and against the people who were loyal to Nguyễn Huệ's young son. Quang Trung's 10-years-old son Nguyễn Quang Toản succeeded the throne, became Cảnh Thịnh Emperor, the third ruler of the Tây Sơn dynasty. In the South, lord Nguyễn Ánh and the Nguyễn royalists were assisted with French, Chinese, Siamese and Christian supports, sailed north in 1799, capturing Tây Sơn's stronghold Qui Nhơn. [102] In 1801, his force took Phú Xuân, the Tây Sơn capital. Nguyễn Ánh finally won the war in 1802, when he sieged Thăng Long (Hanoi) and executed Nguyễn Quang Toản, along with many Tây Sơn royals, generals and officials. Nguyễn Ánh ascended the throne and called himself Emperor Gia Long. Gia is for Gia Định, the old name of Saigon Long is for Thăng Long, the old name of Hanoi. Hence Gia Long implied the unification of the country. The Nguyễn dynasty lasted until Bảo Đại's abdication in 1945. As China for centuries had referred to Đại Việt as Annam, Gia Long asked the Manchu Qing emperor to rename the country, from Annam to Nam Việt. To prevent any confusion of Gia Long's kingdom with Triệu Đà's ancient kingdom, the Manchu emperor reversed the order of the two words to Việt Nam. The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long's reign. Recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese referred to their country as Vietnam. [ citation needed ] [ when? ]

The Period of Division with its many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse, including the epic poem The Tale of Kiều (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier's Wife (Chinh Phụ Ngâm) by Đặng Trần Côn and Đoàn Thị Điểm, and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by a female poet, Hồ Xuân Hương.

Unified era (1802–1858) Edit

Nguyễn dynasty (1802–1945) Edit

After Nguyễn Ánh established the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802, he tolerated Catholicism and employed some Europeans in his court as advisors. His successors were more conservative Confucians and resisted Westernization. The next Nguyễn emperors, Minh Mạng, Thiệu Trị, and Tự Đức brutally suppressed Catholicism and pursued a 'closed door' policy, perceiving the Westerners as a threat, following events such as the Lê Văn Khôi revolt when a French missionary, Fr. Joseph Marchand, was accused of encouraging local Catholics to revolt in an attempt to install a Catholic emperor. Catholics, both Vietnamese and foreign-born, were persecuted in retaliation. Trade with the West slowed during this period. There were frequent uprisings against the Nguyễns, with hundreds of such events being recorded in the annals. These acts were soon being used as excuses for France to invade Vietnam. The early Nguyễn dynasty had engaged in many of the constructive activities of its predecessors, building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, and exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos. [ citation needed ]

Relations with China Edit

According to a 2018 study in the Journal of Conflict Resolution covering Vietnam-China relations from 1365 to 1841, the relations could be characterized as a "hierarchic tributary system". [103] The study found that "the Vietnamese court explicitly recognized its unequal status in its relations with China through a number of institutions and norms. Vietnamese rulers also displayed very little military attention to their relations with China. Rather, Vietnamese leaders were clearly more concerned with quelling chronic domestic instability and managing relations with kingdoms to their south and west." [103]

French invasions and decline Edit

The French colonial empire was heavily involved in Vietnam in the 19th century often French intervention was undertaken in order to protect the work of the Paris Foreign Missions Society in the country. In response to many incidents in which Catholic missionaries were persecuted, harassed and in some executed, and also to expand French influence in Asia, Napoleon III of France ordered Rigault de Genouilly with 14 French gunships to attack the port of Đà Nẵng (Tourane) in 1858. The attack caused significant damage, yet failed to gain any foothold, in the process being afflicted by the humidity and tropical diseases. De Genouilly decided to sail south and captured the poorly defended city of Gia Định (present-day Ho Chi Minh City). From 1859 to 1867, French troops expanded their control over all six provinces on the Mekong delta and formed a colony known as Cochinchina.

A few years later, French troops landed in northern Vietnam (which they called Tonkin) and captured Hà Nội twice in 1873 and 1882. The French managed to keep their grip on Tonkin although, twice, their top commanders Francis Garnier and Henri Rivière, were ambushed and killed fighting pirates of the Black Flag Army hired by the mandarins. France assumed control over the whole of Vietnam after the Tonkin Campaign (1883–1886). French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam (Trung Kỳ, central Vietnam), Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ, northern Vietnam), Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ, southern Vietnam, and Cambodia, with Laos added in 1893). Within French Indochina, Cochinchina had the status of a colony, Annam was nominally a protectorate where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled, and Tonkin had a French governor with local governments run by Vietnamese officials. [ citation needed ]

Colonial era (1858–1945) Edit

After Gia Định fell to French troops, many resistance movements broke out in occupied areas, some led by former court officers, such as Trương Định, some by farmers and other rural people, such as Nguyễn Trung Trực, who sank the French gunship L'Esperance using guerilla tactics. In the north, most movements were led by former court officers, and fighters were from the rural population. Sentiment against the invasion ran deep in the countryside—well over 90 percent of the population—because the French seized and exported most of the rice, creating widespread malnutrition from the 1880s onward. And, an ancient tradition existed of repelling all invaders. These were two reasons that the vast majority opposed the French invasion. [104] [105]

Some of the resistance movements lasted decades, with Phan Đình Phùng fighting in central Vietnam until 1895, and in the northern mountains, former bandit leader Hoàng Hoa Thám fought until 1911. Even the teenage Nguyễn Emperor Hàm Nghi left the Imperial Palace of Huế in 1885 with regent Tôn Thất Thuyết and started the Cần Vương ("Save the King") movement, trying to rally the people to resist the French. He was captured in 1888 and exiled to French Algeria.

During this period, many Catholic converts collaborated with the French. This gave Catholics “an aura of subversion and treachery,” stated Neil Sheehan in A Bright Shining Lie, and people who sided with the French were called “country sellers.” By siding with the invaders, Catholics gained “the impression of being a foreign body,” said cultural expert Huu Ngoc. Catholics assisted, Jean Chesneaux wrote, in “breaking tihe isolation of the French troops.” Likewise, Paul Isoart reported: “The insurrection in Annam was liquidated thanks to the information the French received from the Vietnamese Catholics.” Some information was obtained in confessionals. Vicar Paul Francois Puginier of Ha Noi sent regular reports to secular authorities, including information about unrest and possible uprisings. [106]

The invaders seized many farmlands and gave them to Frenchmen and collaborators, who were usually Catholics. By 1898, these seizures created a large class of poor people with little or no land, and a small class of wealthy landowners dependent on the French. In 1905, a Frenchman observed that “Traditional Annamite society, so well organized to satisfy the needs of the people has, in the final analysis, been destroyed by us.” This split in society lasted into the war in the 1960s. [107]

Guerrillas of the Cần Vương movement killed around a third of Vietnam's Christian population during the resistance war. [108] Decades later, two more Nguyễn kings, Thành Thái and Duy Tân were also exiled to Africa for having anti-French tendencies. The former was deposed on the pretext of insanity and Duy Tân was caught in a conspiracy with the mandarin Trần Cao Vân trying to start an uprising. However, lack of modern weapons and equipment prevented these resistance movements from being able to engage the French in open combat. The various anti-French started by mandarins were carried out with the primary goal of restoring the old feudal society. However, by 1900 a new generation of Vietnamese were coming of age who had never lived in precolonial Vietnam. These young activists were as eager as their grandparents to see independence restored, but they realized that returning to the feudal order was not feasible and that modern technology and governmental systems were needed. Having been exposed to Western philosophy, they aimed to establish a republic upon independence, departing from the royalist sentiments of the Cần Vương movements. Some of them set up Vietnamese independence societies in Japan, which many viewed as a model society (i.e. an Asian nation that had modernized, but retained its own culture and institutions). [ citation needed ]

There emerged two parallel movements of modernization. The first was the Đông Du ("Travel to the East") Movement started in 1905 by Phan Bội Châu. Châu's plan was to send Vietnamese students to Japan to learn modern skills, so that in the future they could lead a successful armed revolt against the French. With Prince Cường Để, he started two organizations in Japan: Duy Tân Hội and Việt Nam Công Hiến Hội. Due to French diplomatic pressure, Japan later deported Châu. Phan Châu Trinh, who favored a peaceful, non-violent struggle to gain independence, led a second movement, Duy Tân (Modernization), which stressed education for the masses, modernizing the country, fostering understanding and tolerance between the French and the Vietnamese, and peaceful transitions of power. The early part of the 20th century saw the growing in status of the Romanized Quốc Ngữ alphabet for the Vietnamese language. Vietnamese patriots realized the potential of Quốc Ngữ as a useful tool to quickly reduce illiteracy and to educate the masses. The traditional Chinese scripts or the Nôm script were seen as too cumbersome and too difficult to learn. The use of prose in literature also became popular with the appearance of many novels most famous were those from the Tự Lực Văn Đoàn literary circle. [ citation needed ]

As the French suppressed both movements, and after witnessing revolutionaries in action in China and Russia, Vietnamese revolutionaries began to turn to more radical paths. Phan Bội Châu created the Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội in Guangzhou, planning armed resistance against the French. In 1925, French agents captured him in Shanghai and spirited him to Vietnam. Due to his popularity, Châu was spared from execution and placed under house arrest until his death in 1940. In 1927, the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (Vietnamese Nationalist Party), modeled after the Kuomintang in China, was founded, and the party launched the armed Yên Bái mutiny in 1930 in Tonkin which resulted in its chairman, Nguyễn Thái Học and many other leaders captured and executed by the guillotine. [ citation needed ]

