Newport III LST-1179 - History

Newport III LST-1179 - History


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Newport III
(LST-1179: dp. 8,342; 1. 522'3"; b. 69'5"; dr. 15'; s. 20 k.; cpl. 231; a. 4 3"; cl. Newport)

The third Newport was laid down 1 November 1966 by the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Philadelaphia, Pa.; launched 3 February 1968; sponsored by Mrs. Claiborne Pell; and commissioned 7 June 1969.

As the first of a new class of LST, she is unlike any other LST previously built. She ean steam twice as fast as her World War II predecessors and earry over twice as many troops. She has an over the bow ramp instead of the usual bow doors and a stern Kate to enable her to off load from both ends simultaneously.

Assigned to Amphibious Squadron 8 and home ported at Little Creek, Va. Newport carried out a vigorous training program to prepare for active service in the Fleet.


Eileen G. Slocum, 92, Dies Society Doyenne and Republican Stalwart

Eileen G. Slocum, a doyenne of Newport, R.I., society who was a stalwart of the Republican Party both in Rhode Island and nationally and whose family history is dotted with connections to the most moneyed and powerful of the American aristocracy, died on Sunday in Newport. She was 92.

Weakened after a stroke in the fall, she died after contracting pneumonia, said her daughter Margy Quinn.

The wife of a diplomat who served in Egypt and Germany, among other places, and a descendant of the Brown of Brown University, Mrs. Slocum came to be described as Newport’s “grande dame” — “that silly name,” Ms. Quinn said — after moving full time to the family estate she inherited from her aunt in the 1960s and becoming involved in politics.

The house, which was built in the 1890s on Bellevue Avenue, often called Millionaire’s Row, has two libraries and its own marble ballroom and was the site of many Republican fund-raisers for the likes of President Gerald R. Ford, Senator Elizabeth Dole of North Carolina and Vice President Dick Cheney.

Mrs. Slocum, who was vice chairman of the Republican State Central Committee for many years, was Rhode Island’s Republican national committeewoman from 1992 until earlier this year and a delegate to several Republican national conventions. She had hoped to be present at the convention next month in St. Paul, said her son, John J. Slocum Jr.

Eileen Gillespie was born on Dec. 21, 1915, in Manhattan. Her father, Lawrence Lewis Gillespie, was a banker. Her mother, Irene Muriel Sherman, was the granddaughter of John Carter Brown, the philanthropist and bibliophile whose book collection formed the basis of the John Carter Brown Library for research in history and humanities at Brown University. His father, Nicholas Brown Jr., was the benefactor for whom the university named itself, changing it from College of Rhode Island in 1804. Other Brown family members included slave traders and abolitionists.

Young Miss Gillespie was educated at Miss Hewitt’s Classes (now the Hewitt School) on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, where she learned to be precise in vocabulary and diction. She often told her daughters that Miss Hewitt had said, “If you have to use your hands when you speak, you’re not communicating well enough in words.”

At 17, she was engaged to John Jacob Astor V, whose mother was pregnant with him on the Titanic and whose millionaire father died when it sank. Two days before the wedding, however, she ended the engagement, causing enough of a scandal that her mother swept the whole family off to Europe to wait out the hoopla.

“She felt that he had grown up lonely,” Ms. Quinn said of her mother and the rejected fiancé. “He was a bit eccentric, and she felt he wasn’t mature enough to get married.”

Seven years later, in 1940, after a stormy courtship — “My father was very possessive,” Ms. Quinn said — she married John Jermain Slocum. He had graduated from journalism school and, on the recommendation of his Harvard roommate, David Rockefeller, had become a press aide to Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia of New York. After serving in the Army during World War II, he joined the foreign service, and for two decades he and his wife and their three children lived mostly abroad.

Like her father, Mrs. Slocum’s husband was a bibliophile and collector, and his James Joyce collection, probably the finest in the world, was given to Yale in 1951. He also supported writers (his friends included Henry Miller and Gertrude Stein), though the literary crowd made his wife uncomfortable.

“They were a bit rowdy,” Ms. Quinn said.

Mr. Slocum, who died in 1997, retired from government service in 1970, which freed his wife to pursue her political and social interests. She became known as a consummate party-giver. The house on Bellevue Avenue often overflowed with family.

In addition to Ms. Quinn, of Falls Church, Va., and Mr. Slocum, of Newport, who is known as Jerry, she is survived by another daughter, Beryl Powell, whose former husband was Adam Clayton Powell III 11 grandchildren and 20 great-grandchildren.

Newport, with its society life based on private clubs — the Reading Room, the Clambake Club and the Spouting Rock Beach Association, better known as Bailey’s Beach, among them — is home to one of the last bastions of old money, and Mrs. Slocum was devoted to preserving it. In 2000, she was asked by The Providence Journal why Newport society had not been invaded by Hollywood and Wall Street.

“By being rather fastidious about the people in the clubs,” she said, “we’ve managed to control the particular atmosphere of the community.”


ROBERT de Caen

illegitimate son of HENRY I King of England & his mistress --- ([1090]-Bristol 31 Oct 1147, bur Priory of St James, Bristol). Also known as Robert FitzRoy. Orderic Vitalis records him as "Robert the king's son", and specifies that he led a force from the Cotentin in Sep 1123 to quell the rebellion led by Amaury de Montfort Comte d'Evreux and Waleran de Beaumont Comte de Meulan[1868]. According to the Gwentian Chronicle, Robert was the king’s son by "Nest, daughter of Rhys son of Tewdwr, who was afterwards the wife of Gerald of Pembroke Castle"[1869], but this appears unlikely from a chronological point of view. He was created Earl of Gloucester in [Jun/Sep] 1122. He had the custody of his uncle Robert ex-Duke of Normandy as a prisoner at Bristol in 1126. He did homage to King Stephen in 1136, but quarrelled with him in 1137, and his English and Welsh estates were forfeited. He joined forces with his half-sister "Empress" Matilda, landing in England with her in Sep 1139. He became her commander-in-chief in the civil war. After a series of successes against King Stephen’s forces, including the capture of the King at Lincoln in Feb 1141, he himself was captured at Stockbridge 14 Sep 1141 and imprisoned at Rochester. He was freed shortly after in exchange for the king[1870]. The Gesta Stephani Regis records the death of "comes…Glaorniæ" at Bristol, dated from the context to [1147][1871].

m (before [1112]%29 MABEL [Matilda or Sibylle] FitzRobert, daughter & heiress of ROBERT FitzHamon Lord of Glamorgan and Gloucester & his wife Sibylle de Montgomery (-[29 Sep] 1157). The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names (in order) “Mabiliam, Hawysiam, Ceciliam, Amisiam” as the four daughters of ”Robertum filium Haymonis, dominum de Astramervilla in Normannia”, recording that Mabile married Robert Fitzroy[1872]. Orderic Vitalis records that “Rodbertus Henrici regis filius” married “Rodberto Haimonis filio. [et] Sibiliam Rogerii comitis filiam. filiam. Mathildem”[1873]. Robert of Torigny records that "filia Roberti Belismensis" was the mother of "Rogerius Wigornensis episcopus", son of "Robertus comes Gloecestrensis𠉯ilius primi Henrici regis Anglorum", clarifying that the bishop's grandfather was "Robertus filius Haimonis dominus de Torigneio"[1874]. The Annals of Tewkesbury record that “Mabilia comitissa Gloucestriæ” died in 1157[1875].

Earl Robert & his wife had [seven] children:

1. WILLIAM FitzRobert (23 Nov [1112]-23 Nov 1183, bur Keynsham Abbey, Somerset). The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records that 𠇌omes Willielmus filius et hæres eiusdem” succeeded on the death of Robert Earl of Gloucester[1876]. He succeeded his father in 1147 as Earl of Gloucester.

2. ROGER FitzRobert (-Tours 9 Aug 1179, bur Tours). The Annals of Tewkesbury record that “Rogerus filius comitis Gloecestriæ” was appointed Bishop of Worcester in Mar 1163, and consecrated “X Kal Sep” in 1164[1877]. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1180 of "Rogerius Wigornensis episcopus" at "Turonis", specifying that his father was "Robertus comes Gloecestrensis𠉯ilius primi Henrici regis Anglorum" and his mother "filia Roberti Belismensis"[1878].

3. HAMON FitzRobert (-killed at the siege of Toulouse 1159). The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1159 at Toulouse of "Hamo the son of the earl of Gloucester, deceased"[1879].

4. PHILIP FitzRobert (-after 1147). The Gesta Stephani Regis records that "Philippum filium Glaornensis comitis" was given command of Cricklade in succession to "Willelmus� Dovre" but later joined King Stephen, dated from the context to [1147][1880]. He went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land[1881]. "Philippo quoque filio comitis Gloecestrie" is recorded as present in a letter from Hugues Archbishop of Rouen to Emma abbess of St Amand, in a charter dated 1147[1882].

5. MATILDA FitzRobert (-29 Jul 1190). Robert of Torigny refers to the wife of "Ranulfus comes Cestriæ" as "filia Roberti comitis Gloecestriæ"[1883]. The Rotuli de Dominabus of 1185 records property “Wadinton de feodo comitis Cestrie” held by “Matillis comitissa Cestrie𠉯ilia Roberti comitis Gloecestrie, filii regis Henrici primi”[1884]. It was alleged that she and William Peverell of Nottingham poisoned her husband[1885]. "Hugo comes Cestrie" confirmed a donation of land in Thoresby donated by "Willelmus filius Othuer" to Greenfield priory, Lincolnshire, for the soul of "patris mei Randulfi", by charter dated to [1155] witnessed by "Matilla matre sua…"[1886]. The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “IV Kal Aug” in 1190 of “Matildis comitissa Cestria”[1887]. m ([1141]%29 RANULF � Gernon” Earl of Chester, son of RANULPH “le Meschin” Vicomte de Bayeux & his wife Lucy --- (Château de Gernon, Normandy before 1100-[murdered] 16 Dec 1153, bur Chester, Abbey of St Werburg).

6. MABEL FitzRobert. "Mabira daughter of Earl Robert, mother of Jordan de Campo Ernulfi and lady of Maisoncelles [Mansum cellarum]" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Etienne, Plessis-Grimoud by charter dated [1170][1888]. [1889][m AUBREY de Vere].

7. RICHARD FitzRobert ([1120/35]-1175). His parentage is confirmed by the undated charter under which his son "Roger de Croylet, fils de Richard fils du comte de Gloucester" donated property to the abbey of Ardennes, Calvados[1890]. He succeeded his mother as Sire de Creully.

Earl Robert had [four] [illegitimate] children:

8. RICHARD (-3 Apr 1142). Orderic Vitalis names Richard as son of "the king's son Robert", and records that he was appointed Bishop of Bayeux in 1135[1891], having obtained the Pope's dispensation to hold religious office despite his illegitimate birth[1892]. The Gesta Stephani Regis records the death of "Roberti Glaornensis comitis filius", dated from the context to [1142][1893]. The son in question is not named and it is not certain that this entry refers to Richard.

