August 30, 2013 Day 223 of the Fifth Year - History

August 30, 2013 Day 223 of the Fifth Year - History


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President Barack Obama meets with his National Security Staff to discuss the situation in Syria, in the Situation Room of the White House, Aug. 30, 2013. From left at the table: National Security Advisor Susan E. Rice; Attorney General Eric Holder; Secretary of State John Kerry; and Vice President Joe Biden


2:15PM THE PRESIDENT meets with President Toomas Hendrik Ilves of Estonia, Dalia Grybauskaitė of Lithuania, and President Andris Bērziņš of Latvia; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
Cabinet Room


Simha Rashi 2020-2021 Predictions | Leo Moon Sign Vedic Astrology Predictions

Simha Rashi 2020-2021 Predictions, Leo Moonsign 2020-2021 predictions, Simha Rasi Vedic astrology horoscope, Chingam Rasi predictions for 2020-2021 year.

R E L A T E D

Simha Rasi (Leo moon sign or Leo zodiac sign) is the fifth among 12 Rashi systems of Hindu Astrology.

Magha Nakshatra, Pubba Nakshatram or Purva Falguni Nakshatra, Uttara Phalguni Nakshatra 1st pada are categorized under Simha Rasi or Leo moon sign.

Those who born between July 23 and August 23 are the natives of Leo zodiac sign as per the date of birth. This system is used in Hindu astrology when you do not know the exact time or your birth star (Janma nakshatram).

As per Hindu calendar (Panchangam), the year 2020-2021 is Sarvari Nama Samvatsaram. It begins on Ugadi, 25 March 2020 and ends on 12 April 2021.

In Sauramana calendars of Tamil Nadu, Tulu Nadu of Karnataka, and some other calendars, Vikari Nama Samvatsaram begins on April 14 and ends on April 13, 2021.

Aaya Vyaya (Income & Expenditure Ratio) for Simha Rashi in 2020-2021
Rajapujya Avamana (Honor & Dishonor) for Simha Rashi in 2020-2021

As per the standard Panchangam 2020-2021, Ugadi 2020-2021 Panchanga sravanam details are given here.

  1. Sarvari Nama Samvatsara Navanayaka Phala 2020-2021 Predictions – Link
  2. Aaya Vyaya 2020-2021 for all rashis — Ratio of income and expenses for all moon sign natives — Link
  3. Rajapujyam Avamanam 2020-2021 for all rashis — Ratio of honor and dishonor for all moonsign natives — Link
  4. Kandaya Phalams 2020-2021 for all Nakshatrams — good and bad on scale for all Nakshatrams — Link

Graha Sancharam in 2020-2021 for Simha Rashi

Guru (Jupiter) : From 29 March 2020 to 30 June 2020, Guru will be in 6th House (Tamramurthi). From 30 June 2020 to 20 November 2020, Guru will be in 5th House (Tamramurthi). Remaining year, Guru holds the 6th house as Swarnamurthi.

Shani (Saturn) : Shani will be in 6th house (Swarnamurthi) throughout the year.

Rahu : Rahu will be in 11th house till 23 September 2020 (Tamramurthi) and then till the end of the year, Rahu will be in 10th house. (Lohamurthi).

Ketu : Ketu will be in 5th till 23 September 2020 (Tamramurthi) and then till the end of the year, Ketu will be in 4th house. (Lohamurthi).

Simha Rashi General Predictions 2020-2021

According to Hindupad Panchang in 2020-2021, Simha Rashi natives will have lots of energy and stamina through the year that your ventures proceed smoothly without any hiccups. You would be more efficient as well.

For the year 2020, Simha Rashi people would be able to concentrate and perform better on their professional front. Though personal life would keep you busy, you would be able to strike a good balance between the duos.

Your energy levels would be high and you would be quite active through the year. Most natives would earn goodwill in the career area this period.

Be prepared to handle some major changes in your relationships. Though you would not be prepared for the same, lay low, and play safe. Good tidings are in store for you later on. However your attitude towards love and relationship changes now for the better. This would be a good time to find more about your partner and relate to his or her needs.

For the year 2020, Simha Rashi personalities would be more bend or keen on filling up their coffers. However the planets favour much expenditure on your part as well. Money would be flowing out of your hands without any effort. Devise a good budget plan and stick to you, else troubles lurk around.

Around the middle of the year, expect some good financial inflow. Some of you gain through luck, and some through inheritances of sorts. In this year, Leo folks would be pushed to their limits, both in the mental and physical plane. Make sure that stress and strain do not take a toll on you. In this year, Leo folks would be pushed to their limits, both in the mental and physical plane. Make sure that stress and strain do not take a toll on you.

For the year 2020, the planets are positioned as such, that there would be a rift or separation from family for most Leo guys. You will find it quite difficult to align with family and its needs through the year. Some sort of compromise is called for, else home suffers.


Police Killed At Least 223 Black Americans In The Year After Colin Kaepernick's First Protest

The NFL season starts in two weeks, and yet Colin Kaepernick ― the former San Francisco 49ers quarterback who spent the 2016 season kneeling through the national anthem to protest racism and police killings of black Americans ― still doesn’t have a job.

That has sparked debate about whether Kaepernick’s protests are the reason for his continued unemployment, with most evidence suggesting that’s the case. It’s rare for a quarterback who performed as well as Kaepernick did last year to remain without even a backup job, and NFL owners have openly worried about “backlash” from fans who oppose his message.

But as that debate rages on, so do the killings Kaepernick sought to highlight.

Police and law enforcement officials killed at least 223 black Americans in the year after Kaepernick first began to protest, according to a HuffPost analysis of data compiled by The Washington Post and The Guardian.

Kaepernick’s protest became public after a reporter noticed him sitting during the anthem before a preseason game on Aug. 26, 2016. But he had actually started the practice two weeks earlier, before the Niners’ first preseason game on Aug. 14.

Two days after Kaepernick’s initial protest, police in Los Angeles shot and killed 18-year-old Kenney Watkins, a black teenager who, according to officers, was armed with a gun.

Over the next 365 days, as numerous NFL players joined Kaepernick, police across the United States killed at least 222 other black Americans ― culminating with the death, on Aug. 13 of this year, of Patrick Harmon, a 50-year-old black man shot and killed by police in Salt Lake City.

It’s likely that even more black people were killed by police during that time period. The race of the victim has not been identified or confirmed in more than 160 police killings between Aug. 14, 2016 and Aug. 14, 2017, according to The Washington Post’s database, which includes only shooting deaths. The Guardian, which tracked deaths by any method, stopped updating its database at the end of 2016.

Overall, police shot and killed 978 people in the yearlong period that immediately followed Kaepernick’s first protest, according to the Post. Black Americans made up roughly 21 percent of the victims, according to HuffPost’s review.

That finding is in line with previous analyses from the Post, which found that 233 of the 963 people police shot and killed in 2016 were black. As of Wednesday evening, black people had been the victims in 137 of 643 police killings in 2017, according to the Post. Police had also killed 113 other people of color up to that point this year.

African-Americans make up roughly 13 percent of the country’s population ― meaning they are far more likely to die at the hands of police than white Americans, even though more white people are killed by law enforcement overall.

Though many of the victims of police violence were considered armed, according to the Post’s database, others were not. Black Americans are twice as likely as white Americans to be unarmed when police kill them, according to a study released in February.

Kaepernick, whose protest sparked nationwide controversy inside and outside of sports, threw 16 touchdowns against just four interceptions in 12 starts for the 49ers last season. He has been a free agent since he opted out of his contract with the team on March 1 (the 49ers, who went 2-14 last season, would have cut him had he not opted out, new general manager John Lynch said in May).

Police in America have killed at least 84 black people since March 1, the day Kaepernick officially opted out of his contract, according to HuffPost’s review of the two databases on Wednesday evening.