Marxism was also introduced into Vietnam with the emergence of three separate Communist parties the Indochinese Communist Party, Annamese Communist Party and the Indochinese Communist Union, joined later by a Trotskyist movement led by Tạ Thu Thâu. In 1930, the Communist International (Comintern) sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to Hong Kong to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party (CPV) with Trần Phú as the first Secretary General. Later the party changed its name to the Indochinese Communist Party as the Comintern, under Stalin, did not favor nationalistic sentiments. Being a leftist revolutionary living in France since 1911, Nguyễn Ái Quốc participated in founding the French Communist Party and in 1924 traveled to the Soviet Union to join the Comintern. Through the late 1920s, he acted as a Comintern agent to help build Communist movements in Southeast Asia. During the 1930s, the CPV was nearly wiped out under French suppression with the execution of top leaders such as Phú, Lê Hồng Phong, and Nguyễn Văn Cừ. [ citation needed ]

During World War II, Japan invaded Indochina in 1940, keeping the Vichy French colonial administration in place as a puppet. In 1941 Nguyễn Ái Quốc, now known as Hồ Chí Minh, arrived in northern Vietnam to form the Việt Minh Front, and it was supposed to be an umbrella group for all parties fighting for Vietnam's independence, but was dominated by the Communist Party. The Việt Minh had a modest armed force and during the war worked with the American Office of Strategic Services to collect intelligence on the Japanese.

On March 9, 1945, the Japanese removed Vichy France's control of Indochina, and created the short-lived Empire of Vietnam with Bảo Đại as the emperor. A famine broke out in 1944–45, leaving from 600,000 to 2,000,000 dead. [109]

Japan's defeat by the World War II Allies created a power vacuum for Vietnamese nationalists of all parties to seize power in August 1945, forcing Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate and ending the Nguyễn dynasty. On September 2, 1945, Hồ Chí Minh read the Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Ba Đình flower garden, now known as Ba Đình square, officially creating the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Their success in staging uprisings and in seizing control of most of the country by September 1945 was partially undone, however, by the return of the French a few months later.

Republican era (1945–present) Edit

Warring era (1945–76) Edit

In September 1945, Hồ Chí Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and held the position of chairman (Chủ Tịch). Communist rule was cut short, however, by Allied occupation forces whose presence tended to support the Communist Party's political opponents. In 1946, Vietnam had its first National Assembly election (won by the Viet Minh in central and northern Vietnam [110] ), which drafted the first constitution, but the situation was still precarious: the French tried to regain power by force some Cochinchinese politicians formed a seceding government the Republic of Cochinchina (Cộng hòa Nam Kỳ) while the non-Communist and Communist forces were engaging each other in sporadic battle. Stalinists purged Trotskyists. Religious sects and resistance groups formed their own militias. The Communists eventually suppressed all non-Communist parties but failed to secure a peace deal with France. [ citation needed ]

Full-scale war broke out between the Việt Minh and France in late 1946 and the First Indochina War officially began. Realizing that colonialism was coming to an end worldwide, France decided to bring former emperor Bảo Đại back to power, as a political alternative to Ho Chi Minh. A Provisional Central Government was formed in 1948, reuniting Annam and Tonkin, but the complete reunification of Vietnam was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchina's legal status. In July 1949, the State of Vietnam was officially proclaimed, as a semi-independent country within the French Union, with Bảo Đại as Head of State. France was finally persuaded to relinquish its colonies in Indochina in 1954 when Viet Minh forces defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu. The 1954 Geneva Conference left Vietnam a divided nation, with Hồ Chí Minh's communist DRV government ruling the North from Hanoi and Ngô Đình Diệm's Republic of Vietnam, supported by the United States, ruling the South from Saigon. Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression. During the land reform, testimony from North Vietnamese witnesses suggested a ratio of one execution for every 160 village residents, which extrapolated nationwide would indicate nearly 100,000 executions. Because the campaign was concentrated mainly in the Red River Delta area, a lower estimate of 50,000 executions became widely accepted by scholars at the time. [111] [112] [113] [114] However, declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500. [115] In the South, Diem went about crushing political and religious opposition, imprisoning or killing of thousands. [116]

Along with the split between northern and southern Vietnam in geographical territory came the divergence in their distinctive choices for institutional political structure. Northern Vietnam (Dai Viet) opted for a centralized bureaucratic regime while the southern is based on a patron-client mechanism heavily relied on personalized rule. During this period, due to this structural difference, the north and south revealed different patterns in their economic activities, the long-term effect of which still persist up to today. Citizens that have previously lived in the bureaucratic state are more likely to have higher household consumption and get more engaged in civic activities the state itself tends to have the stronger fiscal capacity for taxation inherited from the previous institution.

As a result of the Vietnam (Second Indochina) War (1954–75), Viet Cong and regular People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces of the DRV unified the country under communist rule. [117] In this conflict, the North and the Viet Cong—with logistical support from the Soviet Union—defeated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, which sought to maintain South Vietnamese independence with the support of the U.S. military, whose troop strength peaked at 540,000 during the communist-led Tet Offensive in 1968. The North did not abide by the terms of the 1973 Paris Agreement, which officially settled the war by calling for free elections in the South and peaceful reunification. Two years after the withdrawal of the last U.S. forces in 1973, Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to the communists, and the South Vietnamese army surrendered in 1975. In 1976, the government of united Vietnam renamed Saigon as Hồ Chí Minh City in honor of Hồ, who died in 1969. The war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll standing at between 966,000 and 3.8 million, [118] [119] [120] and many thousands more crippled by weapons and substances such as napalm and Agent Orange. The government of Vietnam says that 4 million of its citizens were exposed to Agent Orange, and as many as 3 million have suffered illnesses because of it these figures include the children of people who were exposed. [121] The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or have health problems due to contaminated Agent Orange. [122] The United States government has challenged these figures as being unreliable. [123]

Unified era (1976–1986) Edit

In the post-1975 period, it was immediately apparent that the effectiveness of Communist Party (CPV) policies did not necessarily extend to the party's peacetime nation-building plans. Having unified North and South politically, the CPV still had to integrate them socially and economically. In this task, CPV policy makers were confronted with the South's resistance to communist transformation, as well as traditional animosities arising from cultural and historical differences between North and South. In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the U.S. or the Saigon government, confounding Western fears. [124] However, up to 300,000 South Vietnamese were sent to re-education camps, where many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to perform hard labor. [125] The New Economic Zones program was implemented by the Vietnamese communist government after the Fall of Saigon. Between 1975 and 1980, more than 1 million northerners migrated to the south and central regions formerly under the Republic of Vietnam. [126] This program, in turn, displaced around 750,000 to over 1 million Southerners from their homes and forcibly relocated them to uninhabited mountainous forested areas. [126]

Compounding economic difficulties were new military challenges. In the late 1970s, Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge regime started harassing and raiding Vietnamese villages at the common border. To neutralize the threat, PAVN invaded Cambodia in 1978 and overran its capital of Phnom Penh, driving out the incumbent Khmer Rouge regime. In response, as an action to support the pro-Beijing Khmer Rouge regime, China increased its pressure on Vietnam, and sent troops into Northern Vietnam in 1979 to "punish" Vietnam. Relations between the two countries had been deteriorating for some time. Territorial disagreements along the border and in the South China Sea that had remained dormant during the Vietnam War were revived at the war's end, and a postwar campaign engineered by Hanoi against the ethnic Chinese Hoa community elicited a strong protest from Beijing. China was displeased with Vietnam's alliance with the Soviet Union. [127] During its prolonged military occupation of Cambodia in 1979–89, Vietnam's international isolation extended to relations with the United States. The United States, in addition to citing Vietnam's minimal cooperation in accounting for Americans who were missing in action (MIAs) as an obstacle to normal relations, barred normal ties as long as Vietnamese troops occupied Cambodia. Washington also continued to enforce the trade embargo imposed on Hanoi at the conclusion of the war in 1975.

The harsh postwar crackdown on remnants of capitalism in the South led to the collapse of the economy during the 1980s. With the economy in shambles, the communist government altered its course and adopted consensus policies that bridged the divergent views of pragmatists and communist traditionalists. Throughout the 1980s, Vietnam received nearly $3 billion a year in economic and military aid from the Soviet Union and conducted most of its trade with the USSR and other Comecon countries. In 1986, Nguyễn Văn Linh, who was elevated to CPV general secretary the following year, launched a campaign for political and economic renewal (Đổi Mới). His policies were characterized by political and economic experimentation that was similar to simultaneous reform agenda undertaken in the Soviet Union. Reflecting the spirit of political compromise, Vietnam phased out its re-education effort. The communist government stopped promoting agricultural and industrial cooperatives. Farmers were permitted to till private plots alongside state-owned land, and in 1990 the communist government passed a law encouraging the establishment of private businesses. [ citation needed ]

Renovated era (1986–present) Edit

After President Bill Clinton visited Vietnam in 2000, it virtually marked the new era of Vietnam. Vietnam has become an increasingly attractive destination of economic development. Throughout that time, Vietnam has played more significant role in the world's stage. Its economic reforms successfully changed Vietnam and making Vietnam more relevant in the ASEAN and international stage. Also, due to Vietnam's importance, many powers turn to be favoring Vietnam for their circumstances.

