President Andrew Jackson

President Andrew Jackson

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Andrew Jackson

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Andrew Jackson, byname Old Hickory, (born March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, South Carolina [U.S.]—died June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.), military hero and seventh president of the United States (1829–37). He was the first U.S. president to come from the area west of the Appalachians and the first to gain office by a direct appeal to the mass of voters. His political movement has since been known as Jacksonian Democracy.

What was Andrew Jackson’s education?

Andrew Jackson did not have much formal education as a child, and he was imprisoned by the British during the American Revolution, when he was in his teens. However, he later studied law and became a lawyer and a politician.

How did Andrew Jackson become famous?

As leader of the Tennessee militia, during the War of 1812 Andrew Jackson decisively defeated the Creek Indians (allied with the British). His heroic defeat of the British in the Battle of New Orleans cemented his reputation as a war hero. In 1817–18 he responded to Seminole raids into Georgia by taking control of Spanish Florida.

What were Andrew Jackson’s accomplishments?

Andrew Jackson was the first to be elected president by appealing to the mass of voters rather than the party elite. He established the principle that states may not disregard federal law. However, he also signed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which led to the Trail of Tears.

Lawrence was born in England, most likely around 1800 or 1801. His family emigrated to the United States when he was 12 years old and settled in Virginia, near Washington, D.C. Lawrence's childhood and early adult years were apparently normal. At his trial, he was described by acquaintances and relatives as a "relatively fine young boy" who was "reserved in his manner but industrious and of good moral habits." [1] Lawrence later found work as a house painter. Historians have speculated that exposure to the toxic chemicals in the paints that he used may have contributed to his mental illness, which manifested itself in his thirties, and he later became violent to his siblings. [2]

By November 1832, Lawrence's behavior and mental stability had inexplicably changed. He abruptly announced to his family that he was returning to England, and he left Washington shortly thereafter. He returned a month later telling his family he decided not to travel abroad as it was too cold. Shortly after returning, he again announced that he was returning to England to study landscape painting. [3]

Lawrence left once again and briefly stayed in Philadelphia before returning home. He told his family that "unnamed persons" had prevented him from traveling abroad and that the U.S. government also disapproved of his plan to return to England. Lawrence also claimed that while he was in Philadelphia, he read several stories about himself in the newspaper that were critical of his travel plans and his character. Lawrence told his family that he had no choice but to return to Washington until he could afford to buy a ship and hire a captain who would sail the ship to England for him. [3]

Around this time, [ vague ] Lawrence abruptly quit his house painting job. When questioned by his sister and brother-in-law with whom he was living, Lawrence claimed that he did not need to work because the U.S. government owed him a large sum of money. Lawrence had come to believe that he was owed money because he was Richard III of England and owned two English estates. Lawrence became convinced that he was not receiving the money because of President Andrew Jackson's opposition to the Second Bank of the United States. He felt that if Jackson were no longer in office, Vice President Martin Van Buren would establish a national bank and allow Congress to pay him the money for his English estate claims. [3]

Lawrence's personality and outward appearance changed dramatically around this time [ vague ] . Once conservatively dressed, Lawrence grew a mustache and began buying expensive and flamboyant clothing, which he would change three or four times a day. He took to standing in the doorway of his home for hours and gazing out into the street. Neighborhood children would jokingly address him as "King Richard", which typically pleased Lawrence, who failed to realize the children were teasing him. He also became paranoid and hostile towards others. On one occasion, he threatened to kill a maid who he thought was laughing at him. Lawrence also began verbally and physically abusing his family, mainly his sisters, over imagined slights. In one instance, he threatened to hit his sister with a paperweight because he believed that she had been talking about him. At Lawrence's trial, witnesses described the bizarre behavior that he exhibited. Several people testified that Lawrence would engage in nonsensical conversations with himself, and others stated that he would have laughing and cursing fits. [4]

In the weeks leading up to the assassination attempt, Lawrence began observing Jackson's movements. Witnesses later testified that Lawrence was often seen sitting in his paint shop muttering to himself about Jackson. On Friday, January 30, 1835, the day of the assassination attempt, Lawrence was seen sitting in his paint shop with a book in his hand while laughing. Lawrence suddenly got up, left the shop and stated, "I'll be damned if I don't do it." [5]

