Stamped Brick From Borsippa

Stamped Brick From Borsippa

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Borsippa, Mesopotamia, July 2013! Part I

Borsippa was an important ancient city of Sumer, built on both sides of a lake about 17.7 km (11.0 mi) southwest of Babylon on the east bank of the Euphrates. The site of Borsippa is in Babylon Province, Iraq and now called Birs Nimrud, the Arabs identifying the site with Nimrod. The ziggurat, the “Tongue Tower,” today one of the most vividly identifiable surviving ziggurats, is identified in the later Talmudic and Arabic culture with the Tower of Babel, although the Sumero-Akkadian builders of the Ziggurat in reality erected it as a religious edifice in honour of the local god Nabu, called the “son” of Babylon’s Marduk, as would be appropriate for Babylon’s lesser sister-city.

بورسيبا (بالسومرية تسمى باد-سي-ا-اب-با وباكدية تسمى برسيب أو تل برسيب) وتسمى حاليا ببرس نمرود، هي مدينة سومرية مهمة قديمة، تم بنائها على جانبي بحيرة تبعد حوالي 17 كلم جنوب مدينة بابل، موقع بورسيبا هو في محافظة بابل (محافظة) في العراق، وكانت تحتوي مدينة بورسيبا على زقورة وهي موجودة لحد اليوم وحسب التلمود يعتقد بأن هذه الزقورة هي برج بابل الموجود في التوراة. ويعتقد بأن هذه الزقورة كانت من اجل عبادة الالهة نبو اله التجارة عند البابليون الذي ابن الاله مردوخ. حسب التأريخ يعتقد بأن مدينة بورسيبا يعود انشائها إلى عصر سلالة أور الثالثة وفي العصر البابلي كانت مركز القوة لبابل وفي القرن التاسع قبل الميلاد كانت بورسيبا بدأ الكلدان يستقرون فيها. لكن تم تدميرها هي ومعبدها خلال عهد الملك الاخميني احشويروش. كشفت الحفريات في عام 1854 بقيادة عالم الاثار هينري كريسويك راولنسون واكتشف راولنسون عن معبد لعبادة الاله نبو يعود بنائه إلى عصر الملك الكلداني نبوخذ نصر الثاني، والذي اكتشف بين عامي 1879 و 1881 بقيادة عالم الاثار هرمزد رسام مع فرقة بحث بريطانية.

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"Old Bricks - history at your feet"

The Sudbury Brick Co. are listed in Kellys 1912, 16 & 25 editions at Waldfield Road, Sudbury office, Acton Square, Sudbury. Info & Photo by Martyn Fretwell courtesy of the Bill Richardson Collection at Southwick Hall.

Summer Lane, Barnsley

Summer Lane Brickworks, Barnsley Ltd., Summer Lane, Barnsley, South Yorks. The business was wound up in 1913. Photo & info by Frank Lawson.


Summerseat near Bury, photo by Colin Driver.


Photos by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection. The Summit works was near Littleborough in Lancashire.

Photos by courtesy of Colin Driver.

Sumner Jnr, Crawley

This was made at the Ifield Brickworks in 1880, the image is in black and white, thanks to Richard Symonds.

Photographed at Beamish Museum.


Photographed at Beamish Museum. Sunset Brick & Tile Co., Cowgate, Newcastle upon Tyne. Founded 1921 by W Cochrane-Carr. Shale was extracted from a nearby quarry using explosives until 1953, when a mechanical excavator and drag line were introduced. By 1967 the neighbouring quarry was exhausted of shale and, with no nearby economic supply, the works closed. Info and photos by courtesy of Frank Lawson.

Superaxe: see Burn Fireclay Company

Sussex Brick Co. (Sussex Hand Made)

Photos by Martyn Fretwell. Sussex Hand Made Brick Company at Hastings, has produced hand made bricks since 1896 and still uses the Wadhurst Clay found at the rear of their works.

Sussex Brick & Estates Co Ltd

Photo by Darren via John Harrison.

Richard Symonds came across this near Southwater in West Sussex and has done some research on the history.

'Peter Peters, of the firm of Horsham Builders which was responsible for the initial development of the Keymer Brick & Tile Co, sold out in 1899 and the new owner, a London builder, formed a company, The Sussex Brick Co. Ltd (not to be confused with the Hastings firm of the same name). and installed a new plant and buildings, intending to exploit the lower measures of the Weald Clay to make pressed bricks using the 'stiff plastic' process. two new coal-fired continuous kilns of the Hoffmann type were built, the coal being brought in by rail from Nottingham. Behind the kilns was a line of presses, fed with clay from a parallel line of grinding mills. The clay, at this stage, was still dug manually and delivered to the grinders in trolleys, propelled by an overhead continuous chain drive. However, the company soon ran into trouble. Initial problems, which led to uneven output and rising costs, were compounded by the recession in the industry, and in 1903 a new manager was appointed, fresh capital was injected and the Sussex Brick & Estates Co Ltd formed.

The new company bought a third continuous kiln into use and increased the output of pressed bricks to 12 million annually. In addition, 8 million bricks a year were being turned out by the two seasonal yards which were still in operation, using the top six feet of clay which was unsuitable for the production of pressed bricks. All this was running counter to the general trend in the county, which was one of decline, and may have been attributable, in part, to the company's superior marketing technique as well as some imaginative use of public relations to advertise is wares. In 1912 a steam excavator was brought into use in the claypit at Warnham and was made the occasion for celebrations, which were reported in the Sussex Daily News on 8th Feb.: '. a leading Sussex industry is that of brickmaking, for on large and small scales, it is to be met with wherever one cares to travel. At Warnham, modern methods can be seen at work to the fullest extent. There the Sussex Brick and Estates Company Ltd., who have also another works at Southwater, show the latest thing in brickmaking, for speed of output, combined, of course, with quality. '.

The above data was extracted from the publication 'Brickmaking in Sussex' ISBN 1 873 793 197 (1993), by M. Beswick.

Thomas Sutcliffe

Thomas Sutcliffe, Wrose Brow, Windhill, Shipley, West Yorks - Post Office Bradford Trades Directory, 1887 & White's Directory of Leeds & The Clothing District, 1894. The works continued under Sutcliffe management until at least 1912. Info and image by Frank Lawson.

William Sutcliffe

William Sutcliffe operated Armley brick Works, Stanningley Road, Armley, Leeds and Woodhouse Hill Brickworks. Listed between 1875 and 1912. Info by PRBCO and image by Frank Lawson.

Sutton, Overseal


It is not known from which brickworks in the Swadlincote area this brick comes. Photo by Martyn Fretwell.


William Swain, Howarth Cross, Halifax Road, Smallbridge, Rochdale. Photo by David Kitching.


Thanks to Simon Patterson for the photo.

Photo by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.

The Swalllownest Brick Co was situated at Swallownest to the east
of Sheffield. Info by David Kitching.

This brick seen in North Lincolnshire and is likely to be from a works in Yorkshire or Lincolnshire. Photo by Frank Lawson.


From an article by the British Brick Society, the Swanage Brick & Tile Co. at Godlingston first fired up their new rectangular downdraft kiln in June 1983, replacing an earlier downdraft kiln built c1935. Today Ibstock still operates this works north of Swanage making bespoke hand made bricks. Also found that this brickworks is recorded as the Godlingston Brick & Tile Works on a 1900 O.S. map. Info & Photographed at Bursledon Brick Museum by Martyn Fretwell.

Swan Banks, Halifax

In 1864 the Swan Banks Coal and Brick Company was formed in Halifax, West Yorkshire. By 1873 the company made an agreement to take 24 acres of both hard bed and soft bed coal under Marsh Farm but by 1875 the mine had closed. The Swans Bank Brick and Coal Company continued to make bricks at Bailey Hall Road, where they quarried shale. The Rawson Family owned the coalmine from the 1820s and developed the site between the Halifax canal and the upland Marsh area of Southowram. The Halifax Brick Co was an association formed by: Morton's of Siddal, Swan Bank, Oates & Green, and Charlestown Bricks in the late 19th century. Photo and information by Derek Barker.

Found by Roger Grimshaw in Hebden Bridge.

Swan Brothers & Bourne

Swan Brothers & Bourne, West Cliffe Brickworks, Burton Road, Lincoln are listed in these trade directories, Kelly's 1876, White's1882, Kelly's 1885 & 1889 editions. This works was amalgamated into the Lincoln Brick Co. in 1889. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.


Found in Riccall, North Yorks by Ian Prest.

Swann Radcliffe & Co.

Swann Radcliffe & Co. are listed at Brassington, Wirksworth Derbys. in the Fire Brick Manufacturers section of these Kelly's directories, 1912, 25, 32, & 41 editions. A Brassington website records that in 1962 the company employed 16 men & closed in 1971. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell. Photo by courtesy of Newark & Sherwood Museum Services.

Swanton Novers

Found in Swanton Novers, Norfolk these EHEL & HEL stamped bricks are thought to have been made at the Swanton Novers Brickyard near Melton Constable. This brickworks was owned by Lord Hastings of Melton Constable Hall & is shown on OS maps from 1885 to 1950. Info & Photos by Martyn Fretwell.

Sweeney, Oswestry

This mirror image brick was found at Brynteg, near Wrexham. Image PRBCO.

Photo by Richard Paterson

All three discovered at the Cambrian Railway Society's Weston Wharf site Oswestry by Mike Shaw. This was where the tramway from Sweeney's brickworks reached the main line.

J F Swinburne and Sons, Birtley & Tanfield Brick Works

An advert in the Newcastle Courant - Friday 27 January 1888, stated that the firm was established in 1852 and could supply agricultural drain pipes, bricks and pantiles. Photo and info by Mark Cranston.

Swindell & Collis, Birmingham

Swindell & Collis are recorded as coal masters, brick & tile manufacturers at Granville & Gorsty Hill Collieries, Old Hill, Cradley Heath in Jones's Mercantile Directory for 1865. They are recorded again in Kelly's 1891 edition at Granville Colliery. Info & Phototographed at Cawarden Reclamation by Martyn Fretwell.


The Swindon Brick & Tile Co. is first listed in Kellys 1889 to 1898 editions at Canal Side Brickworks, New Swindon. Kellys 1903 to 1911 editions now lists the company with a second works at Rolleston Yard, Gorse Hill & George Whitehead is listed as proprietor. Photo by Guy Morgan, Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Robert Swinton

Robert Swinton is listed in Kelly’s 1876 to 1896 editions at Tattershall, Boston Lincs. Robert died in December 1899 & left his personal estate to his two sons, Edward & Christopher. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.


This brick was found in Sledmere, North Yorkshire and is likely to have been made at the brickworks in Bishop Wilton, a few miles to the south west. The Sykes family of Sledmere owned the brickfield and probably employed Thomas Grant of Pocklington to manage the works throughout its life from 1854 to 1886. Photo and information from Carla van Beveren.

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The History of Bricks and Brickmaking

Man has used brick for building purpose for thousands of years. Bricks date back to 7000 BC, which makes them one of the oldest known building materials. They were discovered in southern Turkey at the site of an ancient settlement around the city of Jericho.

The first bricks, made in areas with warm climates, were mud bricks dried in the sun for hardening.
Ancient Egyptian bricks were made of clay mixed with straw. The evidence of this can be seen today at ruins of Harappa Buhen and Mohenjo-daro. Paintings on the tomb walls of Thebes portray Egyptian slaves mixing, tempering and carrying clay for the sun dried bricks.

The greatest breakthrough came with the invention of fired brick in about 3,500 Bc. From this moment on, bricks could be made without the heat of sun and soon became popular in cooler climates.

The Romans prefered to make their bricks in spring, then they stored them for two years before selling or using them. They only used white or red clay to manufacture bricks.
The Romans succeeded in introducing fired bricks to the entire country thanks to mobile kilns. These were bricks stamped with the mark of the legion who supervised the brick production. Roman bricks differed in size and shape from other ancient bricks as they were more commonly round, square, oblong, triangular and rectangular. The kiln fired bricks measured 1 or 2 Roman feet by 1 Roman foot, and sometimes up to 3 Roman feet with larger ones. The Romans used brick for public and private buildings over the entire Roman empire. They built walls, forts, cultural centre, vaults, arches and faces of their aqueducts. The Herculaneum gate of Pompeii and the baths of Caracalla in Rome are examples of Roman brick structures.

During the period of the Roman Empire, the Romans spread the art of brickmaking throughout Europe and it continued to dominate during the medieval and Renaissance period.

When the Roman Empire fell, the art of brickmaking nearly vanished and it continued only in Italy and the Bizantine Empire. In the 11th century, brickmaking spread from these regions to France.

During the 12th century bricks were reintroduced to northern Germany from northern Italy. This created the brick gothic period with buildings mainly built from fired red clay bricks. The examples of the Brick Gothic style buildings can be found in the Baltic countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Germany, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus and Russia. This period lacks in figural architectural sculptures which had previously been carved from stone. The Gothic figures were virtually impossible to create out of bricks at that time, but could be identified by the use of split courses of bricks in varying colours, red bricks, glazed bricks and white lime plaster. Eventually custom built and shaped bricks were introduced which could imitate the architectural sculptures. In the 16th century, Brick Gothic was replaced by Brick Renaissance architecture.

In medieval times, the clay for making bricks often was kneaded by workers with their bare feet. They clay was shaped into brick by pushing it into a wooden frame placed on a table, which was covered with sand or straw to prevent the clay from sticking. After excess clay was wiped off with a stick, the brick was removed from the frame.

In England the remains of buildings prove that the art of brickmaking was highly advanced by the time of Henry VIII. After the great fire of London in 1666, the city was rebuilt with mainly bricks.

Adobe brick, which is sundried brick made of clay and straw, has been made for centuries in Central America, particularly in Mexico. Some Aztec adobe structures still exist, one example is the Pyramid of the Sun, built in the 15th century.

Bricks crossed the Atlantic with Dutch and British immigrants with some brickmasons among them. In Virginia brick structures were built as early as 1611. At that time it was common for brickmasons to make the bricks on the jobsite. It is known that bricks were transported from Virginia to Bermuda in 1621 in exchange for food and oil.

Many early American skyscrapers are clad in brick or terracotta. It took 10 million bricks to build the Empire State Building.

During the Renaissance and Baroque periods, exposed brick walls became less and less popular, consequently brickwork was covered in plaster. Only during the mid 18th century brick walls started to regain their popularity.

Bricks were made by hand until about 1885. Once the Industrial Revolution broke out, the brickmaking machinery was introduced. Consequently, the number of clays that could be made into brick was greatly increased which influenced the production capacity. Handmade brick production ranged up to 36,000 bricks per week but by 1925 a brickmaking machine made 12,000 bricks a day.

As brick structures could be built much quicker and cheaper, they replaced other raw materials like stone or rock.

During the building boom of the 19th century, when more than 10 billion bricks were produced annually, many American cities like Boston and New York favoured locally made bricks.

In Victorian London, due to the heavy fog, bright red bricks were chosen which made buildings much more visible. Although the amount of red pigment was reduced in bricks production, red remained the most desired colour for the brick and still does to this day.

It was used by some of the 20th century&rsquos most famous architects like Le Corbusier, F. L. Wright and Louis Khan.
Nowadays, apart from wood, bricks seem to be commonly used building material. Consequently, brick and terracotta architecture is dominant in its field with a great development in brick industry.

Stamped Brick From Borsippa - History

Coalbrookdale, Lightmoor. Photo taken at Blists Hill.

Photo by Martyn Fretwell courtesy of the Bill Richardson Collection at Southwick Hall.


From Mexborough, South Yorkshire. Photo by Simon Patterson.

Photo by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.

Coalfield Brickyards Ltd., Clayfield Road, Mexborough, South Yorks. Liquidated 1971. The Yorkshire Brick Company 'Coalfield' Brickworks at Mexborough ceased firing towards the end of 1982. It was the last Pressed Brick Kiln in South Yorkshire to operate.


All the above were used to build a house in Yuen Long, New Territories, Hong Kong. It is likely that the H A brick is also a Coalmoor product. Photos by Jade Ling.

Coalmoor is near Telford in Shropshire.

The Allenite was a tough refractory brick used for lining kilns, etc.

Photo by Colin Wooldridge from the John Cooksey Collection

Made in Coalmoor, Telford on the same site as Allenite bricks.

The Coalmoor Sanitary Pipe Co. Ltd was formed in 1901 & in 1908 became the New Coalmoor Sanitary Pipe Co. Ltd. making pipes & fire bricks at it's works located near to Woodlands Farm now Myford House Nursing Home on Woodlands Lane, Horsehay near Coalmoor, Telford between 1908 & 1948. In 1948 the company was purchased by Coalmoor Refactories Ltd who produced refractory bricks for the steel industry. In 1951 the company purchased the nearby Lightmoor brickworks and in doing so transferred all production to the new site. By 1980 the company employed around 150 staff at both the quarry & works. The Lightmoor Works on Brick Kiln Bank, Lightmoor was owned by Ibstock when it closed in 1992 and the site now has houses built upon it. Allenite and Mossite are both trade names used by the company. Info by Martyn Fretwell.


A little bit of info and a map showing the location of the works can be seen at this link. Photo by Martyn Fretwell.

Cobridge Brick & Marl Co Ltd

Cobridge Brick and Marl Co Ltd., was based on Leek Road produced common bricks with a "Cobridge" logo moulded into the frog. They also produced fire bricks to line kilns used in the pottery industry and engineering bricks used in foundation works. They produced a large range of hand made bricks to order. Marl was extract from the adjoining marl hole and a second one behind the works in Sneyd Street. They had a second production site on Scotia Road in Burslem where they had a modern continuous oil fired kiln main common brick production was based here with overflow production of commons in Cobridge. Information by John Roberts.

Cobridge Brick & Sanitary Pipe Co.

Cobridge Brick & Sanitary Pipe Co Ltd was based just 200 yards up from Cobridge Brick on Leek Road. Their site on Hamil Road Burslem was abandoned early in their history. They did produce a few bricks in Hamil Road and these were stamped as per this sample. Examples are rare as they were not in brick production for long. At their Cobridge site they produced salt glazed pipes and tiles. Information by John Roberts and photo by David Kitching.


Cochrane & Co Ltd operated the New Brancepeth Colliery in County Durham in the 1890s and probably for some years after that. Photos by Chris Tilney.

Cocking - Balby

Cocking - Doncaster

Various bricks made by Cocking & Sons of Balby, Doncaster, all photos by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection. Refer to the entry below for more info on this company.

Cocking - Walkeringham

Front and back of a Cocking brick, Clayton is the name of the manufacturer of the brick making machinery.

Photographed near Newark by Martyn Fretwell.

Martyn Fretwell writes :- Thomas Cocking started his Walkeringham, Notts. brickworks around 1876, producing red & white bricks & red floor quarry tiles. Thomas was followed at this yard by his sons and son-in-law, George Cooper. This works was sold sometime in the 1940's and continued under new owners until it closed in 1956. After the sale of the Walkeringham works, the Cockings family then opened a new works at Balby, Doncaster & bricks stamped Balby are also believed to be made by them. The Balby works then became part of Yorkshire Amalgamated Brick Co. in the 1960's. Photographed at Bassetlaw Museum, Retford by Martyn Fretwell.

Alfred Coe

Alfred Coe is listed in Whites 1892 edition at Crown St, Ipswich, offices works, Hadleigh. Kelly's 1900 edition records two works at Bromford & Hadleigh. Kelly's 1912 & 16 editions then record Alfred Coe, exors of, works Bromford. Kelly's 1925 edition records A. Coe Ltd. offices, 15, Crown St. Ipswich, but no works address. Coe was also a builder. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Codnor Ville

A newspaper auction notice from 1858 advertises that Lot 4 was the sale of 'One Half Share in Codnor Ville Brick Yard'. There is no name of the owner of this yard in the auction notice, it only states that "The Tennant's will show the Premises". Theadore Hickling was the owner of the land on which this brick yard had been established, so he may have been the person who was selling the half share in the yard. Research of the word Ville has revealed that this is a French word for town, thus resulting in Codnor Ville (town) being stamped in the brick above without the e. A 1854 map showing the layout of the building plots & the new streets of a new housing estate just off Mill Lane in Codnor also shows the brickworks in the centre of the development. In Kelly's 1857 edition, Robert & Charles Taylor are recorded as brickmakers in Codnor & from the 1881 census Thomas Allcock & his two sons are all recorded as brickmakers, living at nearby Prospect Place in Codnor. So either of these two families could have made these bricks. Info & Photographed at Ripley Reclamation by Martyn Fretwell.

Cogenhoe, Northampton

The Cogenhoe Iron Ore Co. was established in 1858 & in 1877 a brickworks was built by the company to utilise the clay that was being dug. However this venture was short lived as there was a downturn in the demand for iron ore & the company closed in 1880. Kelly's lists The Cogenhoe Iron Ore Co. as brickmakers it's 1877 edition. Info & Photo by Martyn Fretwell.

Colborne, Swindon

G H Colchester, Burwell, Cambs.

G H Colchester, Burwell, Newmarket, Cambs. Supposedly to give his workers work in winter T. T. Ball opened a brickworks a little to the north of Burwell beyond the old lode, eventually renamed Factory lode. In 1881 T. T. Ball employed 33 men at the chemical works, in partnership from the 1880s with W. and G. H. Colchester, of a Suffolk fertilizer firm. By 1900 those works were linked by a private line to the Cambridge-Mildenhall railway running through Soham. Their firm, Colchester & Ball, continued to produce both fertilizer, by 1900 using imported phosphates, and the Burwell White bricks. When G. H. Colchester retired in 1919 it was taken over by another East Anglian fertilizer company, Prentices.

Prentices was in turn merged in 1929 into Fisons Ltd., which manufactured fertilizer at Burwell until after 1962. By 1926 a new and larger brickworks was built, with steadily growing brick pits to its north, on Little Fen drove just south-west of the earlier one. It remained in use in the 1960s, employing c. 45 people and producing up to 10,000,000 bricks a year. In 1966 Fisons sold it to a Leicestershire brick manufacturer. Following the loss in popularity of white bricks, it was closed in 1971. The buildings, save for some workers' cottages, were demolished in 1972, their two 180-ft. high chimneys being blown up. Photo and info by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.


Today, Coleford Brick & Tile Co. is still producing hand made bricks. Established in 1925, it's Marians Brickworks was between Coleford & Staunton. Most of it's early production was used by the local mining industry in and around the Forest of Dean, but now the company's hand made bricks are mainly used by the building industry. The Marians brickworks closed after WW2 and a second and the present day Royal Forest of Dean Works was opened in 1935 at Cinderford on the site of a former brickworks. Recent contracts have included two & a half million bricks for the new British Library in London & 168,000 bricks for the 118ft tower at the newly refurbished Royal Shakespeare Theatre at Stratford on Avon. Photo by Colin Wooldridge from the John Cooksey Collection & Info by Martyn Fretwell. Photos of a visit to the works can be viewed here.

W H Collier

William Homan Collier established his Marks Tey brickworks near Colchester in 1863. William had previously worked at E & R Collier in Reading. William H. Collier is listed in Kelly's 1882, 94 & 1902 editions at Marks Tey. The 1914 edition now lists the company as Collier Ltd with works at Marks Tey, Hutton, Shenfield & Cranham, Upminster. The expansion of Collier Ltd. may have taken place after William had retired from brickmaking or his death. The company stayed in the Collier family until 1988, then after several changes in ownership the company was taken over by Wienerberger in 2004. The Marks Tey works was then acquired by a Management Buyout Team lead by Maurice Page & the works is still in production today operating under the name of W.H. Collier Ltd. Two down draft kilns from the original 1863 works still stand. Info & Photos by Martyn Fretwell.

J Collins, Pensnett

James Collins is listed in Kelly's 1868 to 1880 editions at Pensnett, Kingswinford, Dudley. Info and photo by Martyn Fretwell.

J S Collins, Gornalwood

Samuel John Collins is listed in Jones Directory of 1865 as a brick manufacturer at 'Barrs Meadow', which is is where the Gas Works was subsequently located. John Samuel Collins is listed at Gornal Wood, Dudley in Kellys 1868 edition. This works was situated on Himley Road. Kellys 1872 to 1904 editions now lists the works at Lower Gornal, Dudley. Studying maps has revealed that this was the same works. Info & Photographed at the Black Country Living Museum by Martyn Fretwell with additional info by Colin Morris.

W Collins, Newton le Willows

Photographed in a Cambridgeshire collection by Martyn Fretwell.

W J Collins

Photographed at Cawarden Reclamation, Rugeley. Kelly's 1896 to 1908 Staffordshire editions records William James Collins as brickmaker at Oaken, Albrighton, Wolverhampton. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Collins Green

Alan Davies writes: The company had a colliery at Collins Green, near Bold, St Helens and also a brickworks in Burtonwood producing up to 10,000 bricks per day. Some were used in the construction of 154 working men's cottages in the village.

Colney Hatch

Possibly from a small brickyard that was on the south side of side of Summer's Lane close to Colney Hatch, Middlesex. It seems to have opened early 1890s and was gone by 1912. Photo by Lal Hardy.

Colt Park: see H W Watson

Colthurst Symons & Co., Bridgwater

Found in Tenby by Gary Davies.

Photo by John Morley. William Symons opened a brick yard in 1851. By 1859, Colthurst & Symons & Co were leading brick makers in the area. By 1881 large numbers were employed, 85 by one manufacturer. The largest yard was the Crossway Brick and Tile Works of Colthurst, Symons, and Co. By 1887 there were three yards, Crossway, Fursland's Somerset Yard, and New Yard. New Yard was held by William Symons in 1898. Brick making in the area declined in the early 20th century. The partners are also listed in trade directories as running the Llanthony brick works at Gloucester.


The Colwich Brick & Tile Co. is listed in Kellys 1904 to 1940 editions at Colwich, Stafford. Established around 1900 the works closed in 1970. Photos of the derelict works at this link. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Commondale Brick, Pipe and Pottery Company Ltd

A chimney brick found at Neasham by Jo Crossley.

A decorated moulding, photo by Jo Crossley.

Photo by Jo Crossley. The Crossley family, see later entry, used the COMMONDALE name on some of their


Made in Conisborough, South Yorkshire, Thanks to Simon Patterson for the photos.

Yorkshire Amalgamated Products, Ashfield Brickworks, Conisbrough, Doncaster. Ashfield Fire Clay Works on Clifton Hill In Conisbrough was founded by Thomas Henry Simpson in the 1850's. On his death in 1880 ownership was purchased by George Walker and Godfrey Edward Crawshaw of Doncaster and subsequently, on their deaths in around 1887, it passed to their sons Edward Crawshaw and Godfrey Walker. In 1920 Yorkshire Amalgamated Products Ltd of Doncaster, the owners of several other brickyards in Yorkshire purchased the business and production continued until closure in 1961. It seems that when clay deposits adjacent to the works were reaching exhaustion in around 1950 clay was shipped from their works in nearby Mexborough. For more information visit this site. Photos and info by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.


Photo by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.

Consett Firebrick Company

Consett Firebrick Company, Shotley Bridge, Newcastle on Tyne. Photo by Chris Tilney.

Consett Iron Co Ltd

Consett Iron Co. Ltd., Consett, Co. Durham. This was a massive industrial concern producing steel, coal, coke and other related products from the mid 19th century until closure in 1980. The Company owned several brickworks including Delves on the outskirts of Consett, Garesfield and Templeton. Photo by Chris Tilney

Cook, Washington station

The name on this brick is unusually on the header end. Photo by Steven Tait.

Alfred Cook

Alfred Rankin Cook is listed as brickmaker at Stratton St. Marys, Long Stratton & at Swainsthorpe, Norwich in Kellys 1896 & 1904 editions. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

W Cooke & Co, Tinsley

No Info other than there was a William Cooke who produced Iron, steel & wire ropes at Tinsley, but no mention of bricks in the Grace's Guide entry. Photo by Martyn Fretwell from the David Penney Collection.


Photos by Frank Lawson. J H Cookson & Son Ltd of Lofthouse, West Yorkshire.


Front and back of a Cooper brick found by David Rogers near Lincoln. Clayton is the name of the brick machinery manufacturer. Martyn Fretwell adds: John Cooper is listed in Kelly's 1876 to 1891 editions at Misterton, Notts. The next entries are for George Cooper possibly John's son and he is listed in Kelly's 1900 to 1936 editions at Misterton.

J F Cooper

John Cooper, Mill Lane, Blackburn, Lancs, is thought to have been in business c1865.

T Cooper & Co, Shelton, Derby

Cooper, Maidenhead

Kelly's 1854 edition lists J.K. & H. Cooper at East Street, Maidenhead & Pinkney's Green, Berks. Then Kellys, 1887, 1899 & 1915 editions list the company as John Kinghorn Cooper & Sons, Castle Hill & Pinkney's Green, Maidenhead. The Cooper's owned the works between 1825 & 1955. More info at this Link. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Cooper Newcastle

John Cooper, Kingsfield Brickworks, Newcastle-under-Lyme. He is listed in 1841 as a brick manufacturer at living at Hartshill, In 1851 he was emmploying 3 men and in 1861 the business was John Cooper & Son, King's Field, Shelton New Road, Newcastle. William Cooper his son is listed in 1861 as a master brick and tile maufacturer employing 15 men and 13 boys. The works was closed by 1871 and William Cooper had moved to Springfield Tileries by then. The works was reopened by Deane & Co by 1873. Photo by David Kitching.

Thomas Cope first appears as a brickmaker in the 1842 trade directory at Steels Nook, Longton and the business is listed as being run by his executors by 1864. In 1869 the works is listed as Holden Bridge Brickyard, Smallthorne and it is last mentioned in 1904. Photo and information by David Kitching.

Blue paver. Photo by Martyn Fretwell.

J Cope & Son

Ken Perkins records J. Cope & Son at the Midland Port Vale Tileries in 1878 & I have found that John Cope (blue metallic) is listed as brickmaker at Port Vale, Wolstanton Stoke on Trent & Smallthorne in Kelly's 1868 edition & then in the 1872 edition the listing is Norton in the Moors, Burslem & Wolstanton SOT. Info by Martyn Fretwell.


For the history of this works please see John Ambrose entry. Photo by Martyn Fretwell.

A Copp

Found at St Lawrence, Jersey. Photo by Richard Watson.

G Copp

Made by G Copp, Maufant, Jersey. The works operated from the 1890s to 1914. Photo by David Kitching, part of the collection at Wheal Martyn China Clay Museum.


Coptrod Brickworks Ltd., Mellor Street, Rochdale. Photos by David Kitching.

London Gazette July 1920:- COPTROD BRICKWORKS Limited. AT an Extraordinary General Meeting of the above named Company, duly convened, and held at Sparth Brickworks, Rochdale, on the 9th day of June, 1920, the following Resolutions were duly passed as Extraordinary Resolutions and at a subsequent Extraordinary General Meeting of the Members of the said Company, also duly convened, and held at the same place on the 1st day of July, 1920, such Resolutions were duly confirmed as Special Resolutions, namely:—

1. " That the Coptrod Brickworks Limited be wound up voluntarily."

2. " That Charles Percival Menday, of Sparth Brickworks, Rochdale, Company Secretary is hereby appointed Liquidator for the purpose of such winding-up."

Dated this 2nd day of July, 1920. THOMAS HOWARTH, Chairman.

Photo and info from Frank Lawson.

Corbett, Stoke Works

A Worcestershire brick, Simon Patterson photographed this one at Avoncroft Museum

Corbridge on Tyne

The front and back of a Corbridge brick. Photo by Mark Cranston.

Corby see Weldon & Corby

Cornard, Suffolk

Photo by courtesy of the Richard Symonds collection.

Cornard Brick & Tile Co. Sudbury, Suffolk was in production between 1919 & 1964. This example was made after 1945. Full history of the works, page 4.
Image of the washmill. . Info & Photographed at Bursledon Brick Museum by Martyn Fretwell.

Cornes, Hanley

The Cornes works was on, Slippery Lane, Hanley, adjacent to the Shelton Colliery. By 1900 it was sharing the marl hole with the Sun Street Works to the south. In 1867 the works was operated by Richard B Clarke and Cornes only appears in the 1896 directory. By 1904 the firm was trading as C Cornes & Sons but in 1907 the works is listed as operated by the Hanley & Tunstall Fireclay Co Ltd. Photo and information by David Kitching.


With this brick just being stamped Cornish I have attributed it to Orbell Cornish who's sons/grandsons also follow him as brickmakers in Essex. Orbell Cornish is listed in Kellys 1871 to 1882 editions at Sible Hedingham, Halstead, Essex. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Daniel Cornish & Co.

Daniel Cornish was the son of Orbell Cornish, brickmaker in Sible Hedingham. Daniel Cornish & Co. owned the Shenfield & Hutton Brickworks in Shenfield, Brentwood & this works is first listed in Kellys 1899 edition. Kellys 1902 edition now includes a 2nd works at Wickford & was situated at the end of Station Avenue. Daniel continues to run both works until the Wickford Works is listed in Kellys 1917 edition as being owned by John Cornish (possibly his brother). John Cornish is listed at Wickford until Kellys 1922 edition. As of yet no bricks stamped John Cornish have been found. Back to Daniel & he continues to be listed in Kellys at the Shenfield & Hutton Works until my last available trade directory in 1937. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Edward Cornish, Eastwood, Essex

Edward Cornish was the son of Orbell Cornish, brickmaker in Sible Hedingham. Edward is listed in Kellys 1902 edition at the Eastwood Brickworks, Rochford, Essex. This entry continues until the 1922 edition when it's now Edward Cornish, Eastwood B/W's, Rayleigh Road, Southend. Kellys 1937 entry is the same & is the last Essex trade directory that I have access to. The works closed in 1973 by which time Edward's son was running the business. Edward lived to the grand old age of 100 & died in 1974. Photos & Info by Martyn Fretwell. Further info from Stephen Marks.

Eli Cornish

Eli Cornish was the son of Orbell Cornish, brickmaker in Sible Hedingham. Eli stamped his bricks ECC to distinguish his bricks from his brother's Edward Cornish who stamped his bricks, EC. Eli's Tortoise Brickworks was on Wethersfield Road, Sible Hedingham & he is listed in Kellys 1894 edition to 1929 edition at this works. A web article records him brickmaking between 1886 & 1932. In Kellys 1902 edition Eli is listed as briefly owning the Hedingham Brick Co., after which that works reverted back to being owned by Mark Gentry who had previously owned it. Eli also owned a 2nd brickworks called the Sidings Brickworks at Purls Hill, Sible Hedingham & this works is listed in Kellys 1914 & 17 editions. Eli Cornish is also recorded as being a director of the Sible Hedingham Red Brick Co. which took over Mark Gentry's Highfield Works, Purls Hill after he had finished brickmaking & the S.H.R.B. Co. is listed from Kellys 1922 edition as owning this works. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell with some info from a BBS article by Adrian Corder-Birch.

Fred Cornish, Tortoise

Fred Cornish is listed as brickmaker at the Tortoise Brickworks, Wethersfield Road, Sible Hedingham in Kellys 1933 & 37 editions. Fred followed Eli Cornish at the works who may have been his father. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

W Cornish

William Cornish was the son of Orbell Cornish, brickmaker in Sible Hedingham. William is listed in Kellys 1886 & 90 editions at High Beech Road, Loughton, Essex. Kellys 1894 edition now records the company as William Cornish & Co. at Chigwell Road, South Woodford. This entry continues until 1925 when the listing is H.R. Cornish, Chigwell Road, South Woodford. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

W D Cornish

W. D. Cornish, Enfield. Middx. started around 1990's along with several other brickworks in the area. His Bush Hill Park works flourished until the price of land increased & his works was the last to close in the Enfield area in 1936. Info by Martyn Fretwell and photographed in a Kent reclamation yard.


Found near Measham, Leicestershire, photo by Michael Raybould.

Photo by courtesy of the Richard Symonds collection.

Peter Harris writes: These were made by Coronet Brick co ltd of Measham. They made both bricks and salt glazed pipes They only made pipes in the later years They closed about 1965 I do not think they were connected to Redbank as they were on the other side of the Midland Railway at Measham.

Martyn Fretwell adds Coronet Brick and Terra Cotta Works was in production by 1903 and was one of a trio of brickworks on Atherstone Road. Redbank was on the opposite side of the railway line and Measham Terra Cotta Co. was to the north, each with its own adjoining clay pits. The company may have taken its name from nearby Coronet House situated 150 meters from the works.

Photo by David Kitching, part of the collection at Wheal Martyn China Clay Museum.

Cossall Colliery Co.

Photo supplied by A.K.A. Demik.

Martyn Fretwell writes :- The Cossall Colliery Co. is listed in Kelly's 1916 & 22 editions with three railway siding depots in Nottingham. The brickworks was next to the colliery in the village of Cossall, Notts, which is just east of Ilkeston. A mining reference records the Cossall Colliery Co. brickworks as making 10,000 bricks per day in 1923 & by 1940 the output was 15,000 bricks per day.

Cosslet, Warmley

Richard Cosslett junior is listed in Slater's 1880 Bristol trade directory as brick & terra cotta manufacturer at Warmley, Glos. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Coton Park, Burton on Trent

Found near Repton in Derbyshire by Frank Lawson. The 1895 Kelly's Directory for Derbyshire lists "Coton Park & Linton Colliery Ltd" of Linton, Burton upon Trent as brick manufacturers.

Cottam & Barlboro

Photo by Simon Patterson. Cottam Colliery, Barlborough was sunk in 1853 & was owned by Appleby & Co. then later by the Eckington Coal & Iron Co. The 1875 OS map shows the associated brickworks was next to Cottam No.2 pit, also known as Cottam "New Colliery". Both colliery & brickworks had disappeared by the 1899 map.

See also the entry for Barlboro.

Cottam Hall Brick Co

The Cotton Hall Brick Company works was situated at Ingol to the northwest of Preston beside the Lancaster Canal.

Photos of the works can be found here.

County, Stacksteads

Photo by courtesy of Colin Driver.

The County Brick & Tile Co. at Rakehead, Stackstead, Lancs went into liquidation on the 26th May 1900 after 13 years of production & was owned by Thomas Ratcliffe. Seventeen years after the disused brickworks had closed the 114ft chimney, constructed with 90,000 bricks was pulled down. Info & Photo by Martyn Fretwell.


Frank Lawson writes: I am confident that this brick was made by Coupe Brothers, Brickmakers who, according to several street directories, operated out of several addresses in Sheffield including Carlisle Street East & Sorby Street. Coupe Brothers (Bricks), 19 Carlisle Street East works, Eleanor Street, Attercliffe, Sheffield. Kelly's Sheffield Directory 1923 - 1935

Cousins, Whitehaven

Michael Cousins is listed as a master builder in the 1880's directories and in 1881 as builder and Brick and Tile maker. Site of works not known at present. Info by Solway Past, photo by Phil Jenkins.


I found a Buckinghamshire County Council reference to a brick kiln at Cowcroft, Ley Hill, Chesham, recorded as being in operation in the 19th & 20th centuries at this grid reference SP 98720 01810 on Kiln Lane and may have been the location where this brick was made. There was another brickworks also now closed at Meadhams Farm, situated slightly south of the Cowcroft site & this works was owned by the Dunton Brothers / Michelmersh Group. Info & Photo by Martyn Fretwell courtesy of the David Penney Collection.

Cowen M

Joseph Cowen & Co., Blaydon Burn Brickworks, Co Durham. Kelly's Durham Directory 1890. Photos by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.

Another Cowen brick has been found by Tom Ostrander along the path of the Seattle and Lake Shore Railroad at Issaquah Washington, the first rail line built out of Seattle and across the Cascade mountains. It was built in 1885-1887.


Martyn Fretwell writes :- No trade directory entries have been found for this paver, but with photographing it at Oldfield Reclamation, Old Hill I expect it was made in the West Bromwich/ Tipton area. If you can help with information for this brick, please contact David. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.


Photo taken at an old house in the village of Everton in North Nottinghamshire by Joe Jefferies. Frank Lawson writes: I think this was almost certainly made by John Cowling of Spital Terrace Gainsborough, Lincs (White's Lincolnshire Directory 1856). Everton is very close to Gainsborough and I also found one in the same vicinity.

John Cowling is first listed in White's 1853 edition as brickmaker at Walkeringham, Notts. John is then followed by his son William in the running of the works in 1861. This works consisted of two yards, one either side of the Chesterfield Canal. Kelly's Lincolnshire 1868 edition records William as him living at Crowgarth, Gainsborough & his works at Walkeringham, Notts. After William's early death in 1871 aged 35, his wife Maria ran the two yards until she sold them as two individual lots in 1880. The entry for Cowling & Co. appears in Kelly's 1876 Notts. edition. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Found in Dunham on Trent by Carl.


Coxlodge Colliery Fire Brick Works at Gosforth, Newcastle outlasted the collieries themselves by many years and from map evidence was open from before 1895 to after 1938. Photo and info by Ian Suddaby.

This brick was photographed by Dave McAnelly at the Coxlodge, Gosforth and District Social Club, on Jubilee Road, Coxlodge, Newcastle upon Tyne. It was part of a wall that was removed during refurbishment work and kept as a memento, the Club was purpose built and opened in June 1910. Thanks to Ken Roddam.

Cradley Heath

This brick could have been made at the Congreaves Brickworks, Cradley Heath owned by the British Iron Co. History of the brickworks can be read at this link. Photo by Colin Wooldridge from the John Cooksey Collection, with Info supplied by Martyn Fretwell.

Craig Bros, Sacriston

Craig Brothers were a local builders firm, their yard was on Findon Hill, Sacriston, County Durham, where there is still a small row of 1930s semi-detached houses called 'Craigland Villas'. Craig's was a family firm, one of whose daughters, born in Sacriston, was the actress Wendy Craig. Photo by Chris Tilney.


Made at Cramlington colliery north of Newcastle on Tyne, photos by Tony Gray.

East Cramlington Brickworks - probably associated with Cramlington Colliery. Photo by Frank Lawson.

W Crane, Newton Burgoland, Ashby de la Zouch

William Crane, brickmaker in Newton Burgoland, Swepstone, Ashby-De-La-Zouch is listed in Kelly's 1895 to 1908 editions. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell. Photo by Martyn Fretwell.


A brickworks was established next to Baynards Railway Station near Cranleigh, Surrey in the early 20th century & was known as Baynards Brick & Tile Works. After many years of producing bricks & Fuller's earth for the wool industry & then producing foundry clay, the site was purchased by Steetley Chemicals in 1937. Production of chemicals continued on the site until 1989 when the works closed. A new brickworks was then established just to the west of the chemical works in 1990 & was known as the Cranleigh Brick & Tile Co. The brickworks closed in 2004 & the site was then used to store bricks from other brickworks. Today after being derelict for many years the site is in the process of being turned into a nature reserve. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Photo by Richard Symonds, taken at Amberley Chalkpits Museum.

H & W Crapper

Henry and William Crapper were running the Wisewood brickworks at Loxley by 1893, the business having previously been operated in partnership by Thomas Marshall and William Crapper at their Storrs Bridge Works in the Loxley Valley. Their works was severely damaged in the Sheffield Flood when the Dale Dyke Dam at Bradfield burst on the night of 11th / 12th March 1864. Their claim for damages for £1603 11s 2d was agreed at £1217.10s 0d. Later Thomas Marshall concentrated on the refractory brick side of the business at the Storrs Bridge works while the Crappers concentrated on the manufacture of house bricks at a works lower down the Loxley Valley at Wisewood. In 1901 the Crappers Brick Co. Ltd. was in existence but the deaths of the brothers led to the business being taken over by the Wisewood Brick Company around that time. Info from John Bramall.


Thanks to Simon Patterson for the photo

Photos by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.

These bricks were the product of John Craven at the large Roundwood brickworks at Alverthorpe, Wakefield which opened in 1862. John Craven was the inventor of the stiff-plastic process and the owner of the first Hoffman kiln in Britain. The kiln was fired continuously until 1909. John Craven designed the brick-making machines and grinding pans. Thanks to Derek Barker for the information.

Craven Brickworks

The Craven Brickworks, Cockshutts Lane, Wolverhampton was established by Joseph Onions after 1902 and prior to 1908 and was then run by Isaac Onions from 1912 to 1916. Photo by Duncan Russell.


Crescent Brick Co., George Holt manager, Bilston Road, Willenhall. Kelly’s Directory, 1900. Photo & info by Martyn Fretwell.

Crofts Plastic

Thomas Croft Brickworks, Deepdale, Preston. Photo by Colin Driver, info by Frank Lawson.

Croft Stone

Photographed at Cadeby Reclamation yard. Martyn writes :- With this brick being photographed in Leicestershire, C.S. could be Croft Stone, Quarry & Brick Co. Croft, Hinckley which is recorded in Kelly's 1877 edition. From the 1881 to 1912 editions the Company is listed as Croft Granite & Brick Co. with the 1881 entry recording Henry Davis Pochin & Samuel Davenport Pochin as Proprietors.

Crompton & Co Ltd, Croston

Crompton's brick and tile works was situated to the south of Croston Station in Lancashire and was well established by 1892. By 1910 the works was connected to the clay pit by an aerial ropeway. Production continued until at least the early 1970s when it was marked as a tile works on the OS map.

Crook & Co.

Examples of this brick have been found in Bolton and Wigan. Photo by David Kitching.


photo courtesy of Graham Hague (Sheffield) collection.


Crosland Coal Company

Found on the site of Cleckheaton Central station, probably made by the Crosland Coal Company, Webster Lane, Scholes, Cleckheaton. Listed 1877 to 1897, info and image PRBCO.

Cross image

With this brick being marked with a cross, I was told it was made at the St. Helens brickworks in Ipswich & I found that there is a brickworks marked on the 1882 & 1900 maps off Back Hamlet & close to St. Helens Church. There is another option of it being made at the Trinity Brickworks which was situated on the other side of Back Hamlet next to Holy Trinity Church & this works is shown on the 1882 & 1900 maps. Kelly's 1896 edition lists Joseph Bird as owning the Trinity Brickworks & this works closed around 1910. Photo & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Cross Keys

This brick was found and photographed in a fireplace at Holbeach, Lincolnshire, by David Spellane. The end of the brick is scribed W A 1832. My best stab at the brickyard where it was made is that it comes from the Cross Keys brick field, immediately on the east side of Sutton Bridge, a few miles to the east of Holbeach. The owners of the initials RS and also WA are unknown.

John Crossley

John Crossley, Stockton on Tees, Co. Durham. John Crossley was a retailer of building products from Stockton-on-Tees having also opened a builders merchants in Middlesbrough in 1858. Between 1871 and 1947 he operated several brickworks in the South Durham / North Yorkshire area including Commondale & Grosmont which produced many clay building products, as well as terracotta ware at Commondale.

See also the entries for Commondale and Tudor.

Crossley, Middlesbro - photos by Simon Patterson.

Photos by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.

Found on the beach at Saltburn by Jo Crossley.

Crossling Benwell

Hartley Hudson Crossling produced at the Condercum Brickworks adjacent to the Charlotte Pit in Benwell, (although not commercially connected to that concern), to the west of Newcastle upon Tyne. Info by Arthur Brickman, photo by Thomas Davison.


Martyn Fretwell was told at the brick yard that this one is from Crowborough. INFO from net - Crowborough Brickworks at Jarvis Brook, started around 1890 and was in production until February 1980. It was owned by Redland when it closed in 1982. The site is now part industrial and part nature reserve. Photo and info by Martyn Fretwell. 2 links for the brickworks.


Photos by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection. Made near Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire.

BSC operated the Crowle Brickworks near Scunthorpe between 1967 & 1972. Full history of the works at these two links: here and here. Photo by Martyn Fretwell.

Crown Clay Co

Situated at a Crew's Hole, Bristol the Crown Clay Co made firebricksalong with sanitary pipes and terracotta ware from around 1800. At some point in the later 19th century the business was absorbed into the Bristol Fire Clay Company. Photos by Eric Taylor.

Crown Works, Horwich: see Yates, Horwich

Crowther & Hamblet: see John Hamblet (coping bricks)

A B Croxon

Made in Burnham on Crouch, Essex. Photo by David Wallis.


Cudworth Brickworks Ltd., Cudworth, Barnsley, 1890-1945. Located Behind Lindrick Close, Cudworth. It wasn’t connected to coal mining and seems to have been an independent producer. Later in the brickworks' life it was owned by Oakland Brothers who bought a number of Barnsley based brickworks. Photos by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.

Cudworth Junction

The brickworks was located on the south-western flank of Cudworth near Barnsley, South Yorkshire. Listed in trade directories under this name 1897 and 1904. Image PRBCO.

This was photographed at the Chasewater Railway near Lichfield by John Pease.

Photo by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection.


This was an estate brickworks belonging to Culford Hall, Suffolk owned by the Benyon family until the Hall was sold in 1889 to George Henry, 5th Lord Cadogan who live there until his death in 1933. I have no trade directories for this works but it is shown on two maps dated 1881 & 1903 with it no longer being shown on a 1950 map. In 1893 Lord Cadogan made many improvements to his house when he turned it into a mansion. In 1901 Henry Warren is recorded as manager of the works & living at Brick Kiln Cottage. Photo by John Bowes & Info by Martyn Fretwell.

Photos by Martyn Fretwell.

Culgaith, Cumberland

Photo by courtesy of the Colin Driver collection.


Photo by courtesy of the Frank Lawson collection. Cumberworth Brick & Tile Company was founded by the Wood family. The address in the 1930s was the Cumberworth Brick, Tile & Stone Co Ltd, Shepley, Huddersfield. Thanks to Derek Barker for the information.

Found at Thurlstone, S.Yorks by Frank Lawson.

Cunliffe's Kettering

This works was the north-west of the town between the River Slade and the Midland Railway and this is shown on the 1900 map and Kelly's Directory lists a William Cunliffe as a brick manufacturer. Photo and info by Dave Clemo.

Photo by Martyn Fretwell courtesy of the Bill Richardson Collection at Southwick Hall.


F Cuthbert & Sons Ltd., Greystones, Sheffield. White's Sheffield & Rotherham Directory 1905. Photo and info by Frank Lawson courtesy of Graham Hague (Sheffield) collection.

Other items on this site that are directly related to the current book.

The Encyclopedia of Texas (Book)

This book provides a biographical view of Texas and its history. The book uses many narratives of the individuals who helped shape Texas history. The book also includes profiles of: the public school system in Texas banking the public school system the State Fair the Cotton Industry oil history and histories of select towns, such as Dallas, Fort Worth, Wichita Falls, Burkburnett, Ellis County, Waco, San Antonio, Galveston, and many others.

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Bricks of Ohio Blog (B.O.B)

Bricks may seem as boring and mundane as can be. But not all bricks are created equal. There was a time when Ohio was a brick powerhouse for the state, the nation and the world. Back in the golden era of brick paver making, the kilns of Eastern Ohio were constantly firing to meet the nation’s never-ending hunger for fire bricks and street pavers. From the 1880’s to the late 1930’s billions of bricks found their ways to the streets and buildings far from their rural roots. They don’t make them like this any more…they can’t. The time and expense to craft one of these by hand, glaze them with salt and stamp them is too labor intensive to make sense or cents.

I never thought much of bricks until I started the learn their lost history and came to respect the craftsmanship that made them. Even though billions were laid and paved the majority have been lost to time – buried under layers of asphalt or dumped in landfills and forgotten. These are the stories of my discoveries and how I came to appreciate these heavy hunks of heritage and why I made the time to pull history from the muck.

Attention visitors: If you came to this blog doing a Google search for a brick or block you found – please share with other readers what you found, where you found it and any information or links you find about it. This will help build the Brickpendium of knowledge here.

If you post a question like this: I found ________, how much can I sell it for. I will delete your comment.

American Brick Collection

Brick is one of the oldest and most enduring man-made building materials. Sun-dried mud brick, or adobe, appeared about 10,000 years ago. The earliest kiln-fired or clay-baked brick dates to 3,500 B.C. This marked the first time humans were able to construct permanent fireproof structures without stone.

Since at least 1611, when English brick makers were recruited to Virginia, fired brick has been part of the North American landscape. Tied to the colonial era, brick came to define the nation’s industrial age and remains linked to contemporary notions of the American factory, school, and single-family house. Although once manufactured with incredible variety, brick production today is far more limited because the material is no longer used structurally, but rather as veneer.

The American Brick Collection contains 1,800 bricks, most from the late 19th- and early 20th-century, each stamped with the manufacturer’s name, logo, or hometown. Donor Raymond Chase spent 24 years collecting them. There are examples of decorative, face, fire, paving, pressed, and common bricks from around the nation. All told, the collection weighs around 10,000 pounds.

The American Brick Collection is in storage and not on view. Please check current exhibitions for a list of what is publicly accessible.


Brick Collection, 2013. CItyscapes.

Brick Collection, 2013. CItyscapes.

Brick Collection, 2013. CItyscapes.

Brick Collection, 2013. CItyscapes.

Brick Collection, 2013. CItyscapes.

Brick Collection, 2013. CItyscapes.

Brick Collection, 2013. CItyscapes.

Baltimore Brick Collection, 2006.

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In the midlands an area well known for fireclay.

There was a number of makers in the area.

A brick just stamped Stourbridge

A brick marked Fishers Stourbridge.


Another Stourbridge company. Founded by the Timmis brothers G H and J A about 1871 they mined clay from under Stourbridge and Amblecote.

RAYAX is a trade mark for firebricks with a high 55 - 60% Aluminium by incorpoating Sillimanite a high content Aluminosilicate mineral.


This brick is a minature brick. There is a debate about these small bricks some were used in fireplaces etc. Or were they made as samples for travelling sales men?

PHORPRES refers to the fact the bricks are pressed four times in their production. Originall in presses made by C. Whittaker & Co of Accrington, Lancashire.

Examples of LBC bricks known as Flettons. The numbers refer to the various works and also in cases of double numbers also to the press used.

Flettons are made from Oxford clay which has an unique property in that it contains a high concentration of organic matter which results in the brick almost firing itself in the kiln and so reducing drastically the overall cost of firing and production. Another advantage is the abiltiy to crush it to a fine granular material and it possessed a uniform moisture content which made it suitable for making into bricks by using semi-dry pressing process.

The "Fletton" process was started at Fletton Lodge Estate which was purchased by James McCallum Craig and the bricks made became known as Flettons. A number of companies were involved but over time the London Brick Company dominated the Fletton trade.

The London Brick company was incorporated as the London Brick company Limited in 1900 and adopted the trade mark "PHORPRES" in 1901. The Phorpres name was dropped in 1974.

An LB brick stamped 10. this brick has a very deep frog. The brick is 2.5 inches thick and the frog is 1.5 inches deep.

Manufactured by the North Staffordshire Brick and Tile Co. Ltd, Chesterton, Newcastle-under-Lyme

VITROS would appear to be their trade mark for their typical staffordshire blue engineering brick.

The same type of brick with a 'F' on it.


These were the trade marks of Metallic Tile Co (Rowley Bros) Ltd. at the Metallic tileries in Chesterton, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire. closed in 1977.

J C E stands for J C Edwards who had a brick works at Ruaban, North Wales

A lot of JCE bricks with a number and fraction on it. In this case 31/8 in a very deep frog.

this is the reverse of the top brick with 31/8

Adifferent variation on the 31/8.


A rope topped garden edge.

Ruabon Brick & Terra Cotta Ltd or locally called Jenks Terra Cotta. Founded by the Hague family of Gardden around 1883 and managed by Mr Jenks. Taken over by Dennis in 1960s and closed 1970s.


A Staffordshire blue engineering brick.

Made by Ketley Bricks, Dreadnought Works, Dreadnaught Road, Pesnett, Brierly Hill.

(Information from the old brick marks website. )


Mark Fawcett and Company from near London. The Edwardian Patwnt Dow draught Preventing Chimney pot. (The pot is upside down in the picture as being used as a planter.)

Watch the video: Brick #4 Stamping into small spaces.


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