However, Vietnam also faces disputes, mostly with Cambodia over the border, and especially, China, over the South China Sea. In 2016, President Barack Obama became the 3rd U.S. Head of State to visit Vietnam, helping normalize relations into a higher level, by lifting embargo of lethal weapons, allowing Vietnam to buy lethal weapons and modernize its military.

Vietnam is expected to be a newly industrialized country, and also, a regional power in the future. Vietnam is one of Next Eleven countries.

On the trail of the Chams

Once lords over a great empire known as Champa, the Chams have been relegated to ethnic minority status in the very lands over which they once lorded. Today, they inhabit parts of southern Vietnam and Cambodia.

The Chams are an Austronesian group and the history of Champa begins with their migration to mainland South East Asia. Patterns and chronology of migration suggest that the Cham arrived via Borneo (this assumption is still being debated) in the early centuries CE. What is today the South China Sea was known to ancient navigators as the Champa Sea, named for the great empire that controlled the seas off central and south Vietnam. Existing between the 2nd and 15th century CE, Champa was actually a collection of polities at the peak of its power, Champa lands included parts of eastern Cambodia and Laos.

Champa and its neighbours around c. 1100 CE. Champa is shaded in green, the Khmer Empire in violet, and Dai-Viet in yellow. Major polities are marked. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons (public domain)

Their culture was heavily influenced by Hinduism, mainly Shaivism, represented by a linga with temple carvings depicting Hindu deities. Later, Hindu doctrines were blended with local beliefs and Buddhism.

The Chams have left traces of their existence in the lands they occupied. Archaeologists have identified Cham citadels and temple sites along Vietnam’s coast. Recent explorations suggest that hundreds of ruined sites may line rivers leading into the Central Highlands and beyond, to eastern Cambodia.

I have always been fascinated by lost kingdoms and ancient civilisations. I first came across the Chams when I was travelling in central Vietnam in 2006, and again in 2007. Although most Chams now live in Cambodia, the kingdom of Champa flourished in southern Vietnam and this is where the architectural legacy of the Cham people is located.

The Chams were greatly influenced by Funan (precursor to the Khmer Empire) from whom they adopted the Hindu religion and art. Sandstone pillars and red brick flooring of temples and royal burial sites are features of Cham architecture. The oldest artefacts with these distinct characteristics found together with pottery in Tra Kieu, date to the 2nd century CE.

The people of Champa kept written records in Sanskrit and the old Cham language. They wrote on palm leaves and inscribed on stone steles. Their records on perishable materials are all gone but numerous stone inscriptions have been preserved and transcribed.

Cham culture is believed to have started thriving from the 4th century CE. Its spiritual centre was at My Son, which was established by King Bhadravarman. Over 70 temples – red brick structures – have been excavated here. The buildings within the My Son temple complex were constructed over a period of 1000 years, from the 4th to 14th century CE, making this complex one of the longest-occupied archaeological sites in the world. My Son is located about 70 kilometres southwest of Da Nang and close to Champa’s ancient capitals Simhapura (Tra Kieu) and Indrapura (close to Dong Duong). Within these three locations, more than 30 stelas dated between the 5th to 12th centuries CE have been discovered. The stele inscriptions focus mainly on political and religious topics, written from the perspective of kings to affirm their legitimacy and their relationship with the divine.

My Son complex – the largest collection of Cham ruins are located here. Image credit:

My Son was discovered during the construction of telegraph lines in Central Vietnam in 1889 when Camille Paris stumbled upon its ruins. Decades of research revealed it as the religious centre of the long-forgotten Champa Kingdom. Sadly, much of this site was devastated by B52 bombing from 1969 to 1972 during the Vietnam War as the Viet Cong had set up base there. What is left was saved when President Nixon declared the area off-limits on the advice and urging of a Chan art expert, Philippe Stern. Bomb craters still punctuate the monument grounds, and land mines lurk beneath the surrounding jungle. However, many structures have been restored, giving visitors a glimpse into the spiritual life of the ancient Chams.

My Son Sanctuary, the ancient architectural ruins in the middle of a forest near Hoi An, is preserved as a World Cultural Heritage site. Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999, it is worth visiting for those seeking the exotic, away from mainstream Asian tourist destinations. During my visit in 2006, a ride in an archaic military vehicle, a war relic left behind by the Americans after the Vietnam War, took us through rough terrain to the lush valley, overshadowed by the holy mountain, Mount Mahaparvata (known to the locals as Cat’s Tooth Mountain). Visitors today can now expect easier access – it has been more than a decade since my visit. ­

Several international organisations have backed restoration projects, painstakingly re-assembling the bombed-out monuments and planning for increased on-site security. Ecole Francaise d’Extreme Orient (EFEO) of which Henri Parmentier, a prominent archaeologist was a member, was responsible for the establishment of the Danang Museum of Champa Sculpture, which opened in 1919. This museum, though small, has the best collection of Cham art that survived looting and decay. These masterpieces are a wonderful complement to My Son and Po Nager.

My travels in 2007 across Indo-China, approximately along the 18th parallel, took me from Nong Khai in northeast Thailand to Hue in Central Vietnam and back to Thailand, to Mukdahan in Nakhon Phanom, crossing the then completed Thai-Laos Friendship Bridges across the Mekong. Along the journey were pockets of Cham villages and ruins, the most significant being Wat Phu in Champasak in southern Laos.

Between the first and ninth centuries CE, Champasak Province was part of Funan (which influenced early Champa) and then the Chenla Kingdoms before falling to the Khmers. Archaeological research has identified the ancient city as Shrestrapura, a 5th-century CE, pre-Khmer site. The city was at one time the capital of the Chenla and Champa Kingdoms.

Although Wat Phu is considered Khmer, elements of Champa art, culture and architecture are recognisable within the temple complex. The UNESCO site includes Phu Kao mountain and the remains of the ancient cities of Lingapura and Shrestrapura. Wat Phu, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001 was an important Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva. During the 13th century CE, it became a centre of Theravada Buddhism and remains so until today.

The final annihilation of Champa by Minh Mang’s troops in 1835 marked the end of two millennia of continuous Champ existence. The remnants of Champa in Kauthara (Nha Trang) and nearby Panduranga were fully incorporated into the Vietnamese realm. The marginalised Cham communities of Indo-China today are the last vestiges of Champa.

During the purge by Minh Mang, large groups of mainly Muslim Chams fled to Cambodia where they were given refuge. They settled around the area now known as Kampong/Kompong Cham and along the shores of the Tonle Sap. However, they struggled to retain their culture and language. The Chams were again severely persecuted, this time by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979. It is estimated that as many as half a million Chams were murdered to ‘ethnically cleanse Cambodia’.

In Phnom Penh, a small community of Chams still live on boats and stilted houses but with rapid land development in Cambodia’s capital, they are under constant threat of eviction. Today, there is a small Cham Muslim (some practising a blend of Hindu-Buddhist practices) community in Thailand and in Laos as well.

The majority of the 120,000 Chams who remained in Vietnam retained their Hindu faith but those who later converted to Islam still worship their gods at Po Nagar Cham Towers in Nha Trang during the religious festival of Thap Ba, which falls around April/May. The two major enclaves of Chams in Vietnam are in Nha Trang (ancient Cham city of Kauthara) and the highlands around Da Nang.

In the 8th century CE, the political centre of Champa moved from My Son south to Kauthara. At the site of modern Nha Trang, a temple was built in honour of Po Nagar, the indigenous Earth Goddess whom the Chams believed was the ‘Mother of the Country’ who taught agricultural and weaving skills to the Chams. Later historians identified Po Nagar with the Hindu goddesses Bhagavati, wife of Shiva, and with Durga, the buffalo-demon slayer.

Pirates from Java burned the temple of Po Nagar and carried off the image of Shiva. Cham king Satyavarman pursued the raiders and defeated them in a naval battle in 781. This victory over the ‘dark-skinned savages who feed on cadavers’ was recorded on a stele erected by Satyavarman at Po Nagar. The Chams continued building – the tallest tower was completed in 817 CE. Further expansion continued until the 17th century CE when the Chams were gradually displaced by the Viets.

The building techniques from 8th century to 13th century remain a mystery. Scholars still do not understand how the Cham people placed 20×20 cm bricks in close proximity without any adhesive. This unique feature attracts interest in the towers. My guide drew my attention to the Chams’ ingenuous use of red bricks without any binding mortar in the construction of these octagonal pillars, a technique that still baffles engineers and archaeologists.

The kalan was the brick sanctuary, typically in the form of a tower, used to house the deity. The religious life of the Chams is evident from these extant monuments, which have syncretized elements of Shaivism, Buddhism and indigenous religious practices.

There were once ten towers, each dedicated to a different deity, but today only four remain to provide a fascinating glimpse into the region’s past and the locals’ present-day spiritual beliefs as pilgrims still come here to pray and offer incense.

I spent half a day at this site in December 2019, admiring the temples, wandering around and finally sitting in the shadows of the soaring temple towers. I felt the serenity of the hillock and the greatness of antiquity while pondering over the past splendour of the Cham culture, much of it long lost to the world … but comforted by the thought that I had ventured on the trail of the Chams.