Kaepernick’s protests touched off a wave of activism against police brutality in sports, as players joined in from across the NFL and elsewhere ― including at the high school and college levels. During the offseason, a group of fellow football players visited Congress to discuss police brutality and related issues with federal lawmakers.

Despite Kaepernick’s ongoing absence from the NFL, the protests he helped spark have continued into the 2017 preseason. They’ve even taken on a new significance, thanks to the prominence of recent white supremacist and neo-Nazi rallies across the country.

Seahawks defensive lineman Michael Bennett and Philadelphia Eagles safety Malcolm Jenkins, who joined Kaepernick in protesting during the anthem a season ago, are doing so again. Eagles defensive end Chris Long and Seahawks center Justin Britt both supported their teammates this preseason, becoming the first white NFL players to join the demonstrations. Seattle Reign and U.S. women’s national soccer star Megan Rapinoe, who is white, kneeled during the anthem before her games last year.

Over the weekend, nearly 100 New York City Police Department officers rallied to show solidarity with Kaepernick, the most notable action police have taken to acknowledge his fight against police violence and racial injustice. And on Monday night, 12 Cleveland Browns players kneeled in prayer during the anthem, the largest collective protest the league has seen since Kaepernick began demonstrating a season ago.

On Aug. 15, the day after the one-year anniversary of Kaepernick’s first protest, 37-year-old Herbert “Pop” Gilbert was shot and killed by police in Thomasville, Georgia. Since then, as of Wednesday evening, police had shot and killed at least 21 other people.

Kaeli Subberwal contributed to this report.

Sign up for the HuffPost Must Reads newsletter. Each Sunday, we will bring you the best original reporting, long form writing and breaking news from The Huffington Post and around the web, plus behind-the-scenes looks at how it’s all made. Click here to sign up!


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For Great Trump/ Great Shinzo Abe/ Great Xi Jinping and all high authorities UN AU G20, G7 President Buhari can see the impact is still on. We have never recovered at all.

1. [UPDATE last paragraph 2018] From what we know now about the collective evil against us, Police Zone 2 attempted to end my life, me Anacho and save big idiotic criminals in Lagos by their invitation dated the 14th, a deadly code, stamped on their DPP dated 8 July 2009. The Yoruba policewoman, who refused to tell me her name, invited me on 14 May 2013. For exactly 2 weeks they have been holding our file in Zone 2 without telling me anything reasonable. She only told me that "my boss CSP Mr Ibekwe is not around". So, why did she invite me? Upon all our letters to AIG, I warned ACP Mr. Awoniyi, but he is still holding our file based on wrong and deceiving signal, and showing a questionable character.

2. Over the phone a policeman from Zone 2 told me angrily, “If you like, you can petition to Presidency. Nothing will happen.” It is clear that they stole our file by trick from Festac Police in advantage of the suspect of ARSON. Police have laid down a corrupt way by allowing the suspect to clean the exhibits of ARSON (scene of the crime) and showing me a fake Fire Service letter.

3. Now, they are refusing to return our file and are targeting to intimidate Fire Service men who stopped the fire. I am saying this because they have murdered the first IPO among the Fire Service men who noticed evidence of chemicals, imaginary line and the hole. If Zone 2 does not return the file, the life of Fire Service men and our life, too, are in serious danger. Acute corruption.

4. On 8 April 2013, DPO of Festac Police, Mr. Zango -- 4th Northerner DPO to handle our case of burning our house (ARSON) within one year, was with me and the suspect, Regina Obianyor, who burnt our house. The DPO told the suspect he was charging this case to court. The suspect immediately objected boldly that it was not convenient for her as she was going for ‘surgery operation’. The DPO granted her to come back in a week.

5. On 18 April, second IPO told me there was a signal from ZONE 2, X-Squad Dept. to transfer our case file based on the request by the suspect. I immediately went to Festac Police Station and saw the signal. It was totally incompetent and deceiving. The signal said that Festac should transfer a case file reported by Regina Obianyor and my name was mentioned in that signal, whereas Regina Obianyor was a suspect. I met the DPO that this signal cannot transfer our case file to Zone 2 in the interest of the suspect claiming to be the complainant. If they want to transfer our case file, the signal should reflect to our case file. The DPO understood my point and promised to inform the AIG, Zone 2.

6. However, on 30 April, the second IPO, who is a Yoruba man by tribe, told me that they were transferring our case file to Zone 2. I wrote a petition against the action of X-squad Dept. Zone 2, led by ASP Sasa Adeniyi (a Yoruba man). I submitted it to AIG office on the same day, 30 April, 2013. On 4 May, one policeman Mr. Bello (a Yoruba man) brought an invitation letter to our house at 60B, Raji Rasaki Estate, Amuwo-Odofin and gave the same to me, that AIG has read our petition but he wanted to see both parties on Monday, 6 May.

7. On 6 May, I was in Zone 2 in the morning. The suspect was nowhere to find. ASP Sasa Adeniyi and Mr. Bello, who I knew from Panti, started to preach to me Anacho that they wanted to take me to a pastor since the problem was getting too many. I totally disagreed I asked Bello has anyone reported me to the Police he said no. I advised them to take those people who are committing open crimes against us, they don’t want to take to court, to the pastor. Later they took me to the office of their boss ACP Onaade S. Awoniyi (a Yoruba man). After discussing with me, I told him openly that I disagreed with their signal and they should send back our case file to Festac. In my front, he warned Mr. Sasa Adeniyi not to bring this file back to his office, just to deceive me, but actually ACP Mr. Awoniyi was still capable of his wrong to destroy the evidence of ARSON, which is with the Fire Service. All of them were Yoruba hard for me to trust them, because their movement with our file was wrong. Policemen, who I know very well, in Panti and Festac often preached to take me to a pastor I refused. As of this time, no idea that our company’s name was used for fraudulent suicide GT Bank loan and no idea about diverting our insurance claim. Those their pastors are 419, desperate for money, meant death for me. Nigerians should learn from this paragraph. Never trust our officers easily when you are in a problem that never meant to be.

8. Mr. Sasa Adeniyi took me to the Deputy Commissioner, who I believed is a Yoruba man. After talking with me, he said that the AIG has minute in our file, if what I say is the truth they would send our file back to Festac. He called a man from D3 who I believed is an Igbo man. After the man of D3 read our petition and other police report in the file, he returned the file to Deputy Commissioner.

9. The Deputy Commissioner gave our case file to another police department. A woman and a man, who refused to give me their names and phone numbers, but I believed were Yoruba by tribe. After going through our petition, they told me that they understood the woman and her lawyer were liars and that those police people wanted to work for me and they would minute to the AIG to return our file to Festac. I stood by the stance of our petition, that they should return our file to Festac.

10. Assistant Inspector General of Police, who I believe is a Northerner, should return our file to Festac Police, which is already in the process of sending the case to court. Anything they are doing in the interest of the suspect will mount to continuation of injury and frustration to put me into starvation by driving more than 3 hours to Zone 2 and back while the suspect is enjoying herself somewhere, like what happened on Monday, 6 May: They made me to stay in Zone 2 the whole day without the suspect, Mrs. Obianyor.

11. Updated in 2018: Pres. Buhari and Magu of EFCC holding on our 63 million dollars insurance claim and leaving our family half dead for other people’s crime cannot do any good for unity of Nigeria as concerning Diasporas and investors. I wonder if they want to claim being Nigerians Anacho and Michiko and our three kids who lived in Den-en-chōfu, Tokyo, or Anacho who worked tirelessly in his company, Miana International Ltd’s okiba (dock yard) in Saitama, regardless of rain, snow and sun. The serious part of the strength of our bill. Nigerians like us, without breaking rules or order anywhere deserve respect and honor. Good Nigerians, the world, should continue to speak up that we should get what is duly ours.