9. ROBERT FitzRobert (-1170). The 1155 Pipe Roll records "Rob. fil. Com. Gloecestr." in Somerset[1894]. Named in charters in [1160], and addressed as Castellan of Gloucester[1895]. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1170 of "Roberto filio Roberti comitis Gloecestriæ"[1896]. [1897]m ([1147]%29 HAWISE de Reviers, daughter of BALDWIN de Reviers Earl of Devon & his first wife Adelisa --- (-[1215]). The 1194/95 Pipe Roll records "Agnes uxor Roberti f comitis de Gloecr" in Lincolnshire[1898]. Robert & his wife had one child: a) [1899]MABEL . m firstly JORDAN de Chambernon, son of ---. m secondly WILLIAM de Soliers, son of ---.

10. MABEL . She is referred to as Earl Robert's illegitimate daughter in Domesday Descendants[1900]. It is not known whether she is the same person as Mabel who is shown above as Earl Robert's legitimate daughter. m GRIFFITH ap IVOR Bach .

11. [--- . It is not known whether the parent of Thomas was one of the other illegitimate children of Robert Earl of Gloucester who are named above. According to Domesday Descendants, Thomas was nephew of Earl William’s father Robert, citing a charter of the Earldom of Gloucester (not yet consulted)[1901]. m ---.] One child: a) THOMAS (-after 1176). The 1176/77 Pipe Roll names "Tomas nepos comitis Gloecestr et Ricardus filius eius" in Dorset and Somerset[1902]. m ---. The name of Thomas’s wife is not known. Thomas & his wife had one child: i) RICHARD . The 1176/77 Pipe Roll names "Tomas nepos comitis Gloecestr et Ricardus filius eius" in Dorset and Somerset[1903].

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 – October 31, 1147) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Early life

Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. Although generally said to have been the son of Sybil Corbet, his mother is not known for certain.

Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux. It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury. William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl.

Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and around 1114 he married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester.

Career at court

St Marys Church, Luton town centre, founded in 1121 by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester.Robert developed a role as one of his father's principal aides and Captains. In 1119, he fought at the Battle of Bremule, and in 1123-24 he was one of the King's chief commanders during the Norman rebellion. Following the drowning of the King's only legitimate son, William Adelin, in 1120, Robert became increasingly caught up in his father's attempts to ensure the succession of the Empress Matilda, Robert's half-sister. It was to Robert's custody in his castle of Cardiff that his uncle, the deposed Duke Robert Curthose was eventually confided in 1126. On 1 January 1127 it was Robert who was one of the first to swear to accept Matilda as Queen after Henry's death. His father at some point gave him the keeping of the castles of Dover and Canterbury, and thus control of Kent and the cross-Channel route. When King Henry fell mortally ill at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy on 25 November 1135, Earl Robert was at his side and was one of the magnates who swore to stay with the King's body until it was buried. The King died a week after falling ill, on 1 December 1135.

Relationship with King Stephen

After his father's death, Robert attended a series of conferences in Normandy and eventually accepted as King Theobald IV, Count of Blois and King Henry's oldest nephew by his sister Adela. However, during the meeting with Theobald, news reach the Norman magnates that Theobald's younger brother, Stephen of Mortain and Boulogne, had been accepted and crowned as King in England. Robert eventually accepted this and at Easter 1136 attended the new King's ceremonial court. He does not seem to have seriously considered supporting the Empress Matilda, and did not assist her invasion of southern Normandy. There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out:

"Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself."

This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule.

Robert of Gloucester had other distractions in 1136 which put the succession question out of his mind. The Welsh princes of south east Wales rose against the Anglo-Norman settlers of the Welsh Marches in April and Robert spent much of the year stabilising the situation in that region. He reached peace treaties with the Welsh and recognised the gains of Morgan ab Owain (died 1158), who called himself King of Glamorgan. In England, Robert of Gloucester soon became disenchanted with King Stephen, and by the end of 1137 had withdrawn from his Court. It is clear that he was disgruntled that he did not occupy the central place in politics that he had in the last reign. He was also alarmed at the favour with which the King regarded his Flemish mercenary general, William of Ypres, and the rising power of the Beaumont twins, Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. In 1138, Robert declared his support for the Empress Matilda, but he was defeated in Normandy by Waleran and his English allies were crushed by Stephen and driven back on his fortress of Bristol.

The Civil War, 1139-1147

Earl Robert took a great gamble and sailed for England with his half-sister, the Empress, his wife and a company of knights. They landed at Arundel on 30 September 1139, and were welcomed into Arundel Castle there, the possession of Queen Adeliza, Matilda's stepmother. Robert left for Bristol immediately. In his absence the castle was blockaded by King Stephen, opening the possibility that he might seize his dynastic rival. The King in the end let the Empress and Countess depart, under escort, to Bristol.

With Earl Robert and the Empress in England and based in the West Country and Severn valley, the civil war had begun. The Earl's first moves are revealing. He commanded raids against Wareham in Dorset and Worcester. Both were possessions of the Beaumonts. He took Robert of Leicester's lands in Dorset for his own. He did much the same to other royalists within his area, mass deprivations which were at the heart of what is called the Anarchy. Although secure in a heartland of support, Earl Robert did not find it easy to recruit wider support and break out. The King succeeded in containing him along the line of the Cotswold Hills, with such effect that both sides were willing to send representatives to a peace conference held at Bath in August 1140, though nothing came of it.

Earl Robert's big opportunity came at Christmas 1140, when King Stephen fell out with Earl Ranulf II of Chester. Ranulf's failed negotiations with the King to secure Lincoln Castle led him to ally with Robert, his father-in-law. They united their forces at Castle Donington in January 1141, including a host of Welsh mercenaries allied to Earl Robert. On 2 February 1141 the Earls met and defeated King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. With the King captive, Empress Matilda should have secured the throne, but a combination of stubborn royalist support, the Empress's miscalculation and military misjudgement led to her failure. On 14 September 1141 Earl Robert and the Empress were trapped by a royalist army in an ill-judged attempt to seize control of Winchester. Earl Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action against the forces of Matilda of Boulogne, Stephen's wife, at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow his sister to escape. Earl Robert was imprisoned for two months at Rochester Castle before he was released in an exchange with King Stephen. The cross-over point in the joint release was on 1 November 1141 at Winchester, where the two men had a chance to exchange friendly remarks, and the Earl apparently assured the King that there was nothing personal in the fight as far as he was concerned.

The war continued and it rapidly became evident that it was a stalemate. The Empress's husband refused to commit the resources to tip the balance in England, only agreeing to discuss matters with the Earl. In June 1142 Robert crossed from Wareham to Normandy and stayed there till the end of October. He came back with no reinforcements, but with his nephew Henry, the son of the Empress. In the meantime the Empress had been trapped in Oxford. Nothing could be done to release her, and she had to manage her own escape from the castle.

Robert continued the struggle but with less and less hope of ultimate victory. The King also had limited resources, but managed slowly to push towards Robert's centres of Bristol and Gloucester. At the end of 1145 Philip, Earl Robert's son and military Captain, defected to Stephen, taking with him the strategic castles of Cricklade and Cirencester. With Gloucester and Bristol under threat, the Earl opened negotiations in the autumn of 1146. The pressure continued in 1147, and it was in a desperate attack on Farnham in Surrey in the late summer of that year that Earl Robert fought his last unsuccessful action of the war. He retired to Bristol to gather new forces, but became feverish. He died on 31 October 1147 and was buried in the priory of St James he had founded outside the castle.

Family and children

He married, around 1114, Mabel of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery. Their children were:

  • William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, died 1183. He married Hawise (died 1197) daughter of Robert II, Earl of Leicester.
  • Roger, Bishop of Worcester, (died 9 August 1179, Tours).
  • Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.
  • Robert. (died before 1157) Also called Robert of Ilchester in documents. He married Hawise, (died after 1210) daughter of Baldwin de Redvers and Adeliz. Their daughter Mabel married Jordan de Cambernon.
  • Matilda, (died 1189), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester.
  • Philip, Castellan of Cricklade, (died after 1147). He took part in the Second Crusade.
  • Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142), by Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133).

Natural son of Henry I of England. [Ped. of Charlemagne]

'The Consul', Earl of Gloucester, 1122-47. [Ped. of Charlemagne]

Initially supported Stephen of Blois as successor of his father, Henry I. Robert led a revolt against Stephen in 1138 which stripped Stephen of Caen and half of Normandy. During the next 17 years England was in a constant state of dissension between the factions wishing to be on the throne. At one point Earl Robert was captured during a battle at Devizes. Later in 1142 Stephen himself was besieged and exchanged himself for Earl Robert. [WBH - England]

Earl of Mellent, who was created, in 1109, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I by Elizabeth de Bellomont. [Magna Charta Barons, p. 88]

Chief of King Stephen's nobles. A plot which Robert of Gloucester had been weaving from the outset of Stephen's reign came to a head in 1138, and the Earl's revolt stripped Stephen of Caen and half Normandy. [Nations of the World - England, p. 162-3]

Lincoln Castle, Feb 1141 -- Robert comes to the aid of Ranulf of Chester who is being beseiged in his castle by King Stephen. Robert's superior forces soon overpower Stephen who refuses to flee. Stephen is captured and held in Robert's castle in chains. In November Robert and his half-sister Empress Matilda met Stephen's forces outside Winchester and this time Earl Robert was captured. Robert and Stephen were then exchanged, but Stephen is king again. The civil war is not over. [Chronicle of the Royal Family, p. 45]

Illegitimate son of Henry I 1st Earl of Gloucester, m. Mabel FitzHamon father of Maud of Gloucester, Mabira de Caen and William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester. [The Royal Descents, p. 387, 389, 396]

Patron of Geoffrey of Monmouth, the historian who wrote HISTORIA REGUM BRITANNIAE (The History of the Kings of Britain). After his father King Henry I's death in 1135, Robert was the most dedicated defender of the right of his half-sister, Matilda, to succeed their father he and his fellow Marcher Lords refused to acknowledge the authority of Stephen, Henry's nephew and the anointed king of England. [A History of Wales, p. 124]

Earl of Gloucester natural son of Henry I, king of England, and Elizabeth de Bellomont m. Mabel FitzHamon father of Maud of Gloucester. [Charlemagne & Others, Chart 2917]

Natural son of Henry I and a Welsh princess named Nesta who had been made a prisoner during some fighting along the Marches. He was a man of lofty ideals, of great courage and compassion, a capable leader and soldier. Present at his father's death. [The Conquering Family, p. 9]

Earl of Gloucester d. 1147 m. Mabel, dau. of Robert Fitz Hamon father of William Fitz Robert. [Ancestral Roots, p. 66]

Son of Henry I, king of England, by an unknown mistress. [Ancestral Roots, p. 112]

Earl of Gloucester m. Mabel Fitz Hamon father of Philip Fitz Robert died 31 Oct 1147 of fever in Bristol, England. [Charlemagne & Others, Chart 2968]

The open declaration of Robert of Gloucester for Matilda in 1138, and the landing of the empress herself in the following year, were followed by the secession from Stephen of the greater part of Western England. [The Victoria History of the Counties of England, p. 358]

The southwestern counties rose at the instigation of Robert of Gloucester (illegitimate son of Henry I and brother to Matilda), who had thrown off his allegiance to Stephen and fled abroad, allegint that Stephen was a usurper of the throne. In the fall of 1139, Robert and his sister Matilda came back to England from abroad. The arrival converted the unrest, already manifest, into a civil war which lasted for 14 years. In 1141 King Stephen was defeated. He was sent to prison in Bristol but the civil war went on. Year after year Matilda lost ground. The death of Robert of Gloucester, in 1147, deprived hr of her chief support and the following year she retired to Anjou and gave up her struggle. [The Fosters of Flanders, England, and America, p. 9]

Robert, Earl of Gloucester, was responsible for the building in masonry of a polygonal keep at Cardiff, probably a precaution taken against the Welsh uprising of 1136, which followed the death of Henry I the previous year, and which resulted in general civil discontent. The keep dominates the castle enclosure not only by its extraordinary height, but by its sheer size. [The Castles of Wales, p. 62]

When Robert the Consul became Lord of Cardiff Castle in the 12th century it already had a history going back over a thousand years. The Romans built their first fort on the site almost 2000 years ago.