Kerajaan Champa: Kerajaan Rumpun Melayu Yang Hilang Di Vietnam

Kerajaan Champa terletak di daratan besar Asia Tenggara dan menempati kawasan selatan Vietnam moden. Seperti sejumlah tamadun awal Asia Tenggara, Kerajaan Champa tidak begitu dikenali di dunia Barat. Apapun, berkat kepesatan ekonominya, kerajaan ini berupaya membangun menjadi kuasa serantau yang penting dan memusatkan pengaruhnya pada perdagangan maritim. Menerusi rangkaian perdagangan inilah Kerajaan Champa berinteraksi dengan kuasa-kuasa lain, dan menerima pengaruh daripada kebudayaan mereka.


Menurut tradisi Cham, pengasas Champa ialah dewi yang dikenali sebagai Po Nagar. Legenda menyebutkan bahawa Po Nagar ditinggalkan di sebuah hutan berhampiran Nha Trang semasa masih bayi. Beliau ditemui oleh seorang pemotong kayu yang sedang dalam perjalanan pulang ke rumah.

Pemotong kayu dan isterinya tidak mempunyai anak dan mereka berdua membesarkan bayi itu seperti anak kandung. Pada suatu hari, Po Nagar yang kini sudah menjadi seorang gadis, membawa pulang kayu cendana yang istimewa. Kayu cendana ini dipelihara oleh beliau dengan baik dan beliau tidak membenarkan sesiapa pun menyentuhnya.

Kemudian, tiba hari di mana beliau memaklumkan kepada kedua orang tua angkatnya bahawa beliau diperintahkan untuk pergi ke istana Maharaja China, di mana di sana kononnya beliau akan berkahwin dengan seorang putera mahkota. Walaupun pada mulanya orang tua angkat Po Nagar tidak mengizinkan beliau keluar menempuh perjalanan yang jauh itu, akhirnya mereka berdua akur dan memberi restu.

Po Nagar Cham di mulut Sungai Chai, Nha Trang, Vietnam

[/caption]Po Nagar membawa diri ke pesisir pantai, mencampakkan kayu cendananya ke laut dan hilang serta-merta. Kayu cendana ini dihanyutkan ke utara oleh laut, dan tiba di pantai China. Di sana, ia ditemui oleh seorang nelayan. Menyedari bahawa kayu cendana itu merupakan suatu barangan yang sangat berharga, nelayan itu pun segera membawanya ke istana dan memberikannya kepada Putera Mahkota.

Putera membalutkan kayu cendana itu dengan kain sutera, lalu menyimpannya di tempat yang hampir dengannya di istana. Pada malam itu, kain tersebut bergerak-gerak dan tatkala diperiksa oleh si putera, Po Nagar pun muncul. Putera Mahkota China dan Po Nagar kemudiannya berkahwin dan menikmati hari-hari sebagai pasangan pengantin.


Walau bagaimanapun pada suatu hari, Po Nagar mengadu kepada suaminya bahawa beliau mahu menziarahi orang tua angkatnya, lantaran beliau pernah berjanji untuk pulang sebelum pergi meninggalkan mereka. Namun, si putera tidak berkenan memenuhi permintaan itu kerana beliau enggan berpisah dengan Po Nagar walau untuk sehari. Lantaran tiada apa lagi yang mampu dilakukan oleh Po Nagar bagi mengubah fikiran suaminya, beliau pun pergi ke pantai, lalu mencampakkan kayu cendananya ke laut dan hilang serta-merta.

Putera naik berang dengan keadaan ini dan segera memperlengkapkan sebuah armada untuk berlayar ke selatan bagi mencari Po Nagar. Kehadiran armada ini mengundang kemurkaan Maharaja Jed, Ngoc Hoang yang lantas menukarkan kapal yang dinaiki oleh putera menjadi batu sebaik sahaja ia memasuki pelabuhan Nha Trang. Po Nagar terus kekal berada di Vietnam dan berbuat kebajikan sepanjang baki hayatnya. Selepas beliau meninggal dunia, namanya dihormati oleh masyarakat Cham dan Vietnam yang menganggapnya sebagai dewi pelindung mereka.

Kuil-kuil Po Nagar yang terletak di sebuah bukit di selatan Vietnam


Sebagai perbandingan, sumber sejarah berkenaan asal-usul Kerajaan Champa boleh ditemukan dalam sumber-sumber China. Sebutan pertama mengenai Champa dipercayai dilakukan pada tahun 192 Masihi. Pada waktu itu, Kerajaan Champa dikenali sebagai Lin-Yi.

Disebutkan bahawa kuasa baru ini muncul di bahagian utara Vietnam moden (wilayah Hue untuk lebih tepat), yakni apabila seorang pegawai tempatan berjaya mengetuai sebuah pemberontakan menentang kuasa China di kawasan itu. Baik dalam legenda mahupun catatan sejarah, Champa disifatkan mempunyai hubungan dengan China yang terletak di utaranya.

Interaksi dengan China ini berlangsung sepanjang sejarah Champa. Berakhirnya Dinasti Han pada tahun 220 Masihi menandakan ketumbangan China selama beberapa kurun, dan pada kurun ke-6 Masihi, Cham meny3rang bahagian utara Vietnam lantaran mereka menganggap Dinasti Chen Selatan yang memerintah kawasan itu sedang melemah.

Walau bagaimanapun, kekuatan Cham ini ditewaskan oleh seorang panglima China yang bernama Pham Tu. Ketika Dinasti Tang berkuasa pada kurun ke-7 Masihi, Kerajaan Champa menghentikan s3rangan ke atas jiran utara mereka selama hampir dua kurun. Selain itu, raja-raja Cham turut menghantar perutusan demi perutusan diplomatik ke istana China.


Empayar lain yang memainkan peranan signifikan dalam sejarah Champa ialah India. Kuasa yang terletak di barat ini banyak mempengaruhi kebudayaan masyarakat Cham, terutama melalui ajaran Hinduism dan Buddhism.

Pengaruh dari India ini boleh dilihat menerusi hasil seni masyarakat Cham. Misalnya, bermula dari kurun ke-4 Sebelum Masihi, kebanyakan hasil seni Champa mempunyai imej dewa-dewa Hindu. Namun, penting untuk dinotakan bahawa imej-imej ini memiliki sentuhan unik Cham yang membezakannya dari ciri asli India. Sebagai contoh, masyarakat Cham sering menggambarkan Shiva dengan hidung yang lebar, bibir yang tebal dan senyuman nipis, yang kesemua ini merupakan cerminan budaya Cham dan bukannya India.

Pengaruh India: Relif dari Angkor

Selain hasil seni, pengaruh India juga boleh dilihat menerusi seni bina Kerajaan Champa. Seni bina yang paling menonjol dalam konteks ini ialah Candi My Son, sebuah kompleks kuil Hindu yang terletak di Vietnam Tengah. Kuil-kuil ini dibina selama lebih sepuluh kurun, bermula pada kurun ke-4 Masihi. Ia didedikasikan kepada pelbagai dewa Hindu, termasuklah Vishnu, Krishna dan Shiva – dalam bentuk Shiva lingam.

Patung kepala Shiva dari Cham ini dihasilkan pada sekitar 800M


Kerajaan Champa berakhir pada awal kurun ke-18. Raja agung Cham yang terakhir ialah Che Nbong Nga, yang memerintah pada tahun 1360 hingga 1390. Beliau bertanggungjawab meny3rang jiran utaranya, Dai Viet dengan sangat agresif. Hanya selepas kemangkatan Che Nbong Nga, barulah Cham kembali ke selatan.

S3rangan balas Vietnam bermula pada tahun 1402 dan hanya terhenti apabila Dinasti Ming meluaskan kuasa sehingga memasuki wilayah mereka. Namun pada tahun 1428, Vietnam berupaya mengusir kekuatan China dan mengekalkan hubungan yang baik dengan Cham. Tatkala raja Champa mangkat pada tahun 1441, kerajaan Champa dibelenggu kemelut p3rang saudara dan Vietnam mengambil kesempatan untuk meny3rang.

Selepas 30 tahun berlalu, kebanyakan wilayah Cham berjaya dirampas oleh Vietnam. Apapun, wilayah kecil Cham masih kekal bertahan jauh di selatan dan mengekalkan pengaruhnya sehingga tahun 1720. Tamatnya kekuasaan wilayah kecil ini memaksudkan tumbangnya sebuah kerajaan agung yang pernah berdiri selama lebih 1500 tahun.