UPDATE. Justice Rilwan Mohammed Aikawa from Kano State. Under Pres. Buhari injustice against us is at all-time high. (Justice for all). Our exposing of crime was never a threat, but recovering and adequate punishment to ensure these organized multiple horrors never happen to any Nigerian in the near future. Dirty crime against the World Powers’ lay down procedures, especially in Letter of Credit, the consequence is deadly no matter who you are. The Rules must be obeyed.

Our civil suit (No.FHC/L/CS/ 388/2007) case against Nigerian Customs and others for Customs’ Northerner workers, with no regard for the special authorization document given to us by our government to import those machines, our own brand, releasing an empty container to us against COTECNA report /government lay-down procedures, has been going on for 12 years, instead of 2 years in a country with Rule of Law and a President who cares. Indigene from the north Customs staff names were not mentioned among their witnesses in their defense therefore, they are not coming to court or suffering any consequence for destroying an Imo State man and his foreign family’s life. Just. Yunusa from Maiduguri, Borno State was the third judge, while the fifth, Northerner Judge, Justice Aikawa from Kano who was transferred from Maiduguri, Borno State and Sokoto, to Lagos, to court 5 Ikoyi, did in 2017 and is doing it again in 2018, using ‘go home and die by very long five months adjournment’. Our suit started its first trial in 2009 before retired Chief Judge, Justice Abutu, still in trial in the same court up till date. The GTBank CEO, late Tayo Aderinokun who approved the fraudulent 2.4 billion naira suicide loan with our company’s name to the group Innoson Motors belongs to, schooled in Kano.

Not talking about what Gov. Ambode is doing about our thousands of motorcycles and marine engines Lagos State carried away from our rented industrial warehouse and sold under curious circumstances (turning our heads in our absence) the satanic occult Nigerian lawyers/ pastors with Muslims hanging on our progress must stop. Ambode, as an account of Lagos State then, a salary man, hard to say no idea about such huge amount of money. Three years in the office with this issue, unsettled. Our first and second list/bill is still with him. Since November, 2018 we have heard that Vice Pres. Osinbajo is sharing money to traders (for sure, naira’s value today is not the same as 1984). But we who our complaint has reached his office, and many others, and wrote a letter dated 20 October, 2018(sent to Gov. Ambode and Presidency and other high as usual we also sent a copy to Osinbajo’s email,) about the text message invitation and outcome of our meeting in the Lagos State Citizens Mediation Centre on 8 October, 2018, no information about what and when they will pay us. Because of the name of the woman who hosted the meeting and the manner she invited us, we are scared that they might pay themselves and show documents that they have paid us (loophole for fraud). Click the picture, URL to read paragraph 7 for Great Trump/ Great Shinzo Abe/ Great Xi Jinping and Pres. Buhari and Radio, Social Media,TV, all authorities. G7, G20, AU, EU, UN, NGO, ICC to take action. Our page post anacho nnojap on August 1, 2017 for better understanding https:// www.facebook.com /anachonnojap/ photos/ p.21523072981675 77/ 2152307298167577 / ?type=3&theater https:// www.facebook.com /anachonnojap/ photos/ pcb.186238972049 2671/ 1862387310492912 / ?type=3&theater.

Our civil suit (No.FHC/L/CS/ 388/2007)case against Nigerian Customs and others for Customs’ Northerner workers, with no regard for the special authorization document given to us by our government to import those machines, our own brand, releasing an empty container to us against COTECNA report under letter of credit/ government lay-down procedures, has been going on for 12 years, which is not supposed to be more than 2 years in a country with Rule of Law and a President who cares. Indigene from the north Customs staff names were not mentioned among their witnesses in their defense therefore, they are not coming to court or suffering any consequence for destroying an Imo State man and his foreign family’slife. The fifth, Northerner Judge, Justice Rilwan Mohammed Aikawa from Kano State of court 6 Ikoyi, did in 2017 and is doing it again in 2018, using ‘go home and die by very long five months adjournment’. Our suit started its first trial in 2009 before retired Chief Judge, Justice Abutu, still in trial in the same court up till date. The GTBank CEO, late Tayo Aderinokun who approved the fraudulent 2.4 billion naira suicide loan with our company’s name to the group Innoson Motors belongs to, schooled in Kano.


Not talking about what Gov. Ambode is doing about our thousands of motorcycles and marine engines Lagos State carried away from our rented industrial warehouse and sold under curious circumstances, turning our heads in our absence and satanic occult Nigerian lawyers/ pastors with Muslims hanging on our progress must stop. Ambode, as an account of Lagos State then, a salary man, hard to say no idea about such huge amount of money. Three years in the office with this issue, unsettled. Our first and second list/bill is still with him. Since November, 2018 we have heard that Vice Pres. Osinbajo is sharing money to traders (for sure, naira’s value today is not the same as 1984). But we who our complaint has reached his office, and many others, and wrote a letter dated 20 October, 2018(sent to Gov. Ambode and Presidency and other high as usual we also sent a copy to Osinbajo’s email,) about the text message invitation and outcome of our meeting in the Lagos State Citizens Mediation Centre on 8 October, 2018, no information about what and when they will pay us. Because of the name of the woman who hosted the meeting and the manner she invited us, we are scared that they might pay themselves and show documents that they have paid us (loophole for fraud). Our page post on August 1, 2017 for better understanding.


August 30, 2013 Day 223 of the Fifth Year - History

A 30-year fixed mortgage is a loan whose interest rate stays the same for the duration of the loan. For example, on a 30-year mortgage of $300,000 with a 20% down payment and an interest rate of 3.75%, the monthly payments would be about $1,111 (not including taxes and insurance). So, the interest rate of 3.75% (and the monthly payment) stay the same for the life of the loan.

What are the advantages of 30-year fixed mortgages?

The 30-year fixed rate mortgage is by far the most popular loan type, and for good reason. The pros of a 30-year fixed mortgage include a predictable, steady monthly payment that never changes since the interest rate never changes. This loan type also has a relatively low monthly payment, compared to shorter term loans. For example, on a 30-year mortgage of $300,000 with a 20% down payment and an interest rate of 3.75%, the monthly payment would be about $1,111 (not including taxes and insurance. But for a 15-year fixed loan, the payment would be about $2,062. And because the 30-year fixed monthly payment amount is lower than a shorter term loan, it can also help home shoppers qualify for more home.

What are the disadvantages of 30-year fixed mortgages?

The biggest disadvantage of a 30-year fixed rate mortgage is that it's more expensive over time than a shorter term loan. Let's compare it to a 15-year fixed rate mortgage as an example. The 30-year fixed mortgage is more expensive not only because the interest rate on a 30-year fixed loan is higher than a 15-year fixed loan, but also because you'll pay more interest over time since you're borrowing the money for twice as long. Additionally, spreading the principal payments over 30 years means you'll build equity at a slower pace than with a shorter term loan.


August 30, 2013 Day 223 of the Fifth Year - History

Sun path diagram Sun path diagram requires SVG, so it cannot work on your current browser with its current settings. Sorry. PNG version of sun path diagram graph is also available.