On January 30, Jackson was attending the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren R. Davis at the U.S. Capitol. Lawrence originally planned to shoot Jackson as he entered the service but was unable to get close enough to him. However, when Jackson left the funeral, Lawrence had found a space near a pillar on the East Portico, where Jackson would pass. As Jackson walked, Lawrence stepped out and fired his first pistol at Jackson's back it misfired. Lawrence quickly made another attempt with his second pistol, but that also misfired. It was later determined that the weapons that he had chosen were noted for being vulnerable to moisture, and the weather on that date was humid and damp. [2]

Lawrence's unsuccessful attempts were noticed by Jackson, who proceeded to beat him with his cane. The crowd (which included Representative David "Davy" Crockett) eventually intervened and wrestled Lawrence into submission. [2]

Lawrence was brought to trial on April 11, 1835, at the District of Columbia City Hall. The prosecuting attorney was Francis Scott Key. [6] At his trial, Lawrence was prone to wild rants and he refused to recognize the legitimacy of the proceedings. At one point he said to the courtroom, "It is for me, gentlemen, to pass judgment on you, and not you upon me." After only five minutes of deliberation, the jury found Lawrence "not guilty by reason of insanity". [7]

In the years following his acquittal, Lawrence was held by several institutions and hospitals. In 1855, he was committed to the newly-opened Government Hospital for the Insane [8] (later renamed St. Elizabeths Hospital), in Washington, D.C., where he remained until his death on June 13, 1861. [9] [10]

As with later assassinations, there was speculation that Lawrence was part of a conspiracy. While nobody denied Lawrence's involvement, many people, including Jackson, believed that he may have been supported in or put up to carrying out the assassination attempt by the President's political enemies. U.S. Senator (and Jackson's former vice president) John C. Calhoun made a statement on the Senate floor that he was not connected to the attack. Nevertheless, Jackson believed that Calhoun, an old enemy, was at the bottom of the attempt. [11]

Jackson also suspected a former friend and supporter, Senator George Poindexter of Mississippi, who had used Lawrence to do some house painting a few months earlier. Because Poindexter was unable to convince his supporters in Mississippi that he was not involved in a plot against Jackson, he was defeated for re-election. However, no evidence was ever discovered that connected Lawrence with either Calhoun or Poindexter in a plot to kill Jackson. [11]

President Andrew Jackson - HISTORY

"The pen is mightier than the politician."

--President Gerald R. Ford, 1975

Using drawings or cartoons to comment on the actions of a president is a tradition nearly as old as the nation. Political cartoons were the creation of the politically partisan press in the early 1800s. They became staples of weekly magazines during the 19th century and, eventually, a cornerstone of the modern newspaper industry.

Cartoons help make complex issues and personalities more accessible. They often have a great impact on attitudes about a chief executive. Many presidents felt like 19th-century New York politician William "Boss" Tweed: "Stop them damn pictures. I don't care much about what the papers write about me. My constituents can't read. But, damn it, they can see pictures."

Jackson political cartoon
Andrew Jackson was a strong president who used the office to forcefully pursue his agenda. Many political opponents, fearing Jackson's use of power, called him "King Andrew."

This 1832 cartoon uses that theme to show Jackson, dressed as a king, trampling on the Constitution. While the cartoon garnered support for the opposing Whig Party, it did little to thwart Jackson's desire to increase the power of the presidency.


Presidential Reconstruction Edit

Tensions between the executive and legislative branches had been high prior to Johnson's ascension to the presidency. Following Union Army victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July 1863, President Lincoln began contemplating the issue of how to bring the South back into the Union. He wished to offer an olive branch to the rebel states by pursuing a lenient plan for their reintegration. The forgiving tone of the president's plan, plus the fact that he implemented it by presidential directive without consulting Congress, incensed Radical Republicans, who countered with a more stringent plan. Their proposal for Southern reconstruction, the Wade–Davis Bill, passed both houses of Congress in July 1864, but was pocket vetoed by the president and never took effect. [2] [3]