Month: October 2015

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Khmer Empire History (Cambodia, 802–1432)

KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Khmer architecture - The period of Angkor is the period in the history of the Khmer Empire from approximately the latter half of the 8th century AD to the first half of the 15th century CE. In any study of Angkorian architecture, the emphasis is necessarily on religious architecture, during the period of Angkor, only temples and other religious buildings were constructed of stone. [1] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Jon spent over 27 hours in three days visiting 25 temples, all via Tuk-Tuk, driven by Sokea (our now Facebook friend, hi Sokea!) Over the three days, at and in-between Temples, Jon would read the guide book he purchased cover-to-cover, which explained the Khmer Empire history, the drivers of their Buddhist and Hindu religions, and each of the Angkor temples in detail. [1]

The span of recorded history is roughly 5,300 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 3rd millennia BCE. It was a significant period in Cambodian history as the Khmer empire consolidated itself as one of the great powers of the South -East Asian region. [1] Along with it's agricultural resources, Siem Reap plays an important role in preserving the history of Cambodia with it's skeletal remains of the Khmer Empire. [1] Angkor Uncovered Small Group Tour takes in the main sites of Angkor Wat, Angkor Thom City, Bayon and Ta Prohm bringing to life the history of the Khmer Empire and providing an insight into an amazing civilisation. [1] Pick up on time followed by a history of the Khmer Empire and tours of 3 unforgettable and precious sites. [1] Hear about the history of Phnom Kulen, a massive plateau covered with hills, considered the birthplace of the Khmer empire during the Angkorian period (802-1432 AD). [1] The Khmer empire (802 A.D. - 1432 A.D.) thrived for over 600 years, making it one of the longest-lived empires in history, and developed sophisticated waterways, architecture, and unique culture. [1] Khmer culture, as developed and spread by the Khmer empire, has distinctive styles of dance, architecture and sculpture, which have been exchanged with neighbouring Laos and Thailand throughout history. [1]

Cambodia's roots are in the ancient Khmer Empire that from 802 until 1432 ruled what is now Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Burma from Angkor. [1] The hundreds of temples surviving today are but the sacred skeleton of the vast political, religious and social centre of Cambodia's ancient Khmer empire (AD802-1432) a city that, at its zenith, boasted a population of one million when London was a scrawny town of 50,000. [1] This was a narrative that, as the French colonials attempted to subdue Cambodia's religious power within monasteries by completely reassembling the sangha at the end of the 19th century, would prove advantageous geopolitically: make sure our vassals know they're not the Khmer Empire, they never were, and they never will be. [1]

A testimony of the antiquity of the Khmer language are the multitude of epigraphic inscriptions on stone, the first written proof that has allowed the history of the Khmer empire to be reconstructed are those inscriptions. [1] It was the capital of the Khmer (Cambodian) empire from the 9th to the 15th century, a period that is considered the classical era of Cambodian history. [1] A natural alliance appears to bind the Cham and the Khmer both groups, descendants of great, ancient empires, espoused the religious practices, customs, and mores of Indian civilization in their early history. [1] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS In later history, a stream of Buddhism entered Khmer culture during the Angkor empire when Cambodia absorbed the various Buddhist traditions of the Mon kingdoms of Dvaravati. [1]

The city of Angkor, the capital of the ancient Khmer Empire located in northwest Cambodia, was founded in 9th century AD by King Jayavarman, and reached its peak under Kings Suryavarman II and Jayavarman VII in the 12th century. [1] The city where the temple was built, Angkor, is located in modern-day Cambodia and was once the capital of the Khmer Empire. [1] Situated near Siem Reap, Cambodia, Angkor Archaeological Park comprises several temples and monasteries which have been built in different historical times of the ancient Khmer empire. [1] Built at a time when the Khmer Empire was gaining significant power and territory, the temple was constructed by a Brahmin counselor under a powerful king, Rajendravarman and later under Jayavarman V. On the way back, visit to Banteay Samre Large, comparatively flat temple displaying distinctively Angkor Wat-style architecture and artistry. [1] Built at a time when the Khmer Empire was gaining significant power and territory, the temple was constructed by a Brahmin counselor under a powerful king, Rajendravarman and later under Jayavarman V. Cambodia’s ancient Khmer empire built hundreds of temples between AD 802 and 1432, and at its peak the city is estimated to have had a population of one million people at a time when London only had about 50,000. [1] Built at a time when the Khmer Empire was gaining significant power and territory, the temple was constructed by a Brahmin counselor under a powerful king, Rajendravarman and later under Jayavarman V. The city of Ankgor Wat is one of the worlds great cultural archeological sites and was once the pinnacle of the great Khmer Empire. [1] Built at a time when the Khmer Empire was gaining significant power and territory, the temple was constructed by a Brahmin counselor under a powerful king, Rajendravarman and later under Jayavarman V. The first king of a united Khmer Empire was Jayavarman II who proclaimed himself god-king and built several temples at various capitals around the area starting in 802. [1]

It was built in 12 century for king Suryavarman II as part of the capital city of the Khmer Empire, first as a Hindu temple and then as a Buddhist Wat. [1] The Angkor Wat temple, one the greatest structures made by the Khmer Empire during the 12th century, During the reign of King Suryavarman II. The Khmer Empire (802-1432) (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer ), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor ), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia (" Kampuchea " or " Srok Khmer " to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia. [1] The Khmer empire was ruled, between 802 and 1432, by a succession of "god kings" and had its capital in Siem Reap, Cambodia, where the famed Angkor Wat temple complex stands. [1] Rajendravarman was a king of the Khmer Empire who ruled from 944 to 968 AD. His principle monuments, located in the Angkor region of Cambodias Siem Reap province, are Pre Rup and East Mebon. [1] Angkor (near Siem Reap, 145 miles from Phnom Penh) was the capital of the Khmer Empire, a Hindu-Buddhist civilization that encompassed all of present-day Cambodia, and much of Southeast Asia. [1] Phnom Penh first became the capital of Cambodia after Ponhea Yat, king of the Khmer Empire, there is a stupa behind Wat Phnom that house the remains of Ponhea Yat and the royal family as well as the remaining Buddhist statues from the Angkorean era. [1]

The Khmer king, Jayavarman II, was mentioned to have spent years in the court of Sailendra in Java before returning to Cambodia to rule around 790 CE. Influenced by the Javanese culture of the Sailendran-Srivijayan mandala (and likely eager to emulate the Javanese model in his court), he proclaimed Cambodian independence from Java and ruled as devaraja, establishing Khmer empire and starting the Angkor era. [1] Satellite imaging has revealed that Angkor, during its peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, was the largest pre-industrial urban centre in the world, the beginning of the era of the Khmer Empire is conventionally dated to 802 CE. In this year, King Jayavarman II had himself declared chakravartin on Phnom Kulen, the empire ended with the fall of Angkor in the 15th century. [1] According to ancient inscriptions, Phnom Kulen is considered to be the birthplace of the ancient Khmer Empire, for it was there that King Jayavarman II proclaimed independence from "Java" in 802 CE. After centralizing its power, the Khmer empire created an enormous political and religious centre, from which it dominated most of Southeast Asia for more than six hundred years, from the Ninth to the Fifteenth Century. [1] British agent John Crawfurd states. the King of that ancient Kingdom is ready to throw himself under the protection of any European nation, the Khmer Empire had steadily gained hegemonic power over most of mainland Southeast Asia since its early days in the 8th and 9th centuries. [1] The Kingdom of Cambodia is a country in Southeast Asia, the successor state of the once powerful Hindu and Buddhist Khmer Empire, which ruled most of the Indochina Peninsula between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries. [1] The Khmer Empire ( Khmer : ចក្រភពខ្មែរ ), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people ), was a powerful Khmer Hindu - Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia. [1]

"The Khmer Empire of ancient Cambodia has as its capital the magnificent palace and temple complex of Angkor Wat, today a mysterious and beautiful ruin deep in the jungle of Southeast Asia. [1] For nearly six centuries, between AD 802 and 1432, it was the political and religious center of the great Khmer Empire, which once extended from the South China Sea almost to the Bay of Bengal The remains of the metropolis of Angkor now occupy 200 sq km (77 sq miles) of northwest Cambodia, and although its old wooden houses and palaces decayed centuries ago, the stunning array of stone temples erected by a succession of self-styled god-kings still stand. [1] Bayon Temple, one of the most popular sites in Angkor complex and over 200 large faces caved on the 54 towers, which at that time represents the 54 provinces in The Khmer Empire give this temple its majestic character, Terrace of elephant and Terrace of Leper king. [1] From A.D. 802 to 1432, the Khmer empire built the monumental Angkor temples that still stand today--"the eighth wonders of the world"--and, at their zenith, outlined a city of more than a million people (at a time when London was a scrabbling village of just 50,000). [1] He also built numerous other Hindu temples and ashrams, or retreats for ascetics, over the next 300 years, between 900 and 1200, the Khmer Empire produced some of the worlds most magnificent architectural masterpieces in the area known as Angkor. [1] This region was home to several successive capitals of the Khmer empire over a period of 400 years from the 9th to the 13th centuries CE. Many buildings have collapsed or have been covered up by jungle so that today only forty accessible sites remain, known collectively as Angkor. [1] The then long-decayed Khmer Empire, torn by war with powerful neighbors (Thailand actually took control over the area around Angkor for several years) and weakened by environmental degradation of the surrounding land, had moved the capital from Angkor to Phnom Penh. [1] The Angkor period covers over 600 years from 802-1432 and comprised a time when the Khmer Empire consolidated its position as one of the great powers of South-East Asia. [1] Vat Phou was a part of the Khmer Empire centred on Angkor to the southwest, Shrestapura was superseded by a new city in the Angkorian period, located directly south of the temple. [1] The Khmer kingdom became the Khmer Empire and the great temples of Angkor, considered an archeological treasure replete with detailed stone bas-reliefs showing many aspects of the culture, including some musical instruments, remain as monuments to the culture of the Khmer. [1] In the span of roughly six centuries (800-1400), the Khmer empire expanded its empire to reach nearly all of Southeast Asia, and simultaneously saw the rise and development of a rich and mysterious culture that remains evident only in the temples and shrines in the Angkor region. [1] As the Khmer empire declined, the temples of Angkor were abandoned to the ever-encroaching jungle, only to be rediscovered centuries later. [1] Bayon Temple, one of the most popular sites in Angkor complex and over 200 large faces caved on the 54 towers, which at the time represents the 54 provinces in the khmer Empire give this temples it majestic character. [1] Yasodharapura was the first capital of the Khmer empire to be built at the Angkor site. [1] The ancient capital of the great Khmer Empire, Angkor is beyond doubt, one of the most magnificent wonders of the world and a site of immense archaeological significance. [1] The ancient capital of the Khmer Empire was at Angkor, close to present-day Siem Reap. [1] Hariharalaya - Hariharalaya was an ancient city and capital of the Khmer empire located near Siem Reap, Cambodia in an area now called Roluos. [1] Using the city of Angkor as capital, for the next centuries the Khmer empire expanded its territorial base, mostly to the north (entering the Khorat plateau) and the west, to the Chao Phraya basin and beyond. [1] Angkor was the site for a series of capitals belonging to the Khmer empire for much of the ninth through fifteenth centuries. [1] One of the great archaeological wonders of the world, Angkor (the Khmer word for city) was Cambodia’s capital and the spiritual center of the Khmer Empire between 802 and 1432. [1] In 1861 a French naturalist unexpectedly discovered Angkor, the lost city and former capital of the Khmer empire. [1]