His father, Henry I, raised Robert to the earldom of Gloucester and made him lord of Glamorgan in 1122. The earl or 'consul' of Gloucester dominated the political scene in England after the death of his father during the long and bitter struggle for the throne between Matilda and Stephen. It was 'Robert the Consul', lauded on all sides as a brave soldier, wise statesman and patron of the arts, who is credited with having built the first stone keep of Cardiff Castle, and it was in the keep that he imprisoned at King Henry's behest, another Robert--the second duke of Normandy and his father's older brother--from 1126 until Robert of Normandy's death in 1134.

Robert 'the Consul' died in 1147, to be succeeded by his son William. [Cardiff Castle].

He was the chief supporter of the royal claimant Matilda during her war with King Stephen of England (reigned 1135-54). .

The illegitimate son of King Henry I of England (reigned 1100-35), he was made Earl of Gloucester in 1122. After the death of Henry I and usurpation of power by Stephen (December 1135), Gloucester became the leader of the party loyal to Matilda, his half sister, who had been designated heir to the throne by Henry I. He took Matilda to England in September 1139 and at the head of her forces won from Stephen most of western England and southern Wales. In February 1141 he captured Stephen at Lincoln and imprisoned him in Bristol. Later that year Gloucester was captured at Winchester, Hampshire, and exchanged for the king. He continued to be the mainstay of Matilda's cause until his death. The 12th-century chroniclers considered Gloucester an able and sagacious leader.

Copyright © 1994-2000 Encyclop๭ia Britannica, Inc.

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 – 31 October 1147) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Children - Richard Fitzrobert, Matilda Fitzrobert, William Fitzrobert, Roger Fitzrobert, Hamon Fitzrobert, Richard Fitzrobert, Mabel Fitzrobert

66454970. Robert Earl of Caen was born about 1090 in Of Caen, Calvados, Frn. He died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng. He was buried in Prioryofst James, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng. He married Mabel or Maud Fitzhamon Countess about 1109 in , , Eng.

The 12th-century chroniclers considered Robert FitzRoy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester, an able and sagacious leader.

Robert was the bastard son of King Henry I by an unnamed mistress.

He also went by the name of Robert "the Consul."

Robert married Mabel FitzHamon, daughter of Robert fitz Hamon, Lord of Glamorgan and Sybil de Montgomery, in 1115 in Gloucestershire.

He was created Earl of Gloucester between June 1122 and September 1122.

Robert was one of the 5 Earls who witnessed the Charter to Salisbury granted at the Northampton Council of King Henry I on 8 September 1131 in Northampton.

Robert was the chief supporter of the royal claimant Matilda during her war with King Stephen of England between 1135 and 1154.

Geoffrey of Monmouth dedicated his work, History of the Kings of England, to Robert. "To you, therefore, Robert earl of Gloucester, this work humbly sues for the favour of being so corrected by your advice, that may not be thought to be the poor offspring of Geoffrey of Monmouth, but when polished by your refined with and judgment, the production of him who had Henry the glorious king of England for his father, and whom we see an accomplished scholar and philosopher, as well as a brave soldier and expert commander so that Britain with joy acknowledges, that in you she possesses another Henry."

Robert took Matilda to England and at the head of her forces won from Stephen most of western England and southern Wales in September 1139. He captured King Stephen at Lincoln and imprisoned him in Bristol in February 1141. Robert himself was captured at Winchester, Hampshire, and exchanged for the King after February 1141. Robert died on 31 October 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire--apparently in prison.

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

Robert was an illegitimate son of Henry I and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. Although generally said to have been the son of Sybil Corbet, his mother is not known for certain.

Robert was acknowledged at birth though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux. It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an Episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury. William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl.

Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113 and around 1114 he married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester.

Robert developed a role as one of his father's principal aides and Captains. In 1119 he fought at the Battle of Bremule, and in 1123-24 he was one of the King's chief commanders during the Norman rebellion. Following the drowning of the King's only legitimate son, William Adelin, in 1120, Robert became increasingly caught up in his father's attempts to ensure the succession of the Empress Matilda, Robert's half-sister. It was to Robert's custody in his castle of Cardiff that his uncle, the deposed Duke Robert Curthose was eventually confided in 1126. On 1 January 1127 it was Robert who was one of the first to swear to accept Matilda as Queen after Henry's death. His father at some point gave him the keeping of the castles of Dover and Canterbury, and thus control of Kent and the cross-Channel route. When Henry fell mortally ill at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy on 25 November 1135, Earl Robert was at his side and was one of the magnates who swore to stay with the King's body until it was buried. The King died a week after falling ill on 1 December 1135.

After his father's death, Robert attended a series of conferences in Normandy and eventually accepted as King Theobald IV, Count of Blois and Henry's oldest nephew by his sister Adela. However, during the meeting with Theobald, news reach the Norman magnates that Theobald's younger brother, Stephen of Mortain and Boulogne, had been accepted and crowned as King in England. Robert eventually accepted this and at Easter 1136 attended the new King's ceremonial court. He does not seem to have seriously considered supporting the Empress Matilda and did not assist her invasion of southern Normandy. There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne but his illegitimacy ruled him out:

"Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself."

This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule.

Robert of Gloucester had other distractions in 1136 which put the succession question out of his mind. The Welsh princes of south east Wales rose against the Anglo-Norman settlers of the Welsh Marches in April and Robert spent much of the year stabilising the situation in that region. He reached peace treaties with the Welsh and recognised the gains of Morgan ab Owain (died 1158), who called himself King of Glamorgan. In England Robert of Gloucester soon became disenchanted with Stephen and by the end of 1137 had withdrawn from his Court. It is clear that he was disgruntled that he did not occupy the central place in politics that he had in the last reign. He was also alarmed at the favour with which the King regarded his Flemish mercenary general, William of Ypres, and the rising power of the Beaumont twins, Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. In 1138 Robert declared his support for the Empress Matilda but he was defeated in Normandy by Waleran and his English allies were crushed by Stephen and driven back on his fortress of Bristol.

Earl Robert took a great gamble and sailed for England with his half-sister, the Empress, his wife and a company of knights. They landed at Arundel on 30 September 1139 and were welcomed into Arundel Castle, the possession of Queen Adeliza, Matilda's stepmother. Robert left for Bristol immediately. In his absence the castle was blockaded by Stephen, opening the possibility that he might seize his dynastic rival. The King in the end let the Empress and Countess depart, under escort, to Bristol.

With Earl Robert and the Empress in England and based in the West Country and Severn valley, the civil war had begun. The Earl's first moves are revealing. He commanded raids against Wareham in Dorset and Worcester. Both were possessions of the Beaumonts. He took Robert of Leicester's lands in Dorset for his own. He did much the same to other royalists within his area, mass deprivations which were at the heart of what is called the Anarchy. Although secure in a heartland of support, Earl Robert did not find it easy to recruit wider support and break out. The King succeeded in containing him along the line of the Cotswold Hills with such effect that both sides were willing to send representatives to a peace conference held at Bath in August 1140, though nothing came of it.

Earl Robert's big opportunity came at Christmas 1140 when Stephen fell out with Earl Ranulf II of Chester. Ranulf's failed negotiations with the King to secure Lincoln Castle led him to ally with Robert, his father-in-law. They united their forces at Castle Donington in January 1141 including a host of Welsh mercenaries allied to Earl Robert. On 2 February 1141 the Earls met and defeated Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. With the King captive Empress Matilda should have secured the throne but a combination of stubborn royalist support, the Empress's miscalculation and military misjudgement led to her failure. On 14 September 1141 Earl Robert and the Empress were trapped by a royalist army in an ill-judged attempt to seize control of Winchester. Earl Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action against the forces of Matilda of Boulogne, Stephen's wife, at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow his sister to escape. Earl Robert was imprisoned for two months at Rochester Castle before he was released in an exchange with Stephen. The cross-over point in the joint release was on 1 November 1141 at Winchester where the two men had a chance to exchange friendly remarks and the Earl apparently assured the King that there was nothing personal in the fight as far as he was concerned.

The war continued and it rapidly became evident that it was a stalemate. The Empress's husband refused to commit the resources to tip the balance in England only agreeing to discuss matters with the Earl. In June 1142 Robert crossed from Wareham to Normandy and stayed there until the end of October. He came back with no reinforcements but with his nephew, Henry, the son of the Empress. In the meantime the Empress had been trapped in Oxford. Nothing could be done to release her and she had to manage her own escape from the castle.

Robert continued the struggle but with less and less hope of ultimate victory. The King also had limited resources but managed to slowly push towards Robert's centres of Bristol and Gloucester. At the end of 1145 Philip, Earl Robert's son and military Captain, defected to Stephen, taking with him the strategic castles of Cricklade and Cirencester. With Gloucester and Bristol under threat, the Earl opened negotiations in the autumn of 1146. The pressure continued in 1147 and it was in a desperate attack on Farnham in Surrey in the late summer of that year that Earl Robert fought his last unsuccessful action of the war. He retired to Bristol to gather new forces but became feverish. He died on 31 October 1147 and was buried in the priory of St James he had founded outside the castle.

He married, around 1114, Mabel of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery. Their children were:

1.William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, died 1183. He married Hawise (died 1197) daughter of Robert II, Earl of Leicester.

2.Roger, Bishop of Worcester, (died 9 August 1179, Tours).

3.Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.

4.Robert. (died before 1157) Also called Robert of Ilchester in documents. He married Hawise, (died after 1210) daughter of Baldwin de Redvers and Adeliz. Their daughter Mabel married Jordan de Cambernon.

5.Matilda, (died 1189), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester.

6.Philip, Castellan of Cricklade, (died after 1147). He took part in the Second Crusade.

Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142) by Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133). 56

. His mother is uncertain. Baron de Creully & Torigni was born in 1100 at Caen, France. Earl of Gloucester, Baron de Creully & Torigni Robert, Earl of Gloucester, Baron de Creully & Torigni was born in 1100 at Caen, France. He married Maud FitzHamon, daughter of Robert FitzHamon and Sybil Montgomery, in 1119. Robert, Earl of Gloucester, Baron de Creully & Torigni died on 31 October 1147 at Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p158.htm#i.

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 – October 31, 1147) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'. Early life: Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. Although generally said to have been the son of Sybil Corbet, his mother is not known for certain. Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux. It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury. William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl. Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and around 1114 he married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester. Career at court: St Marys Church, Luton town centre, founded in 1121 by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester.Robert developed a role as one of his father's principal aides and Captains. In 1119, he fought at the Battle of Bremule, and in 1123-24 he was one of the King's chief commanders during the Norman rebellion. Following the drowning of the King's only legitimate son, William Adelin, in 1120, Robert became increasingly caught up in his father's attempts to ensure the succession of the Empress Matilda, Robert's half-sister. It was to Robert's custody in his castle of Cardiff that his uncle, the deposed Duke Robert Curthose was eventually confided in 1126. On 1 January 1127 it was Robert who was one of the first to swear to accept Matilda as Queen after Henry's death. His father at some point gave him the keeping of the castles of Dover and Canterbury, and thus control of Kent and the cross-Channel route. When King Henry fell mortally ill at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy on 25 November 1135, Earl Robert was at his side and was one of the magnates who swore to stay with the King's body until it was buried. The King died a week after falling ill, on 1 December 1135. Relationship with King Stephen: After his father's death, Robert attended a series of conferences in Normandy and eventually accepted as King Theobald IV, Count of Blois and King Henry's oldest nephew by his sister Adela. However, during the meeting with Theobald, news reach the Norman magnates that Theobald's younger brother, Stephen of Mortain and Boulogne, had been accepted and crowned as King in England. Robert eventually accepted this and at Easter 1136 attended the new King's ceremonial court. He does not seem to have seriously considered supporting the Empress Matilda, and did not assist her invasion of southern Normandy. There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out: "Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself." This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule. Robert of Gloucester had other distractions in 1136 which put the succession question out of his mind. The Welsh princes of south east Wales rose against the Anglo-Norman settlers of the Welsh Marches in April and Robert spent much of the year stabilising the situation in that region. He reached peace treaties with the Welsh and recognised the gains of Morgan ab Owain (died 1158), who called himself King of Glamorgan. In England, Robert of Gloucester soon became disenchanted with King Stephen, and by the end of 1137 had withdrawn from his Court. It is clear that he was disgruntled that he did not occupy the central place in politics that he had in the last reign. He was also alarmed at the favour with which the King regarded his Flemish mercenary general, William of Ypres, and the rising power of the Beaumont twins, Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. In 1138, Robert declared his support for the Empress Matilda, but he was defeated in Normandy by Waleran and his English allies were crushed by Stephen and driven back on his fortress of Bristol. The Civil War, 1139-1147: Earl Robert took a great gamble and sailed for England with his half-sister, the Empress, his wife and a company of knights. They landed at Arundel on 30 September 1139, and were welcomed into Arundel Castle there, the possession of Queen Adeliza, Matilda's stepmother. Robert left for Bristol immediately. In his absence the castle was blockaded by King Stephen, opening the possibility that he might seize his dynastic rival. The King in the end let the Empress and Countess depart, under escort, to Bristol. With Earl Robert and the Empress in England and based in the West Country and Severn valley, the civil war had begun. The Earl's first moves are revealing. He commanded raids against Wareham in Dorset and Worcester. Both were possessions of the Beaumonts. He took Robert of Leicester's lands in Dorset for his own. He did much the same to other royalists within his area, mass deprivations which were at the heart of what is called the Anarchy. Although secure in a heartland of support, Earl Robert did not find it easy to recruit wider support and break out. The King succeeded in containing him along the line of the Cotswold Hills, with such effect that both sides were willing to send representatives to a peace conference held at Bath in August 1140, though nothing came of it. Earl Robert's big opportunity came at Christmas 1140, when King Stephen fell out with Earl Ranulf II of Chester. Ranulf's failed negotiations with the King to secure Lincoln Castle led him to ally with Robert, his father-in-law. They united their forces at Castle Donington in January 1141, including a host of Welsh mercenaries allied to Earl Robert. On 2 February 1141 the Earls met and defeated King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. With the King captive, Empress Matilda should have secured the throne, but a combination of stubborn royalist support, the Empress's miscalculation and military misjudgement led to her failure. On 14 September 1141 Earl Robert and the Empress were trapped by a royalist army in an ill-judged attempt to seize control of Winchester. Earl Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action against the forces of Matilda of Boulogne, Stephen's wife, at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow his sister to escape. Earl Robert was imprisoned for two months at Rochester Castle before he was released in an exchange with King Stephen. The cross-over point in the joint release was on 1 November 1141 at Winchester, where the two men had a chance to exchange friendly remarks, and the Earl apparently assured the King that there was nothing personal in the fight as far as he was concerned. The war continued and it rapidly became evident that it was a stalemate. The Empress's husband refused to commit the resources to tip the balance in England, only agreeing to discuss matters with the Earl. In June 1142 Robert crossed from Wareham to Normandy and stayed there till the end of October. He came back with no reinforcements, but with his nephew Henry, the son of the Empress. In the meantime the Empress had been trapped in Oxford. Nothing could be done to release her, and she had to manage her own escape from the castle. Robert continued the struggle but with less and less hope of ultimate victory. The King also had limited resources, but managed slowly to push towards Robert's centres of Bristol and Gloucester. At the end of 1145 Philip, Earl Robert's son and military Captain, defected to Stephen, taking with him the strategic castles of Cricklade and Cirencester. With Gloucester and Bristol under threat, the Earl opened negotiations in the autumn of 1146. The pressure continued in 1147, and it was in a desperate attack on Farnham in Surrey in the late summer of that year that Earl Robert fought his last unsuccessful action of the war. He retired to Bristol to gather new forces, but became feverish. He died on 31 October 1147 and was buried in the priory of St James he had founded outside the castle. Illegitmate Son of Henry I of England and Grandson of William the Conqueror, Norman King of England.

Robert Fitzroy, 1st Earl of Gloucester (before 1100 – 31 October 1147[1]%29 (alias Robert Rufus, Robert de Caen, Robert Consul[2][3]) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England. He was the half-brother of the Empress Matilda, and her chief military supporter during the civil war known as The Anarchy, in which she vied with Stephen of Blois for the throne of England.

Robert was probably the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children.[1] He was born before his father's accession to the English throne, either during the reign of his grandfather William the Conqueror or his uncle William Rufus.[4] He is sometimes and erroneously designated as a son of Nest, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last king of Deheubarth, although his mother has been identified as a member of "the Gay or Gayt family of north Oxfordshire",[5] possibly a daughter of Rainald Gay (fl. 1086) of Hampton Gay and Northbrook Gay in Oxfordshire. Rainald had known issue Robert Gaay of Hampton (died c. 1138) and Stephen Gay of Northbrook (died after 1154). A number of Oxfordshire women feature as the mothers of Robert's siblings.[5][6]

He may have been a native of Caen[1][7] or he may have been only Constable and Governor of that city, jure uxoris.[2]

His father had contracted him in marriage to Mabel FitzHamon, daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, but the marriage was not solemnized until June 1119 at Lisieux.[1][8] His wife brought him the substantial honours of Gloucester in England and Glamorgan in Wales, and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. After the White Ship disaster late in 1120, and probably because of this marriage,[9] in 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester.

Robert and his wife Mabel FitzHamon had seven children:[11]

William FitzRobert (111?�): succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Gloucester

Roger FitzRobert (died 1179): Bishop of Worcester

Hamon FitzRobert (died 1159): killed at the siege of Toulouse.

Philip FitzRobert (died after 1147): lord of Cricklade

Matilda FitzRobert (died 1190): married in 1141 Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester.

Mabel FitzRobert: married Aubrey de Vere

Richard FitzRobert (1120/35-1175): succeeded his mother as Sire de Creully.

He also had four illegitimate children:

Richard FitzRobert (died 1142): Bishop of Bayeux [mother: Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107�)]

Robert FitzRobert (died 1170): Castellan of Gloucester, married in 1147 Hawise de Reviers (daughter of Baldwin de Reviers, 1st Earl of Devon and his first wife Adelisa), had daughter Mabel FitzRobert (married firstly Jordan de Chambernon and secondly William de Soliers)

Mabel FitzRobert: married Gruffud, Lord of Senghenydd, son of Ifor Bach. This couple were ancestors of Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the U.S.A.[12] Father of Thomas

Relationship with King Stephen[edit]

There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out:

"Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself." This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule.

The capture of King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln on 2 February 1141 gave the Empress Matilda the upper hand in her battle for the throne, but by alienating the citizens of London she failed to be crowned Queen. Her forces were defeated at the Rout of Winchester on 14 September 1141, and Robert of Gloucester was captured nearby at Stockbridge.

The two prisoners, King Stephen and Robert of Gloucester, were then exchanged, but by freeing Stephen, the Empress Matilda had given up her best chance of becoming queen. She later returned to France, where she died in 1167, though her son succeeded Stephen as King Henry II in 1154.

Robert of Gloucester died in 1147 at Bristol Castle, where he had previously imprisoned King Stephen, and was buried at St James' Priory, Bristol, which he had founded.

Birth ABT 1090 • Caen, Basse-Normandie, France

Death 31 OCT 1147 • Bristol, Somerset, England

When Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester FITZROY was born in 1090 in Caen, Calvados, France, his father, Henry, was 22 and his mother, Sybilla, was 13. He had two sons and three daughters with Mabel FITZHAMON. He died on October 31, 1147, at the age of 57.

Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester FITZROY was born in 1090 in Caen, Calvados, France, to Sybilla of Alcester, Mistress CORBET, age 13, and Henry I, King of England NORMANDY, age 22.

Caen, Basse-Normandie, France

ABT 1090 • Caen, Basse-Normandie, France

His sister Sybilla of Normandy was born in 1092 in France when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 2 years old.

Sybilla of Normandy Fitzroy

His half-sister Empress Matilda, Queen of England was born on February 7, 1102, in Oxfordshire, England, when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 12 years old.

Oxfordshire County, England, United Kingdom

Empress Matilda, Queen of England NORMANDY

7 FEB 1102 • Oxfordshire County, England, United Kingdom

His half-brother William III Adelin, Duke of was born in 1103 in Hampshire, England, when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 13 years old.

William III Adelin, Duke of Normandy

His half-brother Henry was born in 1103 when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 13 years old.

His daughter Mabel de was born in 1105.

His brother William of Normandy was born in 1105 when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 15 years old.

William of Normandy Fitzroy

His brother Reynold de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall was born in 1110 in Dénestanville, Seine-Maritime, France, when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 20 years old.

Denestanville, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France

Reynold de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall FitzHenry

ABT 1110 • Denestanville, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France

His half-sister Aline "Alice" of England was born in 1114 in Selby, Yorkshire, England, when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 24 years old.

Aline "Alice" of England FitzHenry

ABT 1114 • Selby, Yorkshire, England

His half-sister Constance of England was born in 1115 in England when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 25 years old.

Constance of England FitzHenry

His son Sir William, 2nd Earl of Gloucester was born on November 23, 1116.

Sir William, 2nd Earl of Gloucester FITZROBERT

His daughter Christian de was born in 1118 in Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England

1118 • Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England

His half-brother William III Adelin, Duke of died on November 25, 1120, in France when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 30 years old.

William III Adelin, Duke of Normandy

25 NOV 1120 • Normandy, France

His half-sister Maud, Countess of Perche died on November 25, 1120, when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 30 years old.

Maud, Countess of Perche NORMANDY

His sister Sybilla of Normandy died on July 12, 1122, when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 32 years old.