UVB radiation is sufficient for vitamin D3 synthesis

Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 55°, Elevation: -1° Time: 06:08, Azimuth: 57°, Elevation: 0° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 65°, Elevation: 7° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 74°, Elevation: 18° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 83°, Elevation: 29° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 93°, Elevation: 40° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 104°, Elevation: 51° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 121°, Elevation: 62° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 150°, Elevation: 70° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 193°, Elevation: 71° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 228°, Elevation: 65° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 249°, Elevation: 56° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 262°, Elevation: 45° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 272°, Elevation: 34° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 281°, Elevation: 22° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 290°, Elevation: 12° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 300°, Elevation: 2° Time: 21:17, Azimuth: 302°, Elevation: 0° Time: 22:00, Azimuth: 310°, Elevation: -7° Time: 23:00, Azimuth: 321°, Elevation: -15° Time: 04:00, Azimuth: 33°, Elevation: -17° Time: 05:00, Azimuth: 45°, Elevation: -10°

Sun path, December solstice

Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 120°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:03, Azimuth: 121°, Elevation: 0° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 130°, Elevation: 8° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 142°, Elevation: 15° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 155°, Elevation: 21° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 170°, Elevation: 24° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 185°, Elevation: 25° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 200°, Elevation: 22° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 213°, Elevation: 17° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 225°, Elevation: 10° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 236°, Elevation: 1° Time: 17:15, Azimuth: 238°, Elevation: 0° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 246°, Elevation: -8° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 111°, Elevation: -11°

Sun path, Equinox (March and September)

Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 115°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 115°, Elevation: 0° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 126°, Elevation: 8° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 137°, Elevation: 17° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 151°, Elevation: 23° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 166°, Elevation: 27° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 182°, Elevation: 29° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 198°, Elevation: 27° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 212°, Elevation: 22° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 225°, Elevation: 15° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 236°, Elevation: 6° Time: 17:44, Azimuth: 244°, Elevation: 0° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 246°, Elevation: -3° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 256°, Elevation: -14° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 106°, Elevation: -11°

Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 98°, Elevation: -5° Time: 07:26, Azimuth: 103°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 108°, Elevation: 5° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 119°, Elevation: 15° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 131°, Elevation: 24° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 146°, Elevation: 32° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 163°, Elevation: 37° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 181°, Elevation: 38° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 200°, Elevation: 36° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 216°, Elevation: 31° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 230°, Elevation: 23° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 242°, Elevation: 13° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 253°, Elevation: 3° Time: 18:22, Azimuth: 257°, Elevation: 0° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 263°, Elevation: -7° Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 88°, Elevation: -16°

Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 82°, Elevation: -8° Time: 07:43, Azimuth: 89°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 91°, Elevation: 2° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 102°, Elevation: 13° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 113°, Elevation: 24° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 126°, Elevation: 34° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 142°, Elevation: 42° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 162°, Elevation: 47° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 184°, Elevation: 48° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 206°, Elevation: 45° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 224°, Elevation: 39° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 239°, Elevation: 30° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 251°, Elevation: 20° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 262°, Elevation: 9° Time: 19:53, Azimuth: 271°, Elevation: 0° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 272°, Elevation: -2° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 282°, Elevation: -13°

Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 64°, Elevation: -9° Time: 06:52, Azimuth: 73°, Elevation: 0° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 74°, Elevation: 1° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 84°, Elevation: 11° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 94°, Elevation: 23° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 104°, Elevation: 34° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 118°, Elevation: 44° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 136°, Elevation: 53° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 160°, Elevation: 59° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 190°, Elevation: 60° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 217°, Elevation: 56° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 236°, Elevation: 47° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 251°, Elevation: 37° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 262°, Elevation: 26° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 272°, Elevation: 15° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 282°, Elevation: 4° Time: 20:27, Azimuth: 287°, Elevation: 0° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 292°, Elevation: -6° Time: 22:00, Azimuth: 303°, Elevation: -16°

Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 58°, Elevation: -3° Time: 06:17, Azimuth: 61°, Elevation: 0° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 68°, Elevation: 6° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 77°, Elevation: 17° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 87°, Elevation: 28° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 97°, Elevation: 39° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 109°, Elevation: 50° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 127°, Elevation: 60° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 156°, Elevation: 67° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 194°, Elevation: 68° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 226°, Elevation: 62° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 246°, Elevation: 53° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 259°, Elevation: 42° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 270°, Elevation: 31° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 279°, Elevation: 20° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 289°, Elevation: 9° Time: 20:58, Azimuth: 298°, Elevation: 0° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 298°, Elevation: 0° Time: 22:00, Azimuth: 309°, Elevation: -10° Time: 05:00, Azimuth: 47°, Elevation: -12°

Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 57°, Elevation: -5° Time: 06:26, Azimuth: 61°, Elevation: 0° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 67°, Elevation: 5° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 76°, Elevation: 15° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 85°, Elevation: 26° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 95°, Elevation: 38° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 107°, Elevation: 49° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 124°, Elevation: 59° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 150°, Elevation: 66° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 188°, Elevation: 69° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 222°, Elevation: 64° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 243°, Elevation: 54° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 257°, Elevation: 44° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 268°, Elevation: 33° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 278°, Elevation: 21° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 287°, Elevation: 10° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 297°, Elevation: 0° Time: 21:07, Azimuth: 298°, Elevation: 0° Time: 22:00, Azimuth: 307°, Elevation: -9° Time: 23:00, Azimuth: 319°, Elevation: -17° Time: 05:00, Azimuth: 46°, Elevation: -14°

Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 63°, Elevation: -10° Time: 06:56, Azimuth: 73°, Elevation: 0° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 73°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 83°, Elevation: 10° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 93°, Elevation: 22° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 104°, Elevation: 33° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 117°, Elevation: 43° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 134°, Elevation: 53° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 158°, Elevation: 59° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 188°, Elevation: 60° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 215°, Elevation: 56° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 235°, Elevation: 48° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 250°, Elevation: 38° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 261°, Elevation: 27° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 271°, Elevation: 15° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 281°, Elevation: 4° Time: 20:30, Azimuth: 286°, Elevation: 0° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 291°, Elevation: -6° Time: 22:00, Azimuth: 302°, Elevation: -16°

Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 84°, Elevation: -6° Time: 07:28, Azimuth: 89°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 94°, Elevation: 5° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 104°, Elevation: 16° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 116°, Elevation: 26° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 129°, Elevation: 36° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 146°, Elevation: 43° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 167°, Elevation: 48° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 190°, Elevation: 48° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 211°, Elevation: 44° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 228°, Elevation: 37° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 242°, Elevation: 27° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 254°, Elevation: 17° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 264°, Elevation: 6° Time: 19:37, Azimuth: 270°, Elevation: 0° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 274°, Elevation: -5° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 284°, Elevation: -16° Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 74°, Elevation: -17°

Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 94°, Elevation: -11° Time: 07:59, Azimuth: 103°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 103°, Elevation: 0° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 114°, Elevation: 10° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 125°, Elevation: 19° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 138°, Elevation: 28° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 154°, Elevation: 34° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 172°, Elevation: 37° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 190°, Elevation: 37° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 208°, Elevation: 33° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 223°, Elevation: 26° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 236°, Elevation: 18° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 247°, Elevation: 8° Time: 18:50, Azimuth: 255°, Elevation: 0° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 257°, Elevation: -2° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 267°, Elevation: -13°

Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 110°, Elevation: -6° Time: 07:36, Azimuth: 116°, Elevation: 0° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 120°, Elevation: 3° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 131°, Elevation: 12° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 143°, Elevation: 20° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 157°, Elevation: 25° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 172°, Elevation: 28° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 188°, Elevation: 28° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 204°, Elevation: 25° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 218°, Elevation: 19° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 230°, Elevation: 11° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 240°, Elevation: 2° Time: 17:17, Azimuth: 243°, Elevation: 0° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 250°, Elevation: -8°

Time: 06:00, Azimuth: 55°, Elevation: -2° Time: 06:09, Azimuth: 57°, Elevation: 0° Time: 07:00, Azimuth: 65°, Elevation: 7° Time: 08:00, Azimuth: 74°, Elevation: 18° Time: 09:00, Azimuth: 83°, Elevation: 29° Time: 10:00, Azimuth: 93°, Elevation: 40° Time: 11:00, Azimuth: 104°, Elevation: 51° Time: 12:00, Azimuth: 121°, Elevation: 62° Time: 13:00, Azimuth: 149°, Elevation: 70° Time: 14:00, Azimuth: 192°, Elevation: 71° Time: 15:00, Azimuth: 228°, Elevation: 66° Time: 16:00, Azimuth: 248°, Elevation: 56° Time: 17:00, Azimuth: 262°, Elevation: 45° Time: 18:00, Azimuth: 272°, Elevation: 34° Time: 19:00, Azimuth: 281°, Elevation: 22° Time: 20:00, Azimuth: 290°, Elevation: 12° Time: 21:00, Azimuth: 299°, Elevation: 2° Time: 21:17, Azimuth: 302°, Elevation: 0° Time: 22:00, Azimuth: 310°, Elevation: -7° Time: 23:00, Azimuth: 321°, Elevation: -15° Time: 05:00, Azimuth: 45°, Elevation: -10°


Minaret of Freedom Weblog

After moving to a new, more modern campus (plastered with USAID stickers and heavily gated), the American University in Cairo (AUC) held its inauguration ceremony last Saturday. In keeping with the grandeur expected of such Egyptian ceremonies, the First Lady made an appearance. ‘Mama Suzanne,’ as she is fondly called, lathered on the requisite public praise for education and progress.