In 6th century CE, the Funan empire declined only to be followed by another Hindu empire Chen-La which lasted till 9th century CE. Later king Suryavarman II established the Khmer empire with Yasodharapura, present day Angkor Wat as capital. [1] The Angkor Wat temple was constructed by king Suryavarman II, in the beginning of 12th century in the year of 1113 AD. Suryavarman II was one of the most conquering kings of the Khmer empire, who reigned in 1112-1152. [1] Face-tower of the South Gate, showing Avalokiteshvara Bayon temple, Angkor Thom The Terrace of the Leper King, showing apsara Angkor Thom was the fortified inner royal city built by Jayavarman VII (1181 - 1220?), Buddhist king of the Khmer Empire, at the end of the 12th Century, after Angkor had. [1] Then starting to enter to Angkor National Park with A unique way of travel by bicycle to explore Angkor Thom is the last city of Khmer Empire (802-1432) from South Gate, Bayon temple is well-known of the 4faces of Buddha, Royal Enclosure, Terraces of Elephant and Laper King. [1]

Angkor Wat is the largest Hindu, later-turned, Buddhist temple complex from the Khmer Empire, 802 AD to 1432, located in Cambodia. [1] Eventually the Khmer Empire came apart, state religion lurched back and forth between Hindu and Buddhist dogma, territory was stripped away by the ascendant Siamese (Thai) to the west and the Vietnamese to the east, and Angkor was largely abandoned. [1] It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire and it was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. [1] The power of the Khmer empire peaked in the 12th century under Suryavarman II, who built the temple complex of Angkor Wat. [1] Khmer empire reached its peak in 12th century while the famous Angkor Wat temple was built. [1]

Cambodia’s ancient Khmer empire built hundreds of temples between AD 802 and 1432, and at its peak the city is estimated to have had a population of one million people at a time when London only had about 50,000. [1] The Khmer empire was a powerful state in South East Asia, formed by people of the same name, lasting from 802 CE to 1431 CE. At its peak, the empire covered much of what today is Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and southern Vietnam. [1] Over one thousand years ago, the Khmer empire was at the apex of its power and it controlled much of what is now Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. [1] Shortly after they lost control of Java the Sailendras reappeared on the throne of Srivjaya and remained in power there until the 13th century The khmer King, Jayavarman II, was mentioned to have spent years in the court of Sailendra in Java before returning to present day Cambodia, around 790 CE, to establish the Khmer empire. [1] The Khmer Empire began in approximately 802 A.D. when Jayavarman II was declared king over the region now known as Cambodia. [1] Jayavarman VII - Jayavarman VII, post-humous name of Mahaparamasaugata, was a king of the Khmer Empire in present-day Siem Reap, Cambodia. [1] Now that it is finally being restored, it is revealed as the twin-hub of the Khmer Empire under its greatest king, Jayavarman VII (1181-1219), the 47 Buddha-faced towers linking it with Angkor s 59 tower Bayon. [1] From the 10th century AD onward, Buddhism gradually began to spread throughout the Khmer Empire, receiving a significant boost during the reign of Angkor monarch Jayavarman VII (r.1181-1215). [1] During the Angkor period a number of kingdoms rose to power and challenged the Khmer Empire. [1] In the Khmer Empire or Angkor period, Khmer styles moved firmly away from the Indian styles of earlier periods, at the same time Khmer culture spread its influence far beyond the boundaries of the Empire. [1] Other temples are also constructed in the Angkor region, such as Ta Phrom and Bayon, the construction of the temple demonstrates the artistic and technical achievements of the Khmer Empire through its architectural mastery of stone masonry. [1] Explore the remote temples of the Khmer Empire on a full-day tour of Banteay Srey and the early Angkor temples of Roluos from Siem Reap. [1] The Khmer Empire, also known as the Angkor Civilization after its capital city, was a state-level society in mainland Southeast Asia between the 9th and 15th centuries AD. The empire was marked by enormous monumental architecture, extensive trade partnerships between India and China and the rest of the world, and an extensive road system. [1] The Khmers are one of the oldest ethnic groups in the area and they were the builders of the later Khmer Empire which dominated Southeast Asia for six centuries beginning in 802 CE, and now form the mainstream of political, cultural, and economic Cambodia. [1] Cambodia will also be used, referring both to the Khmer empire, and to the smaller kingdom which the French dominated in the 19th and 20th centuries. [1] The Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya took Angkor in 1431 CE, which constitutes the end of the Khmer empire. [1] The first prangs in Thailand were built in Phimai and Khao Phnom Rung, after the Khmer Empire collapsed, the Thai building masters of the Sukhothai Kingdom adapted the Prang form. [1] AD 800 AD 850) to the mid-15th century, the Khmer Empire was known as the Kingdom of Kambuja, after the legendary first-century founder of the first Cambodian kingdom of Funan, the Indian Brahmin Kambu. [1] The Khmer Empire, reigning from 802-1432 A.D., is at the heart of every Cambodian and Angkor, the empire's opulent capital city, remains their most impressive and enduring legacy. [1] Angkor was the capital of the Khmer Empire founded by Jayavarman II who claimed himself to be god-king, or devaraja. [1] Numerous kings ruled the Khmer empire over its 600 year period, beginning with Jayavarman II (802 -850 AD), who brought numerous competing kingdoms together. [1] The beginning of the era of the Khmer Empire is conventionally dated to 802 AD. In this year, king Jayavarman II had himself declared chakravartin ("king of the world", or "king of kings") on Phnom Kulen. [1] According to ancient inscriptions, Phnom Kulen is considered to be the birthplace of the ancient Khmer Empire, for it was there that King Jayavarman II proclaimed independence from "Java" in 802 CE. During the Angkorian era, the relief was known as Mahendraparvata (" Mountain of Great Indra "). [1] The Khmer Empire was founded in the beginning of the 9th century AD, when Jayavarman II (r.802-850) proclaimed himself devaraja or the divine king of the land. [1] From the 10th century onwards, Buddhism began to spread throughout the Khmer Empire and the kings began to incorporate both Hindu and Buddhist elements in the architecture. [1]

During the reign of Jayavarman VII the Khmer Empire encompassed what is currently Cambodia and much of what is Thailand, Laos, and the southern part of Vietnam. [1] T he country which is today called Cambodia is only a small fraction of the vast Khmer Empire that controlled much of Indo-China from the ninth to the 13th century AD. At its height, the Khmer Empire consisted of today's Cambodia, Laos, most of southern Vietnam and Thailand, as well as some of the Malay peninsula. [1] During this time, the Khmer empire became one of the strongest powers in Southeast Asia, stretching into parts of Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar and Laos. [1] Khmer Empire An empire that included much of present-day Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, and part of Laos. [1] Within Cambodia, regional accents exist in remote areas but these are regarded as varieties of Central Khmer, outside of Cambodia, three distinct dialects are spoken by ethnic Khmers native to areas that were historically part of the Khmer Empire. [1] Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empires official religions, Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. [1] The Khmer empire was a powerful kingdom based in what is now Cambodia. [1] The architecture of Cambodia developed in stages under the Khmer empire from the 9th to the 15th century, the remains of secular architecture from this time are rare, as only religious buildings were made of stone. [1] The Khmer Empire of Cambodia which flourished from the 9th to the 15th century, gave birth to some of the world's richest works of art and architecture. [1] The Khmer empire was the largest continuous empire of South East Asia, based in what is now Cambodia. [1] Khmer Empire (802−1432) -- a former empire of Southeastern Asia in Cambodia. [2] From 802 A.D. to 1432 A.D. it was the political and religious center of the Khmer Empire and covered a much larger area than Cambodia does today. [1] Angkor Wat ( Angkor meaning temple) is surrounded by several other temples from the ancient Khmer Empire over a surface area the size of Los Angeles. [1] With charming Siem Reap serving as your gateway to the temples of the ancient Khmer Empire, explore Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom, as well as the jungle ruins of Ta Prohm and Banteay Srei. [1] Stretched out over many kilometres, they are all that is left of the mighty Khmer Empire that ruled the region between 802-1432 AD. We had already decided to spend a week in the area checking out some of the less visited temples as well as those at Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom. [1] The first visit is Angkor Wat Temple, the Khmer Empire created the largest religious monument ever built when they constructed the amazing Angkor Wat along with it hundreds of other small monuments and temples. [1] Angkor Wat A temple complex built in the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu. [1] The fist visit is Angkor Wat Temple, the Khmer Empire created the largest religious monument ever built when they constructed the amazing Angkor Wat along with it hundreds of other small monuments and temples. [1] In the country's northwest are the ruins of Angkor Wat, a massive stone temple complex built during the Khmer Empire. [1] The most important cultural symbol is the ancient Khmer temple Angkor Wat, along with the ancient Khmer Empire and its monumental antiquities. [1] It is the gateway to the World Heritage site of Angkor Wat the ancient capital of the great Khmer Empire. [1] Other then birds, the rich cultural background of the country also attracts millions of visitors annually to visit the world famous Angkor Wat, ancient monuments from the Khmer empire that once ruled over much of South East Asia from 802AD to 1432AD. These amazing structures are now one of the UNESCO world heritage site, and is considered to be the world's largest religious monument. [1]