Sybilla of Normandy Fitzroy

His son Phillip was born in 1122.

His father Henry I, King of England passed away on December 1, 1135, in Lyon, Rhône, France, at the age of 67.

Henry I, King of England NORMANDY

1 DEC 1135 • Lyon, Rhône-Alpes, France

His half-brother William, Lord of Bradninch De Tracy died in 1135 when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 45 years old.

William, Lord of Bradninch De Tracy FITZROY

His half-sister Aline "Alice" of England died in 1141 in Montmorency, Val-d'Oise, France, when Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was 51 years old.

Montmorency, Val d'Oise, Ile-de-France, France

Aline "Alice" of England FitzHenry

1141 • Montmorency, Val d'Oise, Ile-de-France, France

Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester FITZROY died on October 31, 1147, when he was 57 years old.

Bristol, Somerset, England 31 OCT 1147 • Bristol, Somerset, England

"Robert de Caen, Robert FitzRoy, Robert of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Gloucester. Chief military supporter of his half sister, Matilda.

Illegitimate son of King Henry I Beauclerc and possibly Sybilla Corbet, born about 1090 at Caen, Normandy. Grandson of William the Conqueror and Mathilda of Flanders. His mother is still debated.

He married Mabel FitzHamon, daughter of Robert FitzHamon, Earl of Gloucester and Sybil de Montgomery. They married in 1122, their marriage contract written before 1119 and had the following children:

  • William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester
  • Roger FitzRobert, Bishop of Worcester
  • Hamon FitzRobert, killed at the siege of Toulouse
  • Philip FitzRobert, Lord of Cricklade
  • Richard FitzRobert, Lord of Creully
  • Matilda FitzRobert, wife of Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester
  • Mabel FitzRobert, wife of Aubrey de Vere
  • Richard FitzRobert, Sire of Creully

Robert had four illegitimate children:

  • Richard FitzRobert, Bishop of Bayeux, his mother was Isabel de Dourves
  • Robert FitzRobert, Castellan of Gloucester
  • Mabel FitzRobert, wife of Gruffud, Lord Senghenydd, ancestors of President Franklin Pierce
  • Son who had a son, Thomas

After the disaster of the White Ship, he was made Earl of Gloucester. Robert supported his sister against King Stephen, and when the King and Robert were captured and then exchanged for each other, destroying any chances of Matilda becoming Queen of England.

He died on 31 October 1147 at Bristol Castle which is in Bristol, Bristol County, England, from a fever. (The current address for the castle is Bristol Castle, Bristol, City of Bristol BS1, UK, not considered to be in Gloucestershire)

Some sources says he was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, another says St James Priory, which he founded."


Newport III LST-1179 - History

From the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships , Vol. VII (1981), pp. 569-731.

TANK LANDING SHIPS (LST)

The British evacuation from Dunkirk in 1940 demonstrated to the Admiralty that the Allies needed relatively large, ocean-going ships capable of shore -to-shore delivery of tanks and other vehicles in amphibious assaults upon the continent of Europe. As an interim measure, three medium-sized tankers, built to pass over the restrictive bars of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, were selected for conversion becau se of their shallow draft. Bow doors and ramps were added to these ships which became the first tank landing ships (LST's). They later proved their worth during the invasion of Algeria in 1942, but their bluff bows made for inadequate speed and pointed up the need for an all-new design incorporating a sleeker hull.

At their first meeting at the Argentia Conference in August 1941, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill confirmed the Admiralty's views. In November 1941, a small delega tion from the Admiralty arrived in the United States to pool ideas with the Navy's Bureau of Ships with regard to development of the required ship. During this meeting, it was decided that the Bureau of Ships would design these vessels.

Withi n a few days, John Niedermair of the Bureau of Ships sketched out an awkwardlooking ship that proved to be the basic design for the more than 1,000 LST's which would be built during World War II. To meet the conflicting requirements of deep draft for ocea n travel and shallow draft for beaching, the ship was designed with a large ballast system that could be filled for ocean passage and pumped out for beaching operations. The rough sketch was sent to Britain on 5 November 1941 and accepted immediately. The Admiralty then requested the United States to build 200 LST's for the Royal Navy under the terms of lend-lease.

The preliminary plans initially called for an LST 280 feet in length but, in January 1942, the Bureau of Ships discarded these d rawings in favor of specifications for a ship 290 feet long. Within a month, final working plans were developed which further stretched the overall length to 328 feet and called for a 50-foot beam and minimum draft of three feet 9 l/2 inches. This scheme distributed the ship's weight over a greater area enabling her to ride higher in the water when in landing trim. The LST could carry a 2,100-ton load of tanks and vehicles. The larger dimensions also permitted the designers to increase the width of the bo w door opening and ramp from 12 to 14 feet and thus accommodate most Allied vehicles. Provisions were made for the satisfactory ventilation of the tank space while the tank motors were running, and an elevator was provided to lower vehicles from the maind eck to the tank deck for disembarking. By January 1942, the first scale model of the LST had been built and was undergoing tests at the David Taylor Model Basin in Washington, D.C.

In three separate acts dated 6 February 1942, 26 May 1943, an d 17 December 1943, Congress provided the authority for the construction of LST's along with a host of other auxiliaries, destroyer escorts, and assorted landing craft. The enormous building program quickly gathered momentum. Such a high priority was assi gned to the construction of LST's that the keel of an aircraft carrier, previously laid in the dock, was hastily removed to make place for several LST's to be built in her stead. The keel of the first LST was laid down on 10 June 1942 at Newport News, Va. and the first standardized LST's were floated out of their building dock in October. Twenty-three were in commission by the end of 1942.

The LST building program was unique in several respects. As soon as the basic design had been developed , contracts were let and construction was commenced in quantity before the completion of a test vessel. Preliminary orders were rushed out verbally or by telegrams, telephone, and air mail letters. The ordering of certain materials actually preceded the c ompletion of design work. While many heavy equipment items such as main propulsion machinery were furnished directly by the Navy, the balance of the procurement was handled centrally by the Material Coordinating Agency -- an adjunct of the Bureau of Ships -- so that the numerous builders in the program would not have to bid against one another. Through vigorous follow-up action on materials ordered, the agency made possible the completion of construction schedules in record time.

The need for LST's was urgent, and the program enjoyed a high priority throughout the war. Since most shipbuilding activities were located in coastal yards and were largely used for construction of large, deep-draft ships, new construction facilities were established along inland waterways. In some instances, heavyindustry plants such as steel fabrication yards were converted for LST construction. This posed the problem of getting the completed ships from the inland building yards to deep water. The chief obstacles w ere bridges. The Navy successfully undertook the modification of bridges and, through a "Ferry Command" of Navy crews, transported the newly constructed ships to coastal ports for fitting out. The success of these "cornfield" shipyards of the Middle West was a revelation to the long-established shipbuilders on the coasts. Their contribution to the LST building program was enormous. Of the 1,051 LST's built during World War II, 670 were constructed by five major inland builders.

By 1943, the construction time for an LST had been reduced to four months and, by the end of the war, it had been cut to two months. Considerable effort was expended to hold the ship's design constant but, by mid-1943, operating experience led to the incorporation of certain changes in the new ships. These modifications included: the replacing of the elevator by a ramp from the main deck to the tank deck, an increase in armament, and the addition of a distilling plant to make potable water. The ma in deck was strengthened to accommodate a fully-equipped landing craft, tank (LCT).

From their combat debut in the Solomons in June 1943 until the end of the hostilities in August 1945, the LST's performed a vital service in World War II. The y participated in the invasions of Sicily, Italy, Normandy, and southern France in the European Theater and were an essential element in the island-hopping campaigns in the Pacific which culminated in the liberation of the Philippines and the capture of I wo Jima and Okinawa.

The LST proved to be a remarkably versatile ship. A number of them were converted to become landing craft repair ships (ARL). In this design, the bow ramp and doors were removed, and the bow was sealed. Derricks, booms, a nd winches were added to haul damaged landing craft on board for repairs, and blacksmith, machine, and electrical workshops were provided on the main deck and tank deck.

Another successful conversion was the LST "Mother Ship." Thisv ersion of the standard LST hull had two Quonset huts erected on the main deck to accommodate 40 officers. Bunks on the tank deck berthed an additional 196 men. A bake shop and 16 refrigeration boxes for fresh provisions augmented the facilities normally p rovided the crew. Four extra distilling units were added, and the ballast tanks were converted for storage of fresh water.

Thirty-eight LST's were converted to serve as small hospital ships. They supplemented the many standard LST's which rem oved casualties from the beach following the landing of their cargo of tanks and vehicles. For example, on D day, LST's brought 41,035 wounded men back across the English Channel from the Normandy beaches. Other LST's, provided with extra cranes and handl ing gear, were used exclusively for replenishing ammunition. They possessed a special advantage in this role, as their size permitted two or three LST's to go simultaneously alongside an anchored battleship or cruiser to accomplish replenishment more rapi dly than standard ammunition ships. In the latter stages of World War II, some LST's were even fitted with flight decks from which small observation planes were sent up during amphibious operations.

Throughout the war, LST's demonstrated a re markable capacity to absorb punishment and survive. Despite the sobriquet, "Large Slow Target," which was applied to them by irreverent crew members, the LST's suffered few losses in proportion to their number and the scope of their operations.T heir brilliantly conceived structural arrangement provided unusual strength and buoyancy. Although the LST was considered a valuable target by the enemy, only 26 were lost due to enemy action, and a mere 13 were the victims of weather, reef, or accident.
A total of 1,152 LST's were contracted for in the great naval building program of World War II, but 101 were cancelled in the fall of 1942 because of shifting construction priorities. 0f 1,051 actually constructed, 113 LST's were trans ferred to Great Britain under the terms of lend-lease, and four more were turned over to the Greek Navy. Conversions to other ship types with different hull designations accounted for 116.

The end of World War II left the Navy with a huge inv entory of amphibious ships. Hundreds of these were scrapped or sunk, and most of the remaining ships were put in "mothballs" to be preserved for the future. Consequently, construction of LST's in the immediate post-war years was modest. LST- 1153 and LST-115I, commissioned respectively in 1947 and 1949, were the only steam-driven LST's ever built by the Navy. They provided improved berthing arrangements and a greater cargo capacity than their predecessors.

The success of the amphibious assault at Inchon during the Korean War pointed up the utility of LST's once again. This was in contrast with the earlier opinion expressed by many military authorities that the advent of the atomic bomb had relegated amphibious landings to a thing of the past. As a consequence, 15 LST's of what were later to be known as the Terrebonne Parish-class were constructed in the early 1950's. These new LST's were 56 feet longer and were equipped with four, rather than two, diesel engines , which increased their speed to 15 knots. Three-inch 50-caliber twin mounts replaced the old twin 40-millimeter guns, and controllable pitch propellers improved the ship's backing power. On 1 July 1955, county or parish names (Louisiana counties are call ed "parishes") were assigned to LST's, which previously had borne only a letter-number hull designation.

In the late 1950's, seven additional LST's of the De Soto County-class were constructed. These were an improved version over earlier LST's, with a high degree of habitability for the crew and embarked troops. Considered the "ultimate" design attainable with the traditional LST bow door configuration, they were capable of 17.5 knots.