Meanwhile, professors whom had been invited to this extra-exclusive ceremony stood not with the Mother of the Nation on this glorious day, but rather in front of riot police at the General Prosecutor’s Headquarters. They were protesting for the release of one of AUC’s own, arrested only the day before. Philip Rizk is a graduate student here, a German-Egyptian, a Christian, an activist for the people of Gaza, a filmmaker, a blogger, a freelance journalist. For four days he was also a political detainee held without charge, as is customary in this country of “progress.”

The AUC strategy for recovering its kidnapped minds, however, is making progress.

In January 2007, another graduate student and Arabic language instructor, Ihab Atta was taken by the State Security and held without a trail. Atta is a soft-spoken man, one with a genuine smile. It’s hard to believe anyone like him could be suspected of activities against the government, even one as frustrating as this one. Perhaps it was because no one could even comprehend why Atta was taken that the resistance to his imprisonment was slow to mobilize . It took nearly two years to accumulate enough momentum, to determine the right amount – and the right kind—of pressure against the Interior Minister. Finally, Atta was released in the end of last November after local newspapers announced the coming of a media-saturated demonstration to be held at the shiny, new, and progressive campus.

These two cases illustrate the power of media and awareness. For Ihab, a cautious campaign that tried first to use wusta (political connections, the language of Egyptian bureaucracy), and succeeded years later only after finally turning to the papers. For Philip, a pointed and publicized operation that claimed success in less than a week.

It’s effectiveness is precisely why the freedom of expression is recurrently under attack by State Security. The 2005 presidential election, the first multiparty contest ever, sparked an explosion of blogs in particular to meet the demand for alternative reporting left unfulfilled by state and official media. Of course after the fact, Mubarak’s leading opponent Aymen Nour is still in jail, and authorities now keep tabs on blogs with political and religious content.

The weakness of the Egyptian government is in its appearance, and state authorities know this. This is why criticizing the President and his family is a punishable offense why state police are camped out on every corner of downtown Cairo why the country will have been living under “ emergency law ” for the past 30 years after its supposed expiration next May and why the country fights Islamists with one hand and secularists with the other. Despite the state’s widespread incapacity , the game is maintaining the appearance of strength and to proactively squash any voice that suggests otherwise.

Philip’s freedom is a small victory in the scheme of things, but a very meaningful one. People like him are the fountainhead of reform, the ones who make it their job to fight the big issues that still exist: Thousands of the political opposition are still behind bars, the state still remains impotent, Egypt’s Rafah border with Gaza is still blocked , other pro-Palestinian bloggers are still in captivity .

And the fear still lingers that tomorrow someone else will be snatched up and taken away for merely speaking his mind. “I don’t want there to be another Ihab or another Philip,” explained a member of the AUC faculty who was involved in campaigning for both of their releases. “Never again.”

Kasia Rada, former MFI intern

News and Analysis (8/8/08)

Restoration of fired judges in Pakistan would have prevented a chaotic impeachment of Musharraf, says leading lawyer:

Iraqi central government power more dispersed as upcoming elections heighten the importance of regional politics…

… while Shiite militia looks to restructure into a large civilian cultural section and a smaller group of fighters:

Tensions between Muslims and Hindus over disputed Kashmir region have escalated in the last two weeks:

Thousands of miles away from the Beijing Olympics, police close an East Turkestani bazaar in response to group’s warning to Chinese Muslims to distance themselves from public transportation:

Relatively short sentence dismisses some claims against military court’s unfairness, but Hamdan could still be held indefinitely, or until the end of the “War on Terror”:

East African immigrants from war torn regions make the perilous sea journey from Libya in hopes to reach Europe:

Dissident economist who was held after comments during Syria’s brief stint in freedom of political expression seven years ago is released:

News and Analysis (8/7/08)

Hamdan’s acquittal of terrorist conspiracy but conviction of supporting terrorism heightens debate on the fairness of the military justice system:

A powerful voice in the region declares “odd” an Iranian threat to the US that would also make foes out of Arab friends:

Disagreements over control of oil-rich Kirkuk delays provincial elections until next year, giving the current administration even less to call “success” in Iraq before leaving office:

Rival Palestinian parties both push for political leader and potential presidential successor Marwan Barghouti to be one of the prisoners released in Israeli good faith gesture:

As Turkey looks to take the role of regional problem solver, Syria seeks association and discussion in order to have a voice in peace efforts:

It is highly likely, but not certain, that the new ruling coalition could impeach President Musharraf who by now has little say in daily affairs and already ceded military control:

Political leader Anwar Ibrahim says he will hold the Prime Minister orchestrating his prosecution “personally responsible” for riots over allegations against him:

Ten years after Nairobi embassy bombing, lawlessness in neighboring Somalia and victimization of local Muslims are concerns:

News and Analysis (8/6/08)

As oil revenue contributes to the Iraqi budget surplus, the US looks to transition financial responsibility for reconstruction projects:

Shia cleric says his militia will lay down weapons, but insists resistance to US occupation remains a legitimate right:

Minor al-Qaeda figure’s trial is a test run for the legal process involved in the eventual closing of Guantanamo:

“Corrupt” but freely elected government in Mauritania is overthrown by recently fired military generals:

Pakistan government wants to affirm control of ISI, but the agency’s alleged support for the Taliban could be driven by rival India’s growing influence in neighboring Afghanistan…

…meanwhile the US praises its training of the Afghan Army, but realizes the inadequacy in the national police force to counter rising insurgency:

While the Algerian government has made combating terrorism a goal, last weekend’s attack shows the Al Qaeda’s capabilities expanding in northern Africa:

US Embassy says large weapons cache uncovered by Kyrgyz police was intended for local counterterrorism training:

News and Analysis (8/5/08)

With Iraqi Prime Minister’s recent troop reductions comments still resonate, President Bush now agrees to a “time horizon” for transitioning control to Iraqis:

East Asian Studies professor says China continues to vilify the East Turkestan Islamic Movement , which doesn’t have the resources for an attack even if it wanted to:

U.S.officials allege ne of Amnesty International’s “disappeared” terror suspects used her MIT education to reach Al Qaeda inner circles:

With informal deal deadline past, yesterday’s phone call between Iran and six world powers was also “not conclusive”:

Palestinian clan, tossed between two main factions, finds many of its members saved by Israelis and now interrogated:

Indian-Afghan friendship signaled by development aid and recent collaborative accusations against Pakistan have Pakistan on edge:

Landmark agreement that would expand Muslim homeland in a southern island is blocked by the Philippine Supreme Court over questions of constitutionality:

Muslims recognize the benefits of tourism and would like to make the most of Western knowledge as long as they can preserve their religion:

News and Analysis (8/4/08)

Olympics-related security hype has given China momentum to conduct raids on Uighur Muslims, and now police arrest assailants without explaining their motives or affiliations :

As the threat of sanctions looms following a missed nuke-deal deadline, Iran warns of its ability to close critical Persian Gulf waterway:

Wounded Palestinians receive medical treatment on the condition that they become informants:

Reevaluating counternarcotics strategy in Afghanistan, Canada considers de-incentivizing opium production at the processing and shipment levels:

Seven Baha’i Iranians reportedly confess to establishing an illegal institution aimed at undermining the Islamic government:

A police raid called for by the US fails to capture man in charge of 1998 embassy bombings, but instead arrests his relatives accused of harboring him:

A Turkish show manages to connect with Saudis where Western shows can’t, inspiring tourism, independent women’s roles, as well as a cleric’s objections:

For incarcerated Afghan women, access to medical treatment, education, and safety from those seeking revenge is reason enough to keep their children there:

News and Analysis (8/2-8/3/2008)

Escalating intra-Palestinian violence spurs Israeli assistance to Fatah’s wounded:

Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK) still denies role in Istanbul attacks, but eight will be charged with PKK membership in light of “strong evidence”:

Displaced people found themselves caught between Taliban and US/NATO fighting in Afghanistan’s South and move to Kabul due to deteriorating security:

Following US accusations and political pressures, Pakistan announces it will investigate its spy agency’s involvement in last month’s bombings on the Indian embassy in Kabul…

… as well as assure the Pentagon it is moving major units of its military into tribal areas to confront Taliban forces:

Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb is suspected to be responsible for blast:

Street cleaners are among the dead in extremists’ roadside bomb as chaos continues…

…meanwhile, resigning Somali ministers in the Transitional Federal Government site the Prime Minister’s “power abuse” and “dictatorial tendencies”:

“My real crime is speaking out in defense of the democratic governance Egyptians deserve,” a journalist sentenced to prison for “harming” Egypt’s reputation wrote:

Bangladeshi laborers are deported from Kuwait after protests over contracts and rights:

Government water subsidies where the supply is limited and government corruption, rather than an over-active free market economy as LA Times staff writer claims, are more likely reasons for Yemen’s ecological nightmare:

Understanding globalization, a local Iranian cleric urges villagers to exploit opportunities in the tourism industry to avoid having to leave for the city to find work:

In an upcoming election, Indonesian “spirit is toward reform, so there will be no censorship” of the press:

News and Analysis (8/1/08)

Acknowledging that they have no control over what OBL’s driver divulges if he is freed, the military hears classified testimonies in the trial that seems fixed to convict him:

Tit-for-tat arrests between rival political groups do nothing more than “perpetuate divisions” in Palestine:

European oil companies seeking to invest in Iran give in to US political pressures:

With the introduction of sports programs, former Iraqi athletes hope to make sectarian divisions irrelevant and give children positive options:

Having earlier this week linked Pakistan’s ISI to tribal insurgency, the US now joins Afghanistan in accusations for last month’s bombing at the Indian embassy in Kabul, further pressuring Pakistan’s new civilian government:

As attacks on civilians and NGOs increase in number, aid agencies fear some areas too dangerous to operate in will suffer:

Putin indicates cooperation with Libya’s requests for products from Russia’s military industrial complex:

As preparations are made for terrorists’ executions, lawyers intend to challenge the constitutionality of a firing squad:

News and Analysis (7/31/08)

Islamic organization complies with requests for publicly-available evidence in a monumental lawsuit over the national surveillance program’s legality:

Politically-charged AKP trail ends in financial sanctions rather than disbandment of the ruling party, avoiding what could have been a political and economic crisis in Turkey :

Under Australia ’s newly revamped immigration policy, Afghan and Iraqi refugees seeking asylum will no longer be detained for years in off-shore camps:

Insurgents in Iraq have not been eradicated, but merely pressed to relocate their operations to Afghanistan and Pakistan:

Internet cafes, cable providers, and music stores are among those considered the “traitors of Allah” in a recent threat by Pakistani Taliban:

Syrian critics of the government on assert their Damascus Declaration calling for democracy was non-offensive and made in defense of the homeland:

Member of the religious police accused of violating the religious law he purports to enforce by taking more wives than the law allows:

In Steven T. Wax’s “Kafka Comes to America ,” the accounts of two men jailed without charge illustrate “the threat from terrorists is real, but the unfortunate reality is that the threat from an overzealous response to terrorism is real as well”:

Following the release of a report that disproved politically-charged allegations against him, Malaysian leader Anwar Ibrahim seeks to regain his original seat in Parliament:

News and Analysis (7/30/08)

Greater focus on military operations than reconstruction in Iraq creates a poor job market outside of the government and police force:

Turkish military uses Istanbul explosions as an excuse to strike Kurdish Iraq again:

Giving a blunt warning of American intervention, the CIA dispatches an emissary to Pakistan ’s new civilian government to illustrate ISI-Taliban militancy connections…

…and a recent military breach of the Swat-region peace deal could be it’s response to US pressures to assert its feeble authority:

Underscoring the increasing Fatah-Hamas divide within Palestine, Human Rights Watch accuses both groups of arbitrary arrests and torture:

British House of Lords excuses Saudi’s threat to withdraw national security cooperation in response to the investigation of an arms deal’s legality:

A new media law would further clamp down on freedom of expression, but one Egyptian laments that people trying to make ends meet in a soured economy don’t have time for political activity anyway:

Observers, scholars, and government representatives will discuss conflicts in Muslim countries at an Indonesian conference:


Cancer survival

  • Half (50%) of people diagnosed with cancer in England and Wales survive their disease for ten years or more (2010-11).
  • Cancer survival is higher in women than men.
  • Cancer survival is improving and has doubled in the last 40 years in the UK.
  • Cancer survival is generally higher in people diagnosed aged under 40 years old, with the exception of breast, bowel and prostate cancers, where survival is highest in middle age.

Neoliberal Case Study: Chile

This article was originally in the Gini book. However, some people said it was too data-heavy for the book&rsquos general audience. So, the article now lives here. (Note: &ldquoNeoliberalism&rdquo is an economic philosophy that has nothing to do with political Liberalism. So, this is not a political article. If you&rsquore not sure about the difference between political Liberalism and economic Neoliberalism, please see Economic Liberalism vs. Political Liberalism and Classical Liberalism vs. Neoliberalism.)

The Chicago Boys & Their Murderous Prophet of Profit. After 43 years of peaceful, democratic governance, Neoliberalism violently swept into Chile in the mid-1970s. That was when Milton Friedman and several other American economists (the &ldquoChicago Boys&rdquo) from the University of Chicago were invited to advise Chile&rsquos freshly unelected military dictator and self-proclaimed prophet, Augusto Pinochet. After leading a CIA-backed coup d&rsquoétat that led to the death of Salvador Allende (Chile&rsquos democratically elected president), Pinochet brutally ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990 [1] . [2]

The USG Actively Supported the Destruction of Chilean Society. Globally, Pinochet is most famous for brutally imposing Neoliberal policies on Chile locally within Chile, he is most famous for murdering several thousand political opponents, kidnapping and disappearing up to 80,000 political dissidents and their families, torturing tens of thousands of Chileans in concentration camps, embezzling USD tens of millions from the Chilean Treasury, tax fraud, arms dealing, and generally destroying the social and economic fabric of Chilean society. [3] This was no accident it was exactly what U.S. President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger had in mind when, regarding Chile&rsquos economy, Nixon said, &ldquoMake the economy scream.&rdquo [4]

Global Systemic Collapse. From a systemic perspective, several important factors led to the 1970s collapse of the global financial system that had been in place since 1945:

  • The 1971 collapse of the Gold-Exchange Standard and the Bretton Woods System.
  • The OPEC oil embargo in 1973.
  • High inflation and high unemployment worldwide throughout the 1970s.
  • Rapidly increasing global interest rates from the mid-1970s to the late-1980s.
  • Depreciating Latin American currencies, debt contracts and bonds denominated in appreciating
  • A global recession in commodities markets (except for oil) spawned a perfect storm that sent the commodity-export-dependent countries of Latin America into an economic death spiral.

As a result, Latin American governments were forced to borrow huge sums of money from international banks just to fund their core government operations. As interest rates continued climbing throughout the 1980s, their debt service obligations became unbearable. Then, like dominoes, economies throughout Latin America collapsed.

Latin America Blamed for the USG&rsquos Sabotage. Neoliberalism was pitched as a response to prodigal Latin American governments, but the reality was the exact opposite: It was the Nixon Administration&rsquos reckless fiscal and monetary policies, his dismantling of U.S. and global capital controls, and the flooding of the planet with USD during the Vietnam War that killed the Gold-Exchange Standard. [5] It was the USG&rsquos intervention in the Middle East and abusive contracts by U.S. and British oil companies that instigated the OPEC oil embargo and the nationalization of virtually all major oil production facilities worldwide. [6] It was the U.S. Federal Reserve&rsquos decision to dramatically increase interest rates to stop the worldwide inflation that the USG caused, which dramatically increased the borrowing costs in all countries worldwide because virtually all institutional lending activities were (and most still are) linked to U.S. bond market prices. [7]

Saudi Pipeline of Capital Props Up the Unsustainable U.S. Economy. After Nixon negotiated with the Saudi Royal family to price all Saudi crude oil in USD in exchange for Nixon&rsquos promise to not militarily invade Saudi Arabia, the Saudis were accumulating USD hundreds of billions in foreign currency reserves. [8] With nothing better to do with that mountain of USD, the Saudis agreed to invest the reserves back into U.S. Treasury Bonds and allow U.S. banks to manage their surplus funds. [9] This, combined with the USD&rsquos special reserve currency status, has enabled reckless and short-sighted U.S. politicians to exploit countries around the world, fund endless wars, and ignore the avalanche of debt that is now choking generations of Americans.

Saudi Pipeline of Capital Fueled Latin American Debt. In addition to perpetuating the USD&rsquos status as the dominant global reserve currency and the USG&rsquos endless budget deficits, with all this new cash flooding the U.S. banking system, the banks needed to find borrowers to generate interest income for themselves and the Saudis. This created an incentive for them to push Latin American governments to take loans for every conceivable infrastructure project, regardless of whether the projects were economically justifiable or sustainable. [10] This triggered a gold rush for U.S. banks, engineering, construction, and consulting firms to exploit every possible inch of South America, regardless of the economic, social, or environmental consequences.

Subvert Democracy & Sabotage the Economy. On top of a devastating economic crisis, now Latin America was being sold an endless river of unsustainable bank loans with sophisticated sales pitches that were presented as economic development programs. The Chicago Boys were the most famous, but they were just the tip of the spear: A phalanx of American corporations, political operatives, and Neoliberal economists plunged deep into every corner of every country in Latin America. [11] In this environment, Democracy took a backseat to financial profit, which led to many ethical compromises in U.S. Democratic and Republican administrations. For example, from a secret 1973 CIA memo: &ldquoIt is firm and continuing policy that Allende be overthrown by a coup. . . . It is imperative that these actions be implemented clandestinely and securely so that the USG [the U.S. government] and American hand be well hidden.&rdquo That was the year when Nixon ordered the CIA to &ldquomake the economy scream&rdquo [12] in Chile and to &ldquoprevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him.&rdquo [13]

Partners in Crime. Instead of denouncing the bloodthirsty Pinochet as an anti-democratic tyrant, Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger explicitly ordered the CIA to destroy Chile&rsquos economy by imposing devastating capital and trade embargoes and violently overthrowing democratically elected President Allende. Why did they do this? Because Nixon, Kissinger, and USG policymakers and economists perceived Pinochet as a useful partner in spreading the ideology of Neoliberalism to protect Latin America against Communism. &ldquoThe nation is trying to make Chile a country of proprietors, not of proletarians,&rdquo said Pinochet in an April 1987 speech. [14] Apparently, it never occurred to Pinochet or American officials that Allende was democratically elected because neoliberals were destroying capitalism, engaging in humanitarian atrocities in the name of democracy, transferring Chile&rsquos land and natural resources to foreign corporations, and the Chilean people were desperate for meaningful economic reforms to achieve a more just and equitable quality of life.

Hubris & Tyranny Disguised as Liberty. Some people say Allende was incompetent, a communist, etc., because he justifiably resisted Neoliberalism, which they claim was justification for U.S. intervention. Allende was a socialist, not a communist most politicians are not economic experts, which is why they have economic advisors and it&rsquos always easy to identify incompetent and/or left-wing politicians in every government on Earth, but that does not give us the right to murder and destroy them. Regardless of their ideology or technical competence, the USG never has any legitimate right to destroy the economies and political systems of other countries. When this happens, it represents a catastrophic breakdown of human civilization, which can only lead to racial hatred and ethnic conflicts poverty of mind, body and spirit and genocidal wars. Indeed, these are the rotten fruits of Neoliberalism and the USG&rsquos economic and foreign policies.

Verifying the Success Stories. Given the unholy USG-backed dictatorships and economic disasters throughout the entire South American continent during the early days of Neoliberalism, very few people would dispute the fact that the 1980s were a lost decade for Chile and virtually all of Latin America. But how have Latin America&rsquos economies performed lately? Maybe we can forgive and forget the violence of past atrocities if we can attribute recent success stories to Neoliberalism? This is the amoral logic that guides many neoliberals today. Chile, Brazil, and Mexico are the most prominent Neoliberal success stories in Latin America, but there is only space-time for the most successful case so, let&rsquos take a brief look at Chile&rsquos performance.


Neoliberalism was Pinochet&rsquos Path to Personal Wealth & Power. Neoliberalism perfectly matched Pinochet&rsquos governing style: Control the people and economy while claiming to have a laissez-faire philosophy. Pinochet personally became very wealthy by embezzling USD millions from the Chilean Treasury. With his ill-gotten war chest and USD billions of illicit financial assistance from the USG, Pinochet had the financial power to systematically terrorize, oppress, and destroy all political opposition for nearly two decades.

Economic Daggers of Despair. As Pinochet&rsquos personal wealth and power were increasing thanks to the largess of Nixon and Kissinger, and as Pinochet made hundreds of his cronies wealthy by selling them state assets at deep discounts, the chart above illustrates how the general population of Chile suffered from vicious economic volatility until Pinochet began to lose power in the late-1980s. [15] Economic volatility invariably begets social volatility. Given Pinochet&rsquos brutally oppressive regime, we can reasonably imagine the two sharp downward spikes in the GDP trend line as two deadly daggers metaphorically plunging downward into the heart of the Chilean people, while they were literally suffering and dying under Pinochet&rsquos homicidal neoliberal reign of terror.

Chile&rsquos Economy Rises After Pinochet Falls. According to Chilean economist Alejandro Foxley, 44% of Chilean families were living below the poverty line at the end of Pinochet&rsquos regime. [16] Based on World Bank data, Chile&rsquos Gini Index was over 57% in 1990. Today, Chile still suffers from a Gini Index of about 47%, which represents a very high concentration of wealth in the hands of a relatively small number of citizens, but it&rsquos still lower than the Gini Index of the United States, which is over 48%. [17] In fact, Chile&rsquos economy has been performing significantly better than the U.S. economy almost every year since the end of Pinochet&rsquos neoliberal reign of terror.


The Chilean Miracle. Some people refer to Chile as &ldquoan economic miracle.&rdquo It&rsquos tempting to assume this is because it would be a miracle for any economy to succeed after being tortured with the Neoliberal Policy Package. In reality, the miracle of Chile&rsquos economy did not emerge until after many economic and social stability policies were implemented on top of Pinochet&rsquos privatization and market liberalization reforms. [18] And contrary to popular neoliberal myths, significant portions of the Chilean economy are still owned or controlled by the government, including dozens of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). [19] These SOEs include the national copper company (CODELCO), the national petroleum company (ENAP), the National Postal System (Correos de Chile), and the state-owned bank (Banco Estado), among many others. [20]

Strong Non-Neoliberal Reforms. In addition to preserving domestic control of strategic natural resources, Chile has very strong banking regulations, which enforce safe lending practices and bank debt management. [21] Workers in all Chilean industries enjoy far more rights and protections than workers in the United States. For example, all Chilean companies with over 25 employees must hire Chilean citizens for at least 85% of their labor force. Outsourcing and off-shoring are also strictly regulated and prohibited in almost all cases. Chilean companies have strict limitations on their use of part-time employees to prevent them from eliminating full-time jobs for the sole purpose of shareholder profit maximization. [22] These and many other healthy economic and social stability reforms are certainly not components of the Neoliberal Policy Package.

Chile Case Study Conclusion. The Neoliberalism of the Pinochet Era was replaced with a rational balance of relatively liberal trade, a balance of private and public enterprises, strong domestic labor market protections, relatively strict capital controls, rational banking regulations, protection of Chile&rsquos precious natural resources, and dozens of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) that protect vital national industries from the self-interest of foreign investors who have no loyalty and little concern for the Chilean people. This rational balance between market-oriented and human welfare-oriented policies has laid the foundation for Chile&rsquos economic &ldquoeconomic miracle&rdquo since 1990, not the Neoliberal Policy Package.

The Current Economic System is Unsustainable & Collapsing. No matter what we call it (crony capitalism, neoliberalism, neomercantilism, plutocracy, kleptocracy, corporatism, corporate socialism . . .), the current economic system that dominates the world today is collapsing. It&rsquos not collapsing because of a lack of free markets it&rsquos collapsing in the U.S. and many other countries because of systemic corruption, cronyism, unsustainable concentrations of economic and political power, A.I. and robots replacing human labor, widespread ignorance about how real wealth is created (and destroyed), political campaign financing systems that artificially limit our electoral choices to a tiny handful of rich oligarchs, and an unaccountable political class that is often corrupt and manifestly incapable of serving the best interest of the general public.

The nonpartisan, politically viable, and economically sustainable solutions presented in Gini book would fix all those problems.

Notes:
[1] Kornbluh, P. (2013). The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability (Updated edition). The New Press. [2] News, A. B. C. (2006, January 6). CIA Admits Involvement in Chile. http://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=82588&page=1

[3] La Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura &ndash GOBIERNO DE CHILE. (2016, September 24). http://www.comisiontortura.cl/2016/09/24/la-comision-nacional-sobre-prision-politica-y-tortura/

[4] &ldquoMake the Economy Scream&rdquo: Secret Documents Show Nixon, Kissinger Role Backing 1973 Chile Coup. (2013). http://www.democracynow.org/2013/9/10/40_years_after_chiles_9_11

[5] Nixon&rsquos Colossal Monetary Error: The Verdict 40 Years Later. (2011, August 15). https://www.forbes.com/sites/charleskadlec/2011/08/15/nixons-colossal-monetary-error-the-verdict-40-years-later/#15351b0469f7

[6] &ldquoKing Faisal Stood Firm on Oil Embargo.&rdquo (2008, May 4). Retrieved November 26, 2017, from http://www.arabnews.com/node/311576

[7] Volcker&rsquos Announcement of Anti-Inflation Measures | Federal Reserve History. (n.d.). https://www.federalreservehistory.org/essays/anti_inflation_measures

[8] The Untold Story Behind Saudi Arabia&rsquos 41-Year U.S. Debt Secret &ndash Bloomberg. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2017, from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2016-05-30/the-untold-story-behind-saudi-arabia-s-41-year-u-s-debt-secret

[9] &ldquoKing Faisal Stood Firm on Oil Embargo.&rdquo (2008, May 4). Retrieved November 26, 2017, from http://www.arabnews.com/node/311576

[10] Perkins, J. (2016). The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (2 edition). Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

[11] Perkins, J. (2016). The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (2 edition). Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

[12] &ldquoMake the Economy Scream&rdquo: Secret Documents Show Nixon, Kissinger Role Backing 1973 Chile Coup. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2017, from http://www.democracynow.org/2013/9/10/40_years_after_chiles_9_11

[13] Kornbluh, P. (2013). The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability (Updated edition). The New Press.

[14] Pinochet&rsquos rule: Repression and economic success. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2017, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/63821.stm

[15] W, R. S. (2002). Privatization in latin america: How did it work and what difference did it make? Latin American Politics and Society, 44(4), 153-166.

[16] Foxley, Alejandro. 2001. PBS interview. Part of &ldquoThe Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy&rdquo series.

[17] Based on the latest World Bank data, which was published in 2016.

[18] W, R. S. (2002). Privatization in latin america: How did it work and what difference did it make? Latin American Politics and Society, 44(4), 153-166.

[19] Making this observation does not mean I believe SOEs are preferable to private enterprises in all cases at all times. That would be an ideological position without any evidence. In contrast, an unbiased analysis of economies worldwide reveals 100s of large and efficient SOEs that serve their country&rsquos economic development goals very effectively. These SOEs minimize interference and sabotage from foreign entities and produce large sovereign wealth funds, which provide crucial economic and social stability during their nascent developmental phases, which would be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with purely private enterprises.

[20] Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs

[21] Chile Retains a Strong Regulatory Framework, Says Latest Doing Business Report. (2016, October 25). Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2016/10/25/chile-retains-a-strong-regulatory-framework-says-latest-doing-business-report

[22] U.S. International Trade Administration. Chile &ndash 9.2-Labor Policies & Practices | export.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.export.gov/article?id=Chile-Labor

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5 facts about the Pledge of Allegiance

Massachusetts’ Supreme Judicial Court – the state’s highest court – will hear arguments today in Doe v. Acton-Boxborough Regional School District, a case in which an anonymous atheist couple is challenging the use of the phrase “under God” in recitations of the Pledge of Allegiance in public schools. The plaintiffs, represented by the American Humanist Association, are appealing a lower court ruling that went in favor of the school district.

With the school year getting underway around the country, here are five facts about the Pledge of Allegiance and its legal history:

The original version of the Pledge of Allegiance did not include the words “under God.” The patriotic oath – attributed to a Baptist minister named Francis Bellamy and published in a children’s magazine in September 1892 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ voyage to America – read: “I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”

Congress added “Under God” to the Pledge in 1954 – during the Cold War. Many members of Congress reportedly wanted to emphasize the distinctions between the United States and the officially atheistic Soviet Union.

The children of the plaintiffs in the Massachusetts case – like all Americans – cannot be required to recite the Pledge or any specific part of it. That was made clear in a 1943 U.S. Supreme Court decision, West Virginia v. Barnette, in which Justice Robert Jackson wrote: “If there is any fixed star in our constitutional constellation, it is that no official, high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, religion, or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act their faith therein. If there are any circumstances which permit an exception, they do not now occur to us.”

In 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court accepted a case (Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow) that challenged the use of “under God” in the Pledge, but the high court did not rule on the question of whether the Pledge is constitutional under the First Amendment. Instead, a five-justice majority said that atheist Michael Newdow did not have legal standing to bring the case on behalf of his daughter because he did not have legal custody of her. Standing is a legal concept that only those with a legitimate stake in a case’s outcome can be a party to a lawsuit.

The current Massachusetts case challenges the Pledge from a different perspective than did Michael Newdow, who argued that “under God” in the Pledge violates the prohibition on the establishment of religion in the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. According to the Religion News Service, the plaintiffs in this new case are arguing that the recitation of the pledge discriminates against non-believing students and thus violates the guarantee of equal rights contained in the Massachusetts Constitution.


Watch the video: Лермонтов. Lermontov. Биографический Документальный Фильм. Star Media. Babich-Design