Known as "Angkor" from 802AD to 1432AD, the region was controlled by the wealthy and powerful Khmer Empire. [1] In the Khmer Empire or Angkor period, Khmer styles moved firmly away from the Indian styles of earlier periods. [1] The Chinese sailor, Chou Ta-kuan, visited Angkor and described vividly the Khmer Empire at that time. [1] The walls of the temple are intricately carved with Hindu "devatas" (deities) and depict scenes from Hindu scripture, as well as defining moments for the Khmer empire at the time. [1] Bakong, one of the temples built during the early Khmer Empire period. [1] The Bayon was one of only two Buddhist temples built in the Khmer empire. [1] Built by Jayavarman VII (and therefore toward the end of the Khmer empire), the temple is famous for the 216 faces that stare off across the jungle. [1] We stopped briefly at the southern gate of Angkor Thom, the last great capital of the Khmer Empire, and made our way to one of Angkor's most magnificent temples: Bayon. [1] At the center of Angkor Thom, the last and most enduring capital city of the Khmer Empire, stands the Bayon temple. [1] Little is known about the Khmer Empire, however, its capital city of Angkor was said to be awe-inspiring, thanks in part to the Angkor Wat, one of the world's largest religious monuments, built during the height of the Khmer's power. [1] This marked the beginning of the Khmer Empire which flourished for over 600 years, allowing successive kings to control and exert influence over much of Southeast Asia and accumulate immense power and wealth. [1] After centralizing its power, the Khmer empire created an enormous political and religious centre, from which it dominated most of Southeast Asia for more than six hundred years, from the Ninth to the Fifteenth Century. [1]

In the 10th century, the China-supported Nam-Vet kingdom of Amman emerged in Vietnam and began nibbling away at the Khmer empire from the east while the Thais began moving down from the north. [1] Chenla - Chenla or Zhenla is the Chinese designation for the successor polity of the Kingdom of Funan preceding the Khmer Empire that existed from around the late sixth to the early ninth century in Indochina. [1] The Angkorian era Khmer empire was centered in Siem Reap, and dominated the region from the 9th-15th century (802AD-1431/1432AD) at its peak, the Empire stretched across most of mainland Southeast Asia but by the 15th century the Empire was in political and territorial decline and under challenge from the rising Siam Kingdom of Sokhothey/Sokhothai (Ayudhaya) in today's Thailand. [1] Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, Thailand in its earliest days was under the rule of the Khmer Empire, which had strong Hindu roots, and the influence among Thais remains even today. [1]

Originally a provincial town within the Angkor-based Khmer empire, Sukhothai gained its independence in the 13th century and became established as the capital of the first united and independent Thai state in the Chao Phraya River basin. [1] Khmer sculpture - Khmer sculpture refers to the stone sculpture of the Khmer Empire, which ruled a territory based on modern Cambodia, but rather larger, from the 9th to the 13th century. [1]

These writings shed some light on the history of Khmer civilization, but for historians it is still difficult to know a complete list of the Angkor Empire society hierarchy. [1] Formerly part of the Khmer Empire, the area had been controlled by the Vietnamese since 1698, with King Chey Chettha II granting Vietnamese permission to settle in the area decades before. [1] Ponhea Yat - Ponhea Yat, also known as Barom Reachea II, was the last king of the Khmer Empire. [1] In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called Devaraja and Chakravartin, in Kingdom of Siam, the kings were esestablished Somburanaya-sittiraj. [1] Jayavarman V was a king of the Khmer Empire who reigned from 968-1001 AD. Category:. [1] As a youth Fa Ngum was sent to the Khmer Empire to live as a son of King Jayavarman IX, in 1343 King Souvanna Khampong died, and a succession dispute for Muang Sua took place. [1] The Khmer Empire was founded in 802 A.D. when Jayavarman II declared himself to be the divine king (or devaraja as they called it) of all the land. [1] The Khmer Empire was established by the early 9th century in an initiation and consecration ceremony to claim political legitimacy by founder Jayavarman II at Mount Kulen in 802 C. E. A succession of powerful sovereigns, continuing the Hindu devaraja cult tradition, the royal chronology ends in the 14th century. [1] Much later, in 802 AD, Jayavarman II, the man responsible for forging the Khmer Empire, is said to have declared independence from the somewhat mysterious kingdom called Java at Phnom Kulen. [1] While it was centuries of conflict with neighboring kingdoms that eventually drove the Khmer Empire into decline, the root cause of the fall of this ancient civilization can be attributed to a gradual degradation in forest, water, and soil resources. [1] It was a chance to learn first-hand about the ancient capital of the great Khmer Empire that thrived for nearly six centuries (802-1432). [1] A new study published in the journal PLOS ONE has shed new light on the ancient city of the Khmer Empire era, Mahendraparvata, which was rediscovered in June last year by an Australian team of. [1] Based on pieces of porcelain found in the area, the city could have been built when the Khmer empire was at the height of its power. [1] This is based on a theory that the area was inundated with water after the fall of the Khmer empire, of which the city was a part of in the 15th century. [1] Their collapse was followed by the rise of the Khmer Empire, a civilization which flourished in the area from the ninth century to the thirteenth century. [1] Under his rule, the borders of the Khmer empire were extended from the coast of Vietnam to the borders of Pagan in Burma and the area around Vientiane in Laos and encompassed all of Thailand and much of Malaysia. [1] While the Viet overthrew Chinese rule in northern Vietnam and the Cham Empire flourished in central Vietnam, the Cambodian plain as well as the lower Mekong, southern Laos and eastern Thailand were held by the mighty Khmer Empire from 802-1432. [1] He subdued kingdoms in present-day Malaysia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam vastly expanded the Khmer empire and established diplomatic relations with China. [1] The Cham are descended from the Austronesian people of Champa, a former kingdom on the coast of central and southern present-day Vietnam and former rival to the Khmer Empire. [1] The possible reasons for Tai migration include pressures from Han Chinese expansion, Mongol invasions, suitable land for wet rice cultivation, the Tai assimilated or pushed out indigenonus Austroasiatic Mon-Khmer peoples, and settled on the fringes of the Indianised kingdoms of the Mon and Khmer Empire. [1] The newly established Siamese kingdoms, after gaining independence from Khmer hegemony, adapted this Sinhalese (Sri Lankan) Mahavihara pattern of Theravada Buddhism and made it the official state religion, those days intentionally turning away from the Hindu religion of the Khmer empire. [1] From the 15th century, the Khmer Empire was assaulted by the expanding Kingdom of Siam to the west and continued to be besieged by both the Siamese and Vietnamese through the 17th and 18th centuries. [1] Centuries of conflict with the Chams, and the Bagans and subsequently, the Sukhothai gradually deteriorated the strength and power of the Khmer empire by around the year 1430. [1] It is said to be the last enduring capital city of the Khmer empire and some believe to have sustained a population of up to 150,000 people during its great years. [1] Buddhist temples, riverbed carvings and jungle waterfalls -- discover Phnom Kulen, a remote mountain and plateau that long ago seated the Khmer empire. [1] After the fall of the Khmer Empire to Thailand (Siam) in 1432, over 1000 temples were taken over by nature. [1] The Khmer empire produced numerous temples and majestic monuments to celebrate the divine authority of Khmer kings. [3] In 1351 Uthong, who was married to a daughter of the Khmer King Suphanburi, however, the remains of the Khmer Empire were in direct conflict with the growing power of Ayutthaya and the two became rivals rather than allies. [1] Towards the end of the Khmer Empire, Mahayana Buddhism had made inroads and King Jayavarman VII was himself a convert. [1] Jayavarman VII expanded the Khmer empire and extracted tribute from a number of small states. [1] The Khmer empire focused more on the domestic economy and did not take advantage of the international maritime network in addition, the input of Buddhist ideas conflicted and disturbed the state order built under the predominant Hinduism. [1] The Khmer empire reached its zenith in the 12th century CE. It annexed neighbouring states and controlled mainland South East Asia. [1] While a long succession of strong leaders enabled the Khmer empire to flourish until the 15th century, the height of the empire's influence, power and architectural wonder was reached in the 12th century. [1] For social and religious reasons, many aspects contributed to the decline of the Khmer empire, the relationship between the rulers and their elites was unstable - among the 27 Angkorian rulers, eleven lacked a legitimate claim to power, and civil wars were frequent. [1] The war ended with a victory for the Chola dynasty and of the Khmer Empire, and major losses for the Sri Vijaya Empire and the Tambralinga kingdom. [3] The early kingdoms of Funan, Chenla and Champa in the first millennium of the Common Era were the precursors of the Khmer empire. [1] The city of Ankgor Wat is one of the worlds great cultural archeological sites and was once the pinnacle of the great Khmer Empire. [1] At one time, Angkor Thom was the largest city in the Khmer Empire and it is quite remarkable in scale and architectural ingenuity. [1] Jayavarman VIII 1243CE-1298CE Jayavarman VIII rules the Khmer Empire during this time. [1] I hope it may be true at that time while Malayu was part of khmer Empire. [1] The Khmer Krom are indigenous Khmers living in the regions of the former Khmer Empire that are now part of Vietnam. [1] From 1976 to 1978, the Khmer Rouge instigated a series of border clashes with Vietnam, and claimed the Mekong Delta, once part of the Khmer empire. [1] The Khmer empire included the southern half of what is today Vietnam, North East/North Thailand and Laos. [1] The Northern Khmer are ethnic indigenous Khmers whose lands belonged to the Khmer Empire but have since become part of Thailand. [1] Remote sensing -enabled mapping along with archaeological investigations have provided detailed and informative maps which show that even in the 12th-13th centuries, the Khmer Empire was stretched across most of mainland Southeast Asia. [1] Here you will learn how, for nearly six centuries between AD 802 and 1432, the great Khmer Empire was once the most powerful empire in Southeast Asia that extended from the South China Sea to the Bay of Bengal. [1]

The Khmer Empire was Southeast Asia's largest empire during the 12th century. [1] In the era of the Khmer empire, most of the people were likely to read, the origin of sampot chang kben is known as Indian. [1] This alliance also had religious nuance, since both Chola and Khmer empire were Hindu Shivaist, while Tambralinga and Srivijaya were Mahayana Buddhist. [3] Just behind it is Angkor Thom which was the capital city of the Khmer Empire. [1]

The Khmer empire practically ended when the Thais attacked Angkor in 1351 and again in 1431. [4] The Khmer Empire (802-1432) (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer ), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor ), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia (" Kampuchea " or " Srok Khmer " to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia. [5] The Angkor Wat temple, one the greatest structures made by the Khmer Empire during the 12th century, During the reign of King Suryavarman II. [5]

The beginning of the era of the Khmer Empire is conventionally dated to 802 CE in this year, King Jayavarman II had himself declared chakravartin ("king of the world", or "king of kings") on Phnom Kulen. [6] They were the builders of the later Khmer Empire, which dominated Southeast Asia for six centuries beginning in 802, and now form the mainstream of political, cultural, and economic Cambodia. [6]

It was during the twelfth century, when the last temples were built, that the Khmers reached their peak during the reigns of Suryavarman II and Jayavarman VII. And it was from Angkor that these god-kings ruled their grand empire, stretching from the south of Vietnam to Yunan, China and from the western edge of Vietnam to the Bay of Bengal. [1] Today, the influence of the Khmer, or Angkor, Empire remains scattered throughout the region in the form of ancient temples, monuments, and statues. [1] SU in sehr guter Erhaltung, Einband sauber und unbestoßen, Seiten hell und sauber, ohne Einträge, Once the spiritual centres of ancient Khmer cities, the temples of Angkor reflect - with consummate artistry - the rise and fall of an empire, and the enduring patterns of Khmer life. [1] The temples of Angkor represent six hundred years (802-1432) of Khmer civilisation - one of Asia's greatest empires. [1]

The rise of Siam (now Thailand) as an empire and nation and the gradual expansion of Vietnam drastically decreased Khmer territory and led to a period when Cambodia was dominated by those kingdoms. [1] Just after the turn of the millennium, there was a 9-year period of political upheaval that ended when King Suryavarman I seized firm control in 1010CE. In the following decades, he led the Khmer to many important military victories including conquering the Mon Empire to the west (capturing much of the area of modern Thailand), thereby bringing the entire western portion of old Funan under Khmer control. [1]

Eight centuries ago, much of what is today known as Southeast Asia was ruled from Cambodia, where the Khmer people's vast Angkorian Empire flourished. [1] The most celebrated examples are found in Angkor, which served as the seat of the empire, an example of Khmer style that totally departed from Indian sculpture tradition is the wholeness of its figure, which bears similarities to the ancient Egyptian sculpture. [1]

"For 1,000 years, beginning in the sixth century and particularly during the Angkor period, anonymous Khmer artists and craftsmen produced some of the world’s greatest sculptures," says Helen Ibbitson Jessup, an independent scholar and curator specializing in the art of ancient Cambodia and Indonesia. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL Early Khmer history is commonly divided into four periods: Funan, from the early first century A. D. to the middle of the sixth century Chen-La, to 802 A. D. Kambuja or Angkor, 802-1432 and Transitional Cambodia, 1432-1758. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL For the first thousand years of Khmer history, Cambodia was ruled by a series of Hindu kings with an occasional Buddhist king, such as Jayavarman I of Funan, and Suryvarman I. A variety of Buddhist traditions co-existed peacefully throughout Cambodian lands, under the tolerant auspices of Hindu kings, Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Kingdom of Funan. [1] Lan Xang kingdom (Laos) Recorded Laotian history begins with Fa Ngum, the ruler who founded the first Laotian state, Lan Xang, with the help of the Khmer sovereign at Angkor. [1] The history of Angkor as the central area of settlement of the historical kingdom of Kambuja is also the history of the Khmer from the 9th - 15th centuries. [1] Since the 1927 re-discovery of the Khmer temples by a French explorer, Siem Reap has served as the gateway to it's Angkor history providing a source of much needed income and pride for the local people. [1] An informative study of the ancient Khmer capital in Cambodia, exploring its history and architecture and the layout of the temple complex. 8vo. 207+(1)pp, text ills, (7) photo plates. [1] Slight wear to spine. A history of the ancient Khmers (Cambodians), on the peninsula of Indo-China, and of the development of their architecture and sculpture, of which the ancient capital, Angkor Thom, and the nearby temple, Angkor Wat, were the culmination. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. [1]

Khmer an ancient kingdom in SE Asia which reached the peak of its power in the 11th century, when it ruled over the entire Mekong valley from the capital at Angkor. [1] Khmer / kəˈme(ə)r kme(ə)r / • n. 1. an ancient kingdom in Southeast Asia that reached the peak of its power in the 11th century, when it ruled the entire Mekong River valley from the capital at Angkor. [1]

Within less than a century, however, Thai kings succeeded in pushing back the Khmer, and in 1431 they sacked their great capital of Angkor. [1] Two years later a new Cham king, Jaya Harivarman I, arose and threw off Khmer rule, and his successor sacked the Cambodian capital at Angkor in 1177. [1] Yashovarman I (889- ca.910) became famous as the first Angkor king, since he shifted the capital from Roluos 15 km to the north-west, he chose the area surrounding Phnom Bakheng, those days called Yashodharagiri (&bdquoPhnom" is the Khmer term, &bdquogiri" a Sanskrit word for &bdquohill"). [1] From the fourteenth century, Ayutthaya became Angkor's rival. : 222-223 Angkor was besieged by the Ayutthayan king Uthong in 1352, and following its capture the next year, the Khmer monarch was replaced with successive Siamese princes. [3] Indravarman I was the king of the Khmer region of Angkor, in Cambodia, from 877 to 890. [1] The era of the Khmer kingdom of Angkor started around 800 C.E., when King Jayavarman II married into a local ruling family of that place. [7] The bas-reliefs of Angkor temples, such as those in Bayon, describe everyday life of the ancient Khmer kingdom, including scenes of palace life, naval battles on the river or lakes, and common scenes of the marketplace. [3] A twelfth or thirteenth century relief at the Bayon temple in Angkor depicts the Khmer army going to war against the Cham. [7] By the 14th century, the Siamese Ayutthaya Kingdom became the Khmer empire's formidable rival, as Angkor was besieged and captured twice by Ayutthayan Siamese invaders in 1353 and 1394. [3] Angkor bears testimony to the Khmer empire's immense power and wealth, and the variety of belief systems that it patronized over time. [7]

With constant pressure from the Chams, Bagans, and Thais, the ancient Khmer were forced to cede their power and leave the Angkor area to the care of nature. [8] After Thai invaders (Siamese) conquered Angkor in 1431, the Khmer capital moved to Phnom Penh, which became an important trade center on the Mekong River. [7] After the 13th century, Angkor suffered repeated invasions by the Thai from the west, pressuring the Khmer and contributing to the capital being moved from Angkor. [9]

The early Khmer temples built in the Angkor region and the Bakong temple in Hariharalaya ( Roluos ) employed stepped pyramid structures to represent the sacred temple-mountain. [3] Many temples from this period however, like Bayon and Angkor Wat still remain today, scattered throughout Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam as a reminder of the grandeur of Khmer arts and culture. [1] In this paper, I just want to mention about Khmer Kingdom’s history in Cambodia and Vietnam from 9th to 15th century. [1] Ang Chan was a brilliant monarch of the Khmer in the middle era for Cambodian history, after he died his two sons took Cambodian throne, but Cambodia went down into a civil war and getting bad decline. [1] The place has a long history behind it and reminds one of the horrifying times that the people of Cambodia have gone through during the reign of Khmer and after. [1] The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(26 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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