The commissioning of Newport (LST-1179) in 1969 marked the introduction of an entirely new concept in the design of LST's. She was the first of a new class of 20 LST's capable of steaming at a sustained speed of 20 knots. To obtain that speed, the traditional blunt bow doors of the LST were replaced by a pointed ship bow. Unloading is accomplished through the use of a 112-foot ramp operated over the bow and supported by twin derrick arms. A stern gate to the tank deck permits unloading of amphibious tractors into t he water or the unloading of other vehicles into a landing craft, utility (LCU) or onto a pier. Capable of operating with today's high speed amphibious squadrons consisting of LHA's, LPD's, and LSD's, the Newport-class LST can transport tanks, othe r heavy vehicles, and engineer equipment which cannot readily be landed by helicopters or landing craft. Thus, the utility of the LST seems to be assured far into the future.


Gov. Benedict Arnold

Arnold Family History http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benedict_Arnold_(governor) there is evidence that in 1635 he and his family accompanied the family of William Arnold to New England, departing from the port town of Dartmouth in county Devon. Roscoe Whitman states this as a fact, [7] based upon a memorandum made in April 1656 by Benedict Arnold, the oldest son of William Arnold, and found among old family papers.[8] Reference 8: Bullock, J. Russell (1886). Stukeley Westcote and some of his descendents. privately published. Benedict Arnold was also a member of the Seventh Day Baptist Church of Newport and John Hiscox was his minister. ____________________________________________________________________________________

Early Records of the Arnold Family.

. If I were to attempt to assign the authorship to the several writers, it would be first, from the beginning to the second or third paragraph of page 4 of the quarto volume (the pages of which are given in brackets in the middle of the page), to William Arnold, born June 24, 1587 second, thence to the second paragraph of page 9, to Gov. Benedict Arnold, born Dec. 21, 1615, died 1678 .

8. Thomas Arnold my Brother, my Mother in lawes Sonne, was Baptized the 18° April,1599.

9. Elenor Arnold, my Sister was Baptized the 31° of July, 1603.

The age of my Sister Tamzens Children.

1. Robert Hacker was Baptized the 22° of Jany. 1597.

2. Francis Hacker was Baptized the 24° of Jany.1599.

3. John Hacker their brother was Baptized the 25° of October, 1601.

4. WilliamHacker was Baptized the 31° of October, 1604.

5. Alee Hacker was Baptized the 25 of August, 1607.

8. Mary Hacker was Baptized the 4th of March, 1609.

7. Thomas Hacker was Baptized the 7th of April,1616.

1. Christian the Daughter of Thomas Peak of Muoheny* my wife was Baptized the 15° of February, 1583.

2. Elizabeth Arnold our Daughter was borne the 23° of November, 1611.

3. Benedict Arnold her Brother was borne the 21° of December, 1615.

4. Joane Arnold their Sister was borne the 27° of Febry,1617.

5. Steven Arnold their Brother was borne the, 22° of December, 1622.

Memorandom yt wee Bennedict and Dameris Arnold' were marryed the 17th of December Anno Domina 1640.

Our Sonne Bennedict was born ffeb뀐th 1641 being our first born &. bearest therefore his fathers Name about 2 hours before Day.

Our Second Sonne we Named Caleb, he was borne the 19th December Ano. 1644 about 8 clock in the Evening we named him Caleb in memory.

Early Records of the Arnold Family. 5

. of that worthy Caleb which only acompanied Josuah in to ye Land of Prom- ise, of all y*came out of Egipt &.c.

Our Third Sonne was borne Decem° 22. (1646 about midnight, he was our Third child, &.we named him Josiah in Memory of that good Josiah which purged the house of Israel from Idolity &.c.

Our ffourth child being a daughter was borne about 2 clock afternoone the 23d February Ano. 1648. We named her after her Mothers name be- ing as then our first &. only Daughter.

Our ffourth Sonne was borne the 21. :Oct° inthe year 1651 &.we nam-

ed him William, Intending he should beare the name of his grandfather Arnold: but god has pleased in his great Wisdom to take him away. Oct° 23° 1651 he lived but a day &.3 quarters of a day in much weakn's & great Stoping.

Our Second Daughter was born on a Thursday Morning about an hour &1/2 before day ye Moon South & by East. Feb. 10th 1652 her name is called Penillour [Penelope].

Our ffifthSon named Oliver was born the 25th July 1655 at Newport on Rhode Island : it being Wednesday about 8 or 9 clock (or past) before noon.

' Our third Daughter Named Gods Gift was born on Friday 27th August 1658 about 8 Clock at night.

Our fourth Daughter named Freelove was born on Saturday July 20th 2 a clock afternoon 1661.

Caleb Arnold was Marryed to Abagail Willbur upon the 10th Day of June, 1666.

Damiris Arnold Was Marryed to John Bliss January 24th,1666.

Benedict was born in Lichester, England and died in Newport, R.I. Was Governor of R.I. for more than 30 years between 1657 - 1678. Buried at the Stone Build Wind Mill in Newport, R.I.

This is the great-great grandfather of the noted Benedict Arnold, labeled traitor during the Revolutionary War. It should be noted that modern historians are not altogehter certain the he deserved that label.

Genealogical and family history of western New York: a record of . Volume 1 edited by William Richard Cutter Pg. 274 http://books.google.com/books?id=TccLAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA179&lpg=PA179&dq.

First Governor of Rhode Island From findagrave.com:

Colonial Gov. Aft coming w/father to New Eng, in 1637, in RI, he signed "compact as 1 of 13 to any agreements made by the masters of families." He mastered native languages & became negotiator w/Indians in 1645. In 1653 he moved to Newport & was elected Assistant. In 1657 he was 1 of purchasers of island of Conanicut. May 19,1657, aft Roger Williams retired from office of Pres of Colony, he was elected to that office. In 1660 he was elected Assistant again. May 22, 1663, he was elected as 1st Gov of RI. He was re-elected in 1664, 1669, 1677 & 1678, & helped bring abt union of RI & Providence Plantations into 1 colony. (bio by: Linda)

Burial: Gov Arnold Burying Grd, Newport, Newport Co, RI, USA Plot: rear of house

Notes for Gov Benedict Arnold Sr:

William Arnold, father of Benedict, came w/Stukely Westcott, father of Damaris, to Am from Eng in 1635. Burial lot is few rods westerly from old "mill," which, for many yrs, has excited so much of antiquarian interest, & which belonged to & which he referred to in his will as my "mill." Aft accompanying his parents to Hingham, MA & then to Providence, RI, where he remained until Nov 1651 or 1653, Benedict removed to Newport, RI. He is said to have been 1 of wealthiest men in colony, as well as one of its most eminent citizens. He owned lrg tracts of land in & around Newport, also owned southern part of large island in Narragansett Bay (Quonaniquot) Canonicut, now forming town of Jamestown & 1/7 part of Pettiquanscut purchase, now S Kingstown, RI. In 1645, having acquired knowledge of Indian language, he was employed by colony as its interpreter in its negotiations w/Indian tribes. In 1670, he was chosen by Genl Assembly as agent of colony to go to Eng, to protest its rights under Charter against claims of CT. In 1654 & 1660, he was chosen 1 of Gov's "Assistants." In 1657, 1662 & 1663, he was chosen Pres of colony, highest office under 1st Charter of 1643. In 1663, he was named in 2nd Charter as Gov, 7 was afterwards elected by people to that office in 1663-64-65-66, 1669-70-71-72, 1677 & in 1678 d in office. Original seal of Gov Arnold, w/mahogany handle, bearing letters B A & an anchor, is now in archives of RI Historical Soc. Official chair he occupied when, in 1663, he rec'd Royal Charter from Eng, is in possession of Redwood Library at Newport. (History & Genealogy of Stukely Westcott, Vol 1, p 127, 1932)

Benedict d in office Jun 19 1678, his wife surviving him. They removed from Providence to Newport, RI on Nov 19 1651 where they d & are buried. (Book of Appendices, Stukely Westcott, Vol 2, p 76, 1939)

Was richest man in colony & by thorough acquaintance w/manners as well as language of Indians became most effective in all negotiations w/them. In 1653 he removed to Newport, was chosen Assistant next yr & in 1663 made by royal charter Pres & by annual election so continued for 8 yrs & d 1678. His will of Dec 24 1677 w/codicill of Jun 10 1678, was proven Jul 1 1678. Both Godsgift, & Freelove, are by different authors made to marry Edward Pelham &, possibly he had two wives Penelope is said to have m Roger Goulding & Damaris m John Bliss. See RI History Coll II 51, & III 294 Callender Winth. & Knowles. (Genealogical Dictionary of New Eng Settlers, Vol 1, p 67)

Question raised as to 2 Mary Wards. Investigation showed they were both descendants of James Ward & Officer in Cromwells army, Sion Arnold, bro to Benedict, III, m Mary Ward, dtr of Thomas Ward of Newport, RI, Feb 1700. Sion d in 1753 & was buried in common burying ground at Newport. Next to his grave is that of Mary Arnold, his wife, who d in 1754. Benedict, III m1 Patience Coggeshall Jan 23 1705. She d Feb 2 1719 m2, Mary Ward, dtr of Thomas Ward of Middletown, CT. At Hartford State Historical Library are records from Middletown, CT, which show land conveyances by Benedict Arnold III & will of Thomas Ward Sr which makes bequest to his dtr Mary, wife of Benedict Arnold of Newport. (Arnold, Benedict by Ethan L Arnold via email from Sandra Zak, May 1998)

Gov Benedict Arnold, son of William Arnold, colonist (see p 15), b Dec 21 1615, d Jun 10 1678. He signed agreement of 1640 for form of govt. Removed to Newport Nov 19 1651, & was made Freeman of that town was Commissioner, 1654-1663 Assistant, 1655-1656, 1660- 1661 Pres of 4 towns, 1657-1660, 1662-1663, & 1st Royal Gov of RI, 1663-1666, 1669-1672, & 1677-1678. He was on council w/15 others, appointed by Gen'l Assembly, to advise w/Assembly. In will of Benedict Arnold, probated in Newport in 1677, testator says: "I devise that my body shall be buried near the path leading from my dwelling house to my stone windmill in the town of Newport, and that the lot shall forever be reserved for my kindred." He left stone windmill to his wife, w/lands & mansion house, for life. At Gov Arnold's funeral nearly 1000 persons were present. He m Dec 17 1640 Damaris, dtr of Stukeley Westcott, of Warwick she d 1678. Their son, Caleb Arnold, b Dec 19 1644, d Feb 9 1719. In 1671 & 1680 he was Deputy. Aug 24 1676, was of court-martial at Newport for trial of certain Indians chged w/being engaged in King Philip's designs. He was at this time called Capt, having served thru Indian war of 1676. In 1684 he was elected Deputy from Portsmouth, but refused to serve on acct of his profession (physician), & another was elected in his place. In 1707 he was again elected from Portsmouth, which established his residence in that place. He styled himself "Practitioner of Physic." In old public documents he is called "Doctor." At time of his death he had considerable landed estate. His father left him 1/4 of all his land in Newport & 160 acres in Canonicut to be held until his eldest son was of age, when he should possess it.

His marriage to Abigail, dtr of Samuel & Hannah (Porter) Wilbur, took place Jun 10, 1666. She d Nov 17 1730. Their dtr Penelope, to whom in his will he left silver tankard & 10 shillings, m George Hazard I. (Ancestral Records & Portraits Vol 1, Ancestry.com)

More abt Gov Benedict Arnold Sr:

Burial: Newport, Newport Co, RI

More abt Benedict Arnold & Damaris Westcott:

Marriage: Dec 17 1640, Providence, Providence Co, RI FIRST GOVERNOR OF RHODE ISLAND AFTER EST OF RI CHARTER OF (1663)

During the devastating events of King Phillips War (1675-1678), the Rhode Island General Assembly sought the counsel of 16 prominent citizens of the colony, one of whom was Benedict Arnold. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_early_settlers_of_Rhode_Island

Notable descendants of Benedict Arnold, through his son Benedict, include his great-grandson, also named Benedict Arnold,[51] one of the great generals of the American Revolutionary War who was best known for his treason to the American cause when he switched sides to fight with the British. Descendants through his son Caleb Arnold include Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry,[52] American hero of the Great Lakes during the War of 1812 and his younger brother Commodore Matthew C. Perry,[52] who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854 and Senator Stephen Arnold Douglas[53] who debated Abraham Lincoln in 1858 before a senate race and later lost to him in the 1860 presidential election. Rhode Island colonial Deputy Governor George Hazard is another descendant.

Gov. Benedict Arnold , who with his father, William first upon arriving in New England June 25, 1635, settled in Higham, Mass. Then on April 20, 1639 in Providence he succeded Roger Williams in 1644 as President of the colony becoming Governor under the charter granted by King Charles II. Benedict moved his family from Providence to Newport November 9, 1651 where he died in office. Benedict and Damaris are both buried in Newport. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benedict_Arnold_(governor)

http://www.oocities.org/heartland/meadows/7939/arnold15.htm Rhode Island First Governor under the Royal Charter Benedict Arnold was president and then governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, serving for a total of 11 years in these roles. He was born and raised in the town of Ilchester, Somerset, England, likely attending school in Limington nearby. In 1635 at age 19, he accompanied his parents, siblings, and other family members on a voyage from England to New England where they first settled in Hingham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In less than a year, they moved to Providence Plantation at the head of the Narragansett Bay at the request of Roger Williams. In about 1638, they moved once again about five miles south to the Pawtuxet River, settling on the north side at a place commonly called Pawtuxet. Here they had serious disputes with their neighbors, particularly Samuel Gorton, and they put themselves and their lands under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, a situation which lasted for 16 years.

Arnold was married on 17 December 1640 to Damaris, the daughter of Stukeley Westcott and Julianna Marchante. They had nine children: Benedict, Caleb, Josiah, Damaris, William, Penelope, Oliver, Godsgift, and Freelove. All but William grew to adulthood, married, and had children. His son Caleb, a physician, married Abigail Wilbur, who was the daughter of Samuel Wilbur, Jr. and the granddaughter of both Samuel Wilbore [Sr.] and John Porter, two signers of the compact establishing the town of Portsmouth with Anne Hutchinson. Notable descendants of Benedict Arnold through his son Benedict include his great-grandson, also named Benedict Arnold,[50] the general of the American Revolutionary War who is remembered primarily for his treason to America when he switched sides to fight with the British. Descendants through his son Caleb Arnold include Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry,[51] American hero of the Great Lakes during the War of 1812, and his younger brother Commodore Matthew C. Perry,[51] who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Senator Stephen Arnold Douglas[52] is also descended through this line, who debated Abraham Lincoln in 1858 before a senate race and later lost to him in the 1860 presidential election. Rhode Island colonial Deputy Governor George Hazard is another descendant

Arnold learned the Indian languages at an early age and became one of the two leading interpreters in the Rhode Island colony, Roger Williams being the other. He was frequently called upon to interpret during negotiations with the Indians, but they accused him of misrepresentation on one occasion.


The Breakers

Cornelius Vanderbilt II was the eldest son of William Vanderbilt, and was said to be the Commodore&rsquos favorite grandson. Cornelius developed the reputation of being a scrupulous and hard-working banker, traits which were heartily approved by his grandfather, who left him $5 million in his will. When his father, William Vanderbilt, died he inherited another $70 million. He did little to increase the family fortune, his own estate was about $73 million.

Part of the reason he did not advance the already vast Vanderbilt wealth was his philanthropy. Another part was his investments in real estate. Cornelius II built the staggering Newport mansion, which he and his family called a cottage, named The Breakers. Built on a cliff and with a footprint of about one acre, on a fourteen acre lot, the house contains 70 rooms in five floors, and was built in the style of the Italian Renaissance.

There was a carriage house and stables with a dozen stable boys under a head groomsmen. Although the Vanderbilt family was in attendance at the cottage only a few weeks a year, during the summer social season when Newport was a fashionable resort, the stable and the household servants were at the house full time, year around. The Breakers is but one of the massive houses along the cliffs at Newport, but it is the largest and grandest.

Cornelius II also built a townhouse in Manhattan, on Fifth Avenue, which was his regular residence. It was the largest private residence ever built in Manhattan. Not including the basement the house had six floors. The entrance hall was a full five stories high. The house had 37 servants maintaining the home and the grounds, and others serving as personal assistants to Mr. and Mrs. Vanderbilt. Their seven children had their personal servants as well.

When Cornelius II died in 1899, of complications from a stroke which he suffered three years earlier, he left his widow, Alice Vanderbilt, a trust fund of $250,000 to operate and maintain the two homes. The sum was inadequate, and the expenses of the two houses ate deeply into the Vanderbilt fortune. Alice sold the Fifth Avenue home in 1926. It was later demolished. The Breakers continued to erode the Vanderbilt wealth until 1948, when it was leased to the Newport Preservation Society.


Professor Nicholas Casewell

Characterising the functional activity of venoms and developing new treatments to combat pathologies caused by envenoming. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of venom systems and their toxic components to understand the molecular basis for such adaptations and ensuing variation in venom composition. Utilising ‘omic’ data to investigate the relationship between the genome, transcriptomes, and proteomes of venomous animals and how this relates to venom production. Investigating how snake venom variation impacts upon antivenom therapy. Testing the immunological cross-reactivity, safety, stability and efficacy of snake antivenoms and the development of novel methods for their manufacture. Screening, selecting and validating small molecule toxin inhibitors as new snakebite therapies.

Background

Professor Casewell is a graduate of the University of Liverpool (BSc Tropical Disease Biology), during which time he also studied at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Casewell’s interest in snake venom research developed at this point, ultimately resulting in a PhD studentship at Bangor University where he studied the composition, evolution and immunology of saw-scaled viper venoms and their antivenoms. The result of Professor Casewell’s PhD research saw him nominated as a finalist for the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution’s young researcher prize, the Walter M. Fitch Award, in 2011. Subsequently, Casewell became Antivenom Manager for the UK manufacturing company MicroPharm Limited, in a commercial and academic collaboration with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

In 2012, Casewell was awarded an Independent Research Fellowship from the Natural Environment Research Council, UK to investigate the evolution and composition of different fish venoms, returning to Bangor University to conduct the research.

In 2014, Casewell was appointed as a Lecturer at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and, subsequently, as a Senior Lecturer in 2016.

In 2016 Professor Casewell was awarded a Sir Henry Dale Research Fellowship by the Wellcome Trust and Royal Society to develop new treatments for tropical snakebite.

In 2019, Professor Casewell was appointed to a proleptic Chair in Tropical Disease Biology by the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

Professor Casewell has published over 70 scientific papers on venoms and antivenoms, and he serves on the editorial board of the scientific journals Toxins and PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. His scientific research is funded by the Wellcome Trust, the Royal Society, the Medical Research Council, DFID, and NIHR.

Research

Professor Casewell’s research focus is to understand the mechanisms by which variation in venom (toxin) composition are generated, and how this variation can be circumvented during the development of new therapeutics for snakebite. Toxin characterisation work involves applying ‘omic’ technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics) to:

(i) investigate the evolutionary history of venom in different animal lineages,
(ii) detect venom variation at different taxonomic levels and
(iii) investigate the processes that alter the transcription and translation of toxin gene loci.

Such studies have included the publication of the first snake genomes. Professor Casewell’s therapeutic research focuses on using venom compositional information to rationally develop, select and validate the efficacy of new therapeutics for combatting the pathologies caused by medically important snakes. These approaches include the use of conventional antibody therapies, as well as novel approaches using small molecule toxin inhibitors, decoy receptor molecules, and monoclonal antibodies. This therapeutic research is underpinned by the development and application of a variety of bioassays relevant to toxins that cause medically relevant pathologies. Most recently, Professor Casewell has begun using clinical samples from snakebite victims to better understand how snakebite pathology develops over time, and to assess how effective current treatments are

Public engagement/Media

Featured in the Wellcome Trust’s month of celebrating scientists “advancing ideas”. November 2016.

Wellcome Trust video interview about my science public engagement work. July 2016.

Assisted BBC Earth Unplugged video short on venom blood clotting. April 2016.

Interview about antivenom shortages in Africa. BBC News TV, Radio and website. September 2015.

Interview about snakebite for a forthcoming feature TV documentary. September 2015.

Interview and venom demonstration for BBC World’s “Health Check” TV programme. Aired August 2015.

Scientific advisor for the science communication animation website “Stated Clearly”. 2014-present.

Interviewed by Science for a “news focus” piece entitled “Secrets of Snakes” and by New Scientist for a feature article called “Under the Hood” about my research on snake genomics. December 2013 and January 2014.


Prologue

In a letter to the Director of Naval History, 9 November 1956, Admiral Kelly Turner wrote as follows:

But the matter of my writing a book - and particularly a history of all past amphibious war fare - is quite a different thing, and one which I would not care to undertake. Before retiring in 1947, I did give serious thought to writing an account of the amphibious operations in which I participated, but decided against doing so for several reasons.

In the first place, writing history is quite a field in itself, and one with which I am unfamiliar. I definitely would not attempt it by the use of a 'ghost'. Look at all the lousy books that ghosts have produced since the war! Again, it would have meant living in Washington for several years, of digging into many thousands of documents written by other officers as well as by my staff and myself, and of which I do not have copies. Finally, I scarcely could have avoided controversy, and giving myself 'breaks' that perhaps would be undeserved.

So, Judge, the whole thing simply did not appeal to me then, and appeals to me even less now. Future professional historians will write what they feel like writing anyhow, whether truthful or not. So I'm willing to let them disagree among themselves!

When I had my first interview about this book with Kelly Turner, he told me with a grin:


Navy Matters

Short answer: Ship to Objective Maneuver. The entire objective was to not build up on the beach. By definition a LST was going to spend many, many hours sitting on the beach.

So that is your answer. Now if that is a good idea or bad idea that is a different debate.

Well, that's fascinating. I'm kind of half grasping your meaning, I think. Tell me more.

Are you suggesting that the LST would deliver too much equipment in too short a time and that the result would be that equipment would sit on the beach? If so, isn't that better addressed by logistics/traffic control than eliminating the transport?

I have neither data nor experience at this but it would seem like the LST is going to spend far less total time on the beach for the quantity of equipment delivered than the LCAC which would have to return to the beach over and over again. What am I missing?

If the idea is to completely unload the BLT onto the beach in a short of amount of time as possible. Than yes the LST beats the LCAC hands down. What the LCAC enables you to do is to either use multiple beaches or only unload a couple of key items.

Remember the key idea of Ship to Objective Maneuver is that holding the beach is not the objective. Your objective is the key piece of terrain, destroying an enemy capability, or something else that furthers the commander's intent.

This would be accomplished by MV-22 flying dismounted infantry that are dropped near the objective, EFVs driving over the beach and straight to the objective and LCACs carrying a couple of key enablers, like M1A1, to the beach where they will roll off and head straight to the objective.

So the death of the LST was from two parts, the USMC saying that holding the beach was not an objective of itself, and the Navy not wanting to take a ship all the way to the shore.

Of course this is only the thinking from a strictly doctrinal perspective.

The logic keeps circling back to the light versus heavy combat capability issue. STOM, by definition, limits the assault force to light infantry composition with, as you suggest, the couple of odd pieces of heavy equipment/tanks.

Further, if holding the beach isn't an objective then everything you want had better land all at once since there won't be a follow up (follow up would necessitate holding the beach).

I'm not agreeing nor disagreeing with the concept, just trying to understand the parameters and limitations.

If we're not going to hold the beach so as to enable follow on logistics then why do we have heavy equipment in the MEUs? I know, the answer is because we might want to hold a beach sometime. The problem with that answer is that with the current and foreseeable budget we no longer have the fiscal resources to cover all possibilities.

It seems like the Marines need to make a hard choice about what they want to be and what capabilities they want to have. In fact, it looks like they already have given that they're downsizing, cutting tanks and heavy equipment, and emphasizing the aviation element both from a transport (MV-22) and combat (F-35B) perspective.

Is that a fair assessment?

Aren't they in part being replaced by the spearhead class? As I thought that once a beach was secured that causeway piers would be constructed within 2 days. Then ships such as the spearhead class would be able to quickly unload their vehicles and troops.

y, there's a couple of problems with the JHSV in the role of heavy equipment transport in a combat assault. First, the JHSV, by law, can't partake in combat as it is crewed by a civilian crew. Of course, that could be changed. Second, if it takes a few days for transport of heavy equipment (tanks being the most important for the immediate assault) to be enabled then we probably don't need the heavy equipment to begin with. Third, the JHSV is intended for intratheater high speed transport rather than assaults. Finally, I'm not sure whether the JHSV is rated for tanks or not. Anyone know?

JHSV cannot land vehicles across the beach.

The US Merchant Marine is considered to be a uniformed service in wartime, so that shouldn't be a problem.

I was assigned to OP-37 during the time frame the decision to decommission the LSTs was made. I can provide some background.

In the early 1990’s, there were considered to be five components to the amphibious lift footprint: troops, vehicles (in square feet), cargo (in cubic feet), aircraft spots (in CH-46 equivalents), and LCAC spots. LCUs and LCM-8s were not considered components. A classified study in the early 1990s defined requirement for each of these 5 footprint elements for the Assault Echelons of the three classic Marine MAGTFs, The unit (MEU), the brigade (MEB), and the force (MEF). It is important to understand that the lift footprint requirements are not proportional across the 5 components or the 3 MAGTFs.

The POM process in the early 90’s determined the amphibious lift requirement for the Assault Echelon (AE) to be a “fiscally constrained” 2.5 Marine Expeditionary Brigades (MEB). The amphibious force that was to be funded provided the cheapest way to achieve 2.5 MEBs. This post cold war force structure called for the decommissioning of some, but not all of the LSTs. Although I cannot recall the exact numbers, 8-10 of the original 20 seems about right.

In addition to the wartime requirement for 2.5 MEBs, forward presence requirements in the 90’s required a MEU in the Med, the PG/IO area, and in WestPac. To support this peacetime requirement, the Navy needed to fund a force structure for 12 separate ARGs (Amphibious Ready Groups).

The backbone of the ARG was the amphibious assault ship (back then the LPH, LHA, or LHD). The proposed force structure provided for only 10 assault ships needed to meet the aircraft component of 2.5 MEBs. This did not meet the need for 12 assault ships to support the peacetime forward presence MEU requirement. For this major reason, and for other less critical ones, in order to maintain the required forward presence, the proposed force structure would have to be modified.

Of course, the modifications had to occur within approved funding levels, which were declining as part of the post cold war drawdown, the so-called “peace dividend. In order to “buy back” the two assault ships, other ships had to be substituted. As I noted above, decommissioning some of the LSTs were included in the original proposal. Further study and consultations with the Fleet and USMC developed a revised proposal that included the decommissioning of the remaining LSTs.

Decommissioning the last of the LSTs was only one of several ship swaps made to balance the force structure, although it was probably the most dramatic and caused the most reaction.

My original post was too long, but here are some of the reasons the LSTs were selected:

• The ARG of the future was going to consist of three ships: an amphibious assault ship (LHA or LHD), a LPD-17, and a LSD-41/49. Twelve LSD-41/49s were commissioned or building, 12 LPD-17 were proposed to replace the LPD-4 class, and 5 LHAs were in commission, 5 LHDs were commissioned or building, and 2 were proposed. The revised force structure supported the transition to this model, with ships bought back to support the construction delivery schedule. As there was no planned successor to the LSTs, their days were already numbered.
• Surface ship-to shore movement would be via LCACs and the now defunct AAAV.
• LCACs and AAAVs could cross more than 70% of the world’s beaches, whereas the LSTs could beach on only about 5 %. I forget the exact percentages these are approximate. This was a significant operational limitation and a primary consideration in the decision, if not the primary consideration.
• Majority of the load out on LSTs were the AAV-7s, which could be supported in the 3 well deck ships planned for the ARG of the future.
• The unique beaching capability of the LSTs had limited operational utility in an assault. LSTs would probably only beach in a fairly benign environment, thus limiting it’s utility in an assault. The LST-1179 class was not a throwaway ship as where the World War II variants.
• Decommissioning an entire class offered significant support structure savings.
• The LSTs were near the bottom of the maintenance pecking order, so had the greatest maintenance deficit.

Hope this helps, although it will probably engender a firestorm.

Anon, that's great background. Thanks for the information! I'm surprised about the 5% beaching of the LST. I would have thought it would be much, much higher. What was the problem? Draft?

So, are you saying that the thought process on getting heavy equipment ashore was that it would be done by LCAC, one piece at a time? That almost eliminates tanks from playing a significant role in an assault just due to the inability to get enough ashore in a quick enough time frame. Am I missing something, here?

I like your comment about a throwaway LST. It makes one wonder why we can't build a cheap, throwaway transport for contested assaults which we know will cause attrition.

Biggest issue was beach gradient, note that in the picture Newport is carrying causeways. That helped the problem somewhat. Beside beaching availability an additional issue I did not mention was the shallow water mine problem.

The thought process back then was the over the horizon assault, hence the LCAC and AAAV, both high speed. The ATF would stay offshore until the Assault Follow on Echelon (AFOE) closed the beach, at that point a beaching ship would have some utility.

The assault would solely supported by LCAC, at the time we had over 90. Additional support could be provided by LCUs in the force. Again the goal was to "hit 'em where they ain't," quickly and from over the horizon.

I follow the reasoning although I have doubts about some aspects. One issue is the "hit'em where they ain't" concept. That's fine but the corollary would seem to be that "where they ain't, isn't anywhere we or they care about". At some point, if you want valuable territory it's going to be defended and you're going to have to fight for it.

I'm struggling with the overall concept of amphibious assault as currently envisioned. It seems to have some serious shortcomings or, at least, limitations. I'll have to factor your information in and continue to ponder the issue.

Great information, though! Many thanks for taking the time to educate me.

Care to offer an opinion on whether the current trends are wise?

Several follow on points. Increasing the beaches open to the threat of assault by a factor of 5, compounds the defender's problem. The old saw that, "He that defends everything, defends nothing" applies here. We would rather get ashore then fight, than fight to get ashore.

Along those lines, I believe future amphibious ship to shore movements will only occur in fairly, although not completely, benign environments. They will be MEU size forward presence movements as opposed to contested assaults.

I believe the lack of a well deck on USS America was a mistake, although to be corrected on later ships, we will have several odd balls for the next 40 years, there is a reason the LPHs were replaced by LHAs.

I don't think we've solved the shallow water mine problem, therefore we can not do in-stride breaching, which was the desired goal in the 90s.

The reduced force structure in the amphibious force is leading to the same dilemma as the rest of the Navy, increased optempo or decreased forward presence.

"We would rather get ashore then fight, than fight to get ashore."

". future amphibious ship to shore movements will only occur in fairly, although not completely, benign environments."

No one could argue with those thoughts. However, they do pigeonhole our actions to an extent. A competent enemy (and thankfully, we haven't had many of those), knowing our doctrine and their own desirable targets that need defending, could easily predict where we would choose to land. Given today's long range missiles and artillery, a seemingly undefended beach or assault location could be vigorously and effectively defended without having any actual enemy presence.

If I were a defending enemy, I would attempt to hit the transport ships (being the most densely packed, they offer the biggest return on attack investment). Failing, or secondary, to that, I would target the landing site with long range missiles, artillery, scatterable minefields, etc. with the ship-to-shore connectors (whether landing craft or airborne) being the next most densely packed targets.

I suppose we could always land at a truly undefended, remote location but that would also put our forces in a truly ineffectual position, strategically.

Do you think these thoughts are valid and, if so, how do you see them linking to, and being accounted for, in our assault philosophy?


Bibliography

Bernhard, Virginia. A Tale of Two Colonies: What Really Happened in Virginia and Bermuda?. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2011.

Elliott, John Huxtable. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492-1830. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. The Jamestown Project. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007.

Lossing, Benson John and Woodrow Wilson. Harper’s Encyclopedia of United States History from 458 A. D. to 1909, Volume 9. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1906.

Lyon Gardiner Tyler, ed. Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography, Under the Editorial Supervision of Lyon Gardiner Tyler, Volume 1. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1915.

Nichols, Allen Bryant. Captain Christopher Newport: Admiral of Virginia. New York: St. Martin’s Press , 2007.

Gallery

A twentieth-century drawing depicts Christopher Newport, an experienced English privateer who captained the flagship Susan Constant, one of three ships that delivered settlers to found the colony at Jamestown for the Virginia Company of London in 1607. This sketch by Virginia artist Allan D. Jones Jr. was probably a head-and-shoulders study for the figure of Newport that appears in the artist’s large mural that hangs in the Newport News Public Library. That twenty-seven-foot-long color oil painting depicts the sea captain standing on the shore of the James River upon his arrival in 1607. The mural was unveiled in 1957, as part of the celebration of the 350th anniversary of the landing in Jamestown. Captain Christopher Newport, Admiral of Virginia, book cover by A. Bryant Nichols Jr. The Virginia Company of London Seal.
A recreation of the ship the Godspeed, located at Jamestown Settlement, Virginia. Christopher Newport statue at CNU. “Ples de Virginie,” Description de L’Univers, 1683, From The Library at The Mariners’ Museum, G114.M25 rare.
Virginian Indians, Description de L’Univers, 1683, From The Library at The Mariners’ Museum, G114.M25 rare.

Watch the video: History Moment:. Frederick


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