The assassination of Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865, just days after the Army of Northern Virginia's surrender at Appomattox, briefly lessened the tension over who would set the terms of peace. The radicals, while suspicious of the new president (Andrew Johnson) and his policies, believed based on his record that he would defer or at least acquiesce to their hardline proposals. Though a Democrat from Tennessee, Johnson had been a fierce critic of the Southern secession. Then after several states left the Union, including his own, he chose to stay in Washington (rather than resign his U.S. Senate seat), and later, when Union troops occupied Tennessee, Johnson was appointed military governor. While in that position he had exercised his powers with vigor, frequently stating that "treason must be made odious and traitors punished". [3] Johnson, however, embraced Lincoln's more lenient policies, thus rejecting the Radicals, and setting the stage for a showdown between the president and Congress. [4] During the first months of his presidency, Johnson issued proclamations of general amnesty for most former Confederates, both government and military officers, and oversaw creation of new governments in the hitherto rebellious states—governments dominated by ex-Confederate officials. [5] In February 1866, Johnson vetoed legislation extending the Freedmen's Bureau and expanding its powers Congress was unable to override the veto. Afterward, Johnson denounced Radical Republicans Representative Thaddeus Stevens and Senator Charles Sumner, along with abolitionist Wendell Phillips, as traitors. [6] Later, Johnson vetoed a Civil Rights Act and a second Freedmen's Bureau bill. The Senate and the House each mustered the two-thirds majorities necessary to override both vetoes, [6] setting the stage for a showdown between Congress and the president.

At an impasse with Congress, Johnson offered himself directly to the American public as a "tribune of the people". In the late summer of 1866, the president embarked on a national "Swing Around the Circle" speaking tour, where he asked his audiences for their support in his battle against the Congress and urged voters to elect representatives to Congress in the upcoming midterm election who supported his policies. The tour backfired on Johnson, however, when reports of his undisciplined, vitriolic speeches and ill-advised confrontations with hecklers swept the nation. Contrary to his hopes, the 1866 elections led to veto-proof Republican majorities in both houses of Congress. [1] [7] [8] As a result, Radicals were able to take control of Reconstruction, passing a series of Reconstruction Acts—each one over the president's veto—addressing requirements for Southern states to be fully restored to the Union. The first of these acts divided those states, excluding Johnson's home state of Tennessee, into five military districts, and each state's government was put under the control of the U.S. military. Additionally, these states were required to enact new constitutions, ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, and guarantee voting rights for black males. [1] [3] [9]

Previous efforts to impeach Johnson Edit

Since 1866, a number of previous efforts had been undertaken to impeach Johnson. On January 7, 1867, this resulted in the House of Representatives voting to launch of an impeachment inquiry run by the House Committee on the Judiciary, which initially ended in a June 3, 1867 vote by the committee to recommend against forwarding articles of impeachment to the full House. [10] however, on November 25, 1867, the House Committee on the Judiciary, which had not previously forwarded the result of its inquiry to the full House, reversed their previous decision, and voted 5–4 to recommend impeachment proceedings. In a December 7, 1867 vote, the full House rejected this report’s recommendation by a 108–56 vote. [11] [12] [13]

Tenure of Office Act Edit

Congress' control of the military Reconstruction policy was mitigated by Johnson's command of the military as president. However, Johnson had inherited Lincoln's appointee Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of war. Stanton was a staunch Radical Republican who would comply with congressional Reconstruction policies as long as he remained in office. [14] To ensure that Stanton would not be replaced, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act in 1867 over Johnson's veto. The act required the president to seek the Senate's advice and consent before relieving or dismissing any member of his cabinet (an indirect reference to Stanton) or, indeed, any federal official whose initial appointment had previously required its advice and consent. [15] [16]

Because the Tenure of Office Act did permit the president to suspend such officials when Congress was out of session, when Johnson failed to obtain Stanton's resignation, he instead suspended Stanton on August 5, 1867, which gave him the opportunity to appoint General Ulysses S. Grant, then serving as Commanding General of the Army, interim secretary of war. [17] When the Senate adopted a resolution of non-concurrence with Stanton's dismissal in December 1867, Grant told Johnson he was going to resign, fearing punitive legal action. Johnson assured Grant that he would assume all responsibility in the matter, and asked him to delay his resignation until a suitable replacement could be found. [16] Contrary to Johnson's belief that Grant had agreed to remain in office, [18] when the Senate voted and reinstated Stanton in January 1868, Grant immediately resigned, before the president had an opportunity to appoint a replacement. [19] Johnson was furious at Grant, accusing him of lying during a stormy cabinet meeting. The March 1868 publication of several angry messages between Johnson and Grant led to a complete break between the two. As a result of these letters, Grant solidified his standing as the front-runner for the 1868 Republican presidential nomination. [17] [20]

Johnson complained about Stanton's restoration to office and searched desperately for someone to replace Stanton who would be acceptable to the Senate. He first proposed the position to General William Tecumseh Sherman, an enemy of Stanton, who turned down his offer. [21] Sherman subsequently suggested to Johnