Battle of Agridi (1232 CE)

Battle of Agridi (1232 CE)

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1232 Angel Number – Meaning and Symbolism

It is believed that numbers are the most common way that angels use in order to get in touch with people. That’s why you might see the same number in different situations around you.

Angel numbers have many hidden meanings and sometimes it is very hard to discover them.

But, in most of the cases angel numbers carry good messages that our angels are sending to us.

In this text we will talk about angel number 1232 and its symbolism. This number has many powers and many secret meanings, so we will help you discover all of them.

If you have noticed that number 1232 is appearing in your life very often, then it is a good sign and you should be excited about that.

When we tell you what this number means, you will be able to understand what your guardian angels want to tell you.

You should have in mind that the message from your angels can change your life completely.

Take a look through Medieval Warfare IX:5

This entry was posted on December 3, 2019 by Peter Konieczny .

Our latest issue is now on its way to our subscribers all over the world and will soon be available in book shops. I wanted to give you a little preview of what you will find inside.

Our theme was Cyprus and the role the island played during the crusades. Nicholas Coureas, who is one of the leading experts on medieval Cyprus, gives us an overview of what was happening on the island from the eleventh to sixteenth centuries, as it went from a staging ground for crusaders to being on the frontline of various conflicts. Western Europeans would become more and more involved in ruling the island, which would lead to clashes such as the Battle of Agridi, fought in the year 1232. Helena Schrader tells us the story of this battle.

Stephen Morillo is in our pages for the first time. He is well-known for his work on world history, as well as warfare in the Anglo-Norman era. In our issue he is writing about a battle between the kings of England and France that took place 800 years ago.

Sidney Dean takes us to the turn of the fifteenth century when pirates were a serious problem in northern Europe. Kyle Lincoln tells us about the reign of Alfonso IX of León and why he wasn’t a very successful military leader. Adam Ali has a piece on a siege that takes place in Azerbaijan in the ninth century.

You can read our columnists too - Randall Moffett writes about fourteenth century Scottish knights, Ruth R. Brown and Kay Smith on the claymore, and Murray Dahm finishes the issue with a look on the portrayal of Christopher Columbus in film.

If you are interested in buying the issue, you can get the print version by clicking here, while those who want a digital copy can find them here.

Battle of Agridi (1232 CE) - History

Rockets were first used as actual weapons in the battle of Kai-fung-fu in 1232 A.D. The Chinese attempted to repel Mongol invaders with barrages of fire arrows and, possibly, gunpowder-launched grenades. The fire-arrows were a simple form of a solid-propellant rocket. A tube, capped at one end, contained gunpowder. The other end was left open and the tube was attached to a long stick. When the powder was ignited, the rapid burning of the powder produced fire, smoke, and gas that escaped through the open end and produced a thrust. The stick acted as a simple guidance system that kept the rocket headed in one general direction as it flew through the air. It is not clear how effective these arrows of flying fire were. But one source reported that one grenade could incinerate a 2,000 square foot area.

Following the battle of Kai-Keng, the Mongols produced rockets of their own. During the 13th to the 15th centuries, the Mongols used rockets in their attacks on Japan and Baghdad and may have been responsible for the spread of rockets to Europe. In England, a monk named Roger Bacon worked on improved forms of gunpowder that greatly increased the range of rockets. In France, Jean Froissart found that more accurate flights could be achieved by launching rockets through tubes. Froissart's idea was the forerunner of the modern bazooka. Joanes de Fontana of Italy designed a surface-running rocket-powered torpedo for setting enemy ships on fire.

By the 16th century rockets fell into a time of relative disuse as weapons of war, though they were still used extensively in fireworks displays. A German fireworks maker, Johann Schmidlap, invented the first "step rocket," a multi-staged vehicle for lifting fireworks to higher altitudes. A large rocket was ignited initially and carried one or more smaller rockets. When the large rocket burned out, the smaller rockets ignited and continued to a higher altitude before showering the sky with glowing cinders. Schmidlap's idea, known today as staging, is basic to all modern rocketry.

Nearly all uses of rockets up to this time were for warfare or fireworks but there is an interesting old Chinese legend that reports the use of rockets as a means of transportation. With the help of many assistants, a Chinese official named Wan-Hu assembled a rocket-powered flying chair. The chair was mounted between two wooden stakes. Attached to the chair were two large kites, and fixed to the kites were forty-seven fire-arrow rockets.

On the day of the flight, Wan-Hu sat in the chair and gave the command to light the rockets. Forty-seven assistants, each armed with torches, rushed forward to light the rockets. In a moment, there was a tremendous roar accompanied by billowing clouds of smoke. When the smoke cleared, Wan-Hu and his flying chair were gone. No one knows for sure what happened to Wan-Hu, but it is probable that the event really did take place. Fire-arrows are still as apt to explode as to fly!

Mysore & the World’s First Rockets

We have all read about the many wars fought by the British, from Plassey, to the Third Anglo- Carnatic, Fourth Anglo – Mysore, Third Anglo-Maratha and Second Anglo-Sikh wars to gain control over the Indian Subcontinent. It is generally accepted that the reason the British won was because they had better technology and deeper pockets. But that is not factually true. Did you know that it is a well-documented fact that the Mysore army of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, was the first in the world to use high-end, deadly iron-cased rockets in war? The British were so awed and inspired by these ‘Mysorean’ rockets, that they took the technology with them back to Europe, reverse engineered them and used them against the Americans in the Anglo-American War of 1812. The rockets that were inspired by those made in Mysore, even find a mention in the American National Anthem the ‘Star Spangled Banner’!

The idea of using rockets in war was centuries old. The Chinese were the earliest to use rockets in warfare, against Mongol invaders in 1232 CE. There are also early references to their use by Arabs, some European powers and even the Mughals. However, these earlier rockets were really rudimentary. Made of bamboo, cardboard or wood, they were not very different from the Diwali rockets (fireworks) that are used in India today. Their purpose was also basic. These rockets were mostly used to light the dark night during combat or to frighten enemy horses.

The Chinese were the earliest to use rockets in warfare, against Mongol invaders in 1232 CE

Noted British historian Roy Porter in his book ‘The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 4, Eighteenth-Century Science’ asserts that it was the Mysore army which first developed the most advanced military rockets of its time and deployed it in war. While in the popular imagination they were called ‘Tipu’s rockets’, they were in fact developed and deployed by Tipu Sultan’s father, Hyder Ali.

The Mysore army even had a regular rocket Corp

Hyder Ali innovated on the earlier gunpowder rockets and transformed them into deadly weapons. The distinctiveness of the Mysorean rocket design lay in its use of iron, rather than the wood tubing used earlier. The cylindrical casing of iron allowed for greater compression, enabling higher thrust and longer range for the missile – as much as 2.4 km, which was the best in the world at that time. For added impact, the rockets were fastened to swords or bamboo poles which provided stability and helped generate a greater bang, causing more destruction with flying shrapnel, at the other end. Furthermore, multiple rocket ramps were set up on wheeled carts so as to allow the rocket artillery brigades to launch about 5-10 rockets simultaneously.

So important were the rockets to the Mysore army that they even had a regular rocket Corps. Beginning with about 1,200 men in Hyder Ali’s time, these Mysore ‘Rocketeers’ were 5000 strong by Tipu Sultan’s time.

The most striking account of the use of these rockets comes from a witness of the Battle of Pollilur, fought on 10 September 1780 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. Hyder Ali launched his supercharged rockets at the William Baillie led army of the East India Company. What followed was chaos and confusion among the British infantry. Besides killing and wounding a large number of men, the rockets also set fire to the British ammunition dumps, resulting in one of the worst ever defeats of the British Army in India. The British soldiers who had never seen anything like this, termed these rockets ‘flying plagues’. Mysore’s victory over the British at Pollilur was commemorated in a mural at Tipu’s summer palace, the Darya Daulat Bagh in Srirangapatna.

To develop these rockets further and ensure they were constantly bettered, Tipu Sultan even set up military research facilities – akin to today’s R&D centres, called Taramandalpeths at Srirangapatna, Bangalore, Chitradurga and Bidanur. Here, experiments were conducted to improve the existing rocket technology and men were taught basic calculations to help them fine-tune launch settings that would allow rockets of different sizes and weights to hit targets at varying distances and elevations. The fascinating fact of these advanced rockets is that these were not made by scientists or engineers but by local craftsmen.

Remembering the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War which reportedly began with a shower of as many as 2,000 rockets fired almost simultaneously, a British officer remarked,

“The rockets and musketry from 20,000 of the enemy were incessant. No hail could be thicker. Every illumination of blue lights was accompanied by a shower of rockets, some of which entered the head of the column, passing through to the rear, causing death, wounds, and dreadful lacerations from the long bamboos of twenty or thirty feet, which are invariably attached to them.”

However, even these rockets were not able to stop Tipu’s downfall against the combined might of the British, Maratha and Nizam’s armies in this battle. The British were able to capture Srirangapatna on 4 May 1799. After Tipu’s fall, 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and 9,000 empty rockets were seized from the Mysore armoury.

This was also the year, when the British finally got down to study the Mysore rocket. The same year, in 1799 many sample rockets were sent to the Royal Woolwich Arsenal at Woolwich, where William Congreve (an English inventor and comptroller of the Royal Woolwich Arsenal) started analyzing them and did some fine reverse engineering. He studied the ability of the rockets, their recoil, stability, launching, etc. He made a few additions to the Mysorean rockets and the new ones were used by the British in the Napoleonic Wars – in the decisive Battle of Waterloo, as well as the Anglo-American War of 1812. The rockets even find mention in the American National Anthem, the Star Spangled Banner as

The glorious tradition of military rockets in India ended with the defeat and death of Tipu Sultan in 1799. Further restrictions on the development of technology by local Indian rulers and the lack of patronage or even a need for the rockets, caused their gradual extinction. They fell into disuse in Europe as well by the middle of 19th century CE as greater advances were made in technology for guns and artillery.

The military rockets were revived by Robert Goddard in the US in the 1920s and reappeared in India only in the 1960s, with the beginning of a space program.

Irrespective of the fall of Mysore or the fate of its King – in the annals of world military history, due credit is still given to the Mysore rocket, invented and used for the very first time, by the kingdom’s army.


The first major battle of the war took place at Casal Imbert in May 1232. Filangieri defeated the Ibelins. Α] In June, however, he was so soundly defeated by an inferior force at the Battle of Agridi in Cyprus that his support on the island dwindled to zero within a year.

In 1241 the barons offered the bailliage of Acre to Simon de Montfort, the Earl of Leicester, a cousin of Philip of Montfort, and a relative through marriage to both the Hohenstaufen and the Plantagenets. He never assumed it. In 1242 or 1243 Conrad declared his own majority and on 5 June the absentee monarch's regency was granted by the Haut Court to Alice, widow of Hugh I of Cyprus and daughter of Isabella I of Jerusalem. Β] Alice promptly began ruling as if queen, ignoring Conrad, who was in Italy, and ordering Filangieri arrested. After a long siege, Tyre fell on 12 June. The Ibelins seized its citadel on 7 or 10 July, with the help of Alice, whose forces arrived on 15 June. Only the Ibelins could claim to be the winners of the war. Γ]

Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery

Within the Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery and Memorial in France, which covers 130.5 acres, rest the largest number of our military dead in Europe, a total of 14,246. Most of those buried here lost their lives during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive of World War I. The immense array of headstones rises in long regular rows upward beyond a wide central pool to the chapel that crowns the ridge. A beautiful bronze screen separates the chapel foyer from the interior, which is decorated with stained-glass windows portraying American unit insignia behind the altar are flags of the principal Allied nations.

On either side of the chapel are memorial loggias. One panel of the west loggia contains a map of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Inscribed on the remaining panels of both loggias are Tablets of the Missing with 954 names, including those from the U.S. expedition to northern Russia in 1918-1919. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.

A renovated, 1,600-square-foot center visitor center reopened in November 2016. Through interpretive exhibits that incorporate personal stories, photographs, films, and interactive displays, visitors will gain a better understanding of the critical importance of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive as it fits into the Great War.


Medieval arrowheads and crossbow bolt-heads can be confused, but it seems clear that the injuries in question cannot have been caused by crossbows, as the points of penetration are of insufficient size. The injuries described correspond in size to arrowheads rather than crossbow heads, which tend to be larger in size. Heads with internal socket measurements of over 14mm are diagnostic of crossbow bolt-heads, while corresponding measurements for military arrowheads are typically 8–10mm, and occasionally up to 12mm. Footnote 17 The shape of the entry wound in the right orbit indicates that the arrowhead must have been square- to diamond-shaped in cross-section and that it penetrated all the way through the cranium to create an exit wound at the occipital. It is likely that while the arrowhead exited the skull the arrow shaft remained lodged and was later retracted back through the front of the head, creating the additional bone spalling as it went. The penetrating injury to the tibia is entirely consistent with penetration by a similar arrow that passed through the flesh and the posterior shaft of the cortical before being stopped by the anterior cortical bone. The injury to the femur is also consistent with a glancing impact from an arrow, though perhaps other types of glancing trauma – possibly from a bladed implement – could also account for this damage.

Within the most current accepted typology of medieval arrowheads from the British Isles (fig 15), Footnote 18 this form of arrowhead can be identified as a ‘bodkin’-type military point designed to pierce armour, on account of the square-/diamond-shaped nature of the entry wounds. These could not have been created by tanged, hunting or multi-purpose arrowheads, which have flatter, blade-like forms and would have created entirely different (narrow, slit-like) wounds. Experimental archaeology confirms that bodkin-type points result in squarish lesions that match the cross-section of the head. Footnote 19 Bodkin-type points, of wrought iron with a thin steel surface, were mass produced by hand exclusively for military use, in order to counteract the protection afforded by armour. Footnote 20 The closest parallels to the puncture wounds on the Princesshay bones are Jessop types M8, M9 and M10 (see fig 15), which are long and slender, with the maximum width of the point greater than the width of the socket, consistent with the projectiles concerned (see above) these types were commonly in use from the twelfth to the sixteenth century. Footnote 21

Fig 15. Typology of medieval military arrowheads (after Jessop Reference Jessop 1996). Drawing: authors.

A potentially very important implication of the observed pattern and spalling and fracturing associated with the puncture wound in the cranium is that the arrow is likely to have been spinning clockwise when it hit the individual (that is, the spall is located on the right-hand side of the corner of the puncture wound, and the curving fracture emanating from it similarly curves to the right). It is well known that medieval arrows were fletched to enable arrows to spin in order to maximise their stability in flight and accuracy, Footnote 22 but the puncture wound provides evidence – perhaps for the first time – that this arrow at least was fletched to spin clockwise. Notably, gun manufacturers have historically rifled barrels so that bullets spin in the same – clockwise – direction. Footnote 23

That the arrowheads were military points suggests that the assemblage is likely to contain at least one battle casualty, or at least a victim of a field accident or murder perpetrated by individuals with access to military-style equipment. Figure 16 illustrates the distribution of trauma on the individual(s) represented within the assemblage. While the number of individuals displaying trauma cannot be identified with certainty, it is clearly possible that the cranium and robust femur and tibia come from the same casualty. The wounds occurred peri-mortem and their sequencing can only be speculated upon. As the wound to the skull would clearly have been fatal, one scenario is that this trauma occurred first and that the wounds to the tibia and femur occurred subsequently, when the individual was dead or dying and face down. Although this can only be a matter for speculation, this would probably account for the otherwise odd angles of entry, which are otherwise hard to explain if the individual was standing up, although other possibilities are that they could have been mounted on a horse or standing in an elevated position or on an elevated structure.

Fig 16. Compound illustration of traumatic injuries on the individual(s). Drawing: authors.

The mass grave from the Battle of Towton (1461), representing a minimum of thirty-seven individuals, produced only two wounds identified as matching projectile weapon profiles. Footnote 24 Both were on skulls: Towton 40 displayed a roughly oval-shaped penetration (11mm × 13.5mm) from an armour-piercing bodkin-type arrowhead that had penetrated through to its skirt on the left frontal and Towton 21 a smaller and more irregular oblong puncture (8mm × 2.7mm) on the occipital from a flesh-piercing arrowhead that had penetrated c 10mm. Footnote 25 A reassessment of the Towton evidence suggests, however, that penetrating cranial injuries previously thought to have been caused by arrows were instead caused by daggers, because the shape of the arrowheads recovered from the battlefield are inconsistent with the smaller puncture wounds concerned. Footnote 26

Although the standards of osteoarchaeological analysis with the mass grave at Visby, in Gotland (1361), were not as advanced, due to the siteʼs excavation in the early years of the twentieth century, it is clear that this assemblage shows a particular concentration of arrow wounds in the facial area, with some 10 per cent of bodies having been struck in this area by one or more arrows, suggesting that helmets had been removed or visors lifted. Footnote 27

These two case studies relate to mass graves on or near the sites of known and well documented battles. We also have occasional evidence that bodies were transported from the field of conflict to be interred in cemeteries in the ‘normal’ way, as appears to have been the case with the Princesshay assemblage. No certain examples exist of medieval war graves within the precincts of religious houses, although a pit filled with human bones discovered near the monastic church of St Pancras (in Lewes, East Sussex) in the nineteenth century has been mooted as a possible case in point (conceivably related to the Battle of Lewes in 1264), although it might alternatively be a charnel pit. Footnote 28 In York, the cemetery of Fishergate (a parish church later incorporated into a monastic complex) has yielded skeletons exhibiting battle trauma. At St Andrewʼs priory, Fishergate (in York), a group of twelve late eleventh-/twelfth-century burials with blade injuries have been identified as the casualties of an unknown battle. Footnote 29 That the same cemetery contains a further seventeen individuals dating between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries with weapons injuries has led to the suggestion that these occurred as a result of trial by combat. Footnote 30

At the site of the twelfth-century Crusader castle of Vadum Iacob (in Israel), within a burial of six adult male battle casualties, three had trauma from bodkin-type arrowheads: one that was still embedded in the ilium bone one in the cervical vertebrae and one in the left humerus. Footnote 31 In Lincoln (in England), a male burial among a group of sixteen excavated near the west gate of the castle and dated to c 1140 displayed traumatic injuries to the skull including a part-healed wound from a heavy weapon such as an axe but also a peri-mortem penetration from a bodkin-type arrowhead and a massive oval wound that seems to have represented the coup de grâce. Footnote 32 Elsewhere in Europe, Kolena et al published the results of the analysis of the osteological remains of a juvenile woman from ninth- to tenth-century Slovakia who had a flat rhomboidal-shaped arrowhead embedded in her second lumbar vertebra – interpreted as a civilian casualty following an attack by Hungarian troops. Footnote 33 Most intriguingly, Faccini et al published two young male skulls from a medieval grave in the crypt of St Peterʼs cathedral, Bologna (in Italy), which featured traumatic lesions produced peri-mortem: one wound was produced by blunt force trauma, and the other by either an arrowhead type projectile or a nail driven into the skull as a coup de grâce associated with magical-religious rites – perhaps the ritual of ‘vampire killing’ documented in medieval and early modern contexts! Footnote 34


The upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, and throughout Japan regional lords, or daimyo, rose to fill the vacuum. In the course of this power shift, well established clans such as the Takeda and the Imagawa, who had ruled under the authority of both the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu, were able to expand their spheres of influence. There were many, however, whose positions eroded and were eventually usurped by more capable underlings. This phenomenon of social meritocracy, in which capable subordinates rejected the status quo and forcefully overthrew an emaciated aristocracy, became known as gekokujō ( 下克上 ? ) , which literally means "the underling conquers the overlord." One of the earliest instances of this phenomenon was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from relatively humble origins and eventually seized power in Izu province in 1493. Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Late Hōjō clan remained a major power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Other notable examples include the supplanting of the Hosokawa clan by the Miyoshi, the Toki by the Saito, the Shiba clan by the Oda clan, which was in turn replaced by its underling, Toyotomi Hideyoshi who was a son of a peasant with no family name.

Well organized religious groups also gained political power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance and rebellion against the rule of the daimyo. The monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki, the most successful of which, in Kaga Province, remained independent for nearly 100 years.

Timeline: 1811 to 1820

1811 Plantation slaves just outside New Orleans are aware of the successful slave revolt that freed the slaves of Haiti (1791-1804). On January 8, between 200 and 500 slaves near New Orleans, from more than one plantation, join together with stolen arms against their masters and oppressors. They kill for their freedom. There is a musket face-off in which the slaves lose. Most are executed and their heads displayed on pikes as a lesson for other slaves.

1811 The French are driven from Portugal.

1811 Independence is declared in Caracas (Venezuela), La Paz (Bolivia) and New Grenada (Colombia). Fighting erupts between those favoring independence and Spanish authority in Latin America.

1811 In Egypt, Viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha exterminates Mamluk warlords. He invites them to a banquet and has them slaughtered.

1811 A 60-year-old Spanish priest, Hildago, who was influenced by the Enlightment, is executed after leading an uprising in behalf of the well being of Indians and mestizos.

1812 For the Ottoman empire, Muhammad Ali Pasha drives the Wahhabi and Saudis out of Medina and Mecca.

1812 In England, a few workers called Luddites in various cities in the spinning and cloth finishing industries have been destroying new machinery. They fear technological unemployment. Some are executed.

1812 Priests in Caracas claim that an earthquake is God's anger against the sins of the new government. Spain's military is able to regain control of the city.

1812 At sea, Britain has a counter-blockade against France. Britain's new prime minister, Lord Liverpool, instructs the British navy to treat US trading ships with new tact and to avoid clashes with Americans. This does not deter those in the US who want war, and Congress declares war against Britain on June 18, 1812.

1812 Napoleon's march into Russia exposes his recklessness and shallow strategic thinking. His march into Russia is not going well. His three top-ranking subordinates urged a halt to the campaign. Napoleon agrees, but the following day he changes his mind. He doesn't want to admit folly or show weakness. On September 7 at the Battle of Borodino he losses 30,000 to 35,000 more men, dead, wounded or captured. A week later he is in Moscow. In mid-October he begins a terrible march back from Russa, ending his campaign with none of the army of 600,000 with which he began.

1813 Napoleon's move against Russia has delayed Russia's ability to protect their fellow Orthodox Christians, the Serbs, who have been rebelling against Ottoman rule. The Ottoman Empire moves against rebel Serb areas, and Albanian troops plunder Serb villages.

1813 Napoleon has failed to win enough friends. In Spain, British and Spanish forces defeat his military. Napoleon withdraws from Germany after the Russians, Prussians, Austrians and Swedes defeat him there. His Confederation of the Rhine falls into history's trash bin.

1813 Laura Secord walks 20 difficult miles to warn of a surprise attack by an invading US force. She is to be a Canadian heroine.

1814 A negotiated treaty ends the War of 1812-14 and restores "peace, friendship, and good understanding" between the United States and "His Britannic Majesty."

1814 Russian and Prussian forces enter Paris. Napoleon is exiled to the island of Elba. The terms of peace between the victors and France are settled in another Treaty of Paris. The victors over Napoleon gather at Vienna &ndash the Congress of Vienna &ndash to create a stable Europe to their liking.

1814-15 At the Congress of Vienna, September 1814 to June 1815, the British, Spain, Portugal, a politically new France, and the Netherlands are meeting to discuss the world without Napoleon, and they agree to eventually abolish the slave trade.

1815 In the Indonesian Archepelgo, Mount Tamobra has been inactive for thousands of years, but on April 10 it begins a week of eruptions. Its debris in the stratosphere reduces sunlight. In the Northern Hemisphere in September there are days with no sunlight. Crops fail and livestock die in much of the Northern Hemisphere, creating the worst of 19th century famines.

1815 Napoleon returns to France in February. He inspires men to reach again for glory, and his final military defeat comes June 18th at the Battle of Waterloo.

1816 In France, the income of working people in terms of what it buys (real wages) begins a four-decade decline.

1816 Because of the Tambora eruption, 1816 will be known with the year without a summer." Amid the gloom in Britain, Mary Shelley writes a scary story: "Frankenstein."

1816 The British return to the Dutch their empire in Indonesia.

1816 Spain's military drives Simón Bolivar from New Grenada. Bolivar flees to Jamaica and then to Haiti.

1817 Bolivar and a small force return to Venezuela and establish a base inland in the rain forest along the Orinoco River.

1817 In Britain, real wages have been declining at least since the late 1790s, as Britain has been burdened by war against France. From this year on and into the next century real wages in Britain will be rising.

1817 The British sign a Maratha kingdom, Nagpur, into its system of alliances. Those opposed sack and burn the British residence at Poona (Pune). 27,000 attack a British force of 2,800 a few miles north of Poona &ndash the beginning of the Third Anglo-Maratha War.

1818 The Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the break-up of the Maratha Empire and the British in control of most of India.

1818 For the Ottoman Empire, Egyptians are taking control of the Arabian Peninsula. They destroy the mud-brick town of Diriyah (thirteen miles from the center of what today is Riyadh) which had been the home base of the Saud family and Wahhabis.

1819 In England, 60,000 gather in a field and listen to a call for universal suffrage. A magistrate sends a force to arrest the main speaker, Henry Hunt. People riot. Eleven are killed and others injured. A movement for reform gathers strength.

1820 In England a group of revolutionaries chose a strategy of killing government cabinet ministers, believing it will trigger a massive uprising. It's to be known as the Cato Street Conspiracy. One of their number was a police agent. A few conservatives used the conspiracy as propaganda against parliamentary reform. The conspirators were tried in court and five of them were hanged and then decapitated – the last of England's decapitations.

1820 A liberal uprising begins in Spain. It starts with soldiers and is joined by others who want a constitutional monarchy or a republic. A few who are poor and illiterate attack and set fire to churches.

1820 The combined area of Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi and Alabama has six times the number of people of European heritage that it had in 1800.

1820 The US has becomes the world's biggest cotton producer of raw cotton.

1820 Per capita world Gross Domestic Product (according to today's economic historian Angus Maddison) is $667, measured in 1990 dollars. This (according to Maddison) is up from $435 in the year 1000. Western Europe, which was lower than the world in general in the year 1000, at $400, is at $1,232.

Watch the video: The Battle of Mantinea 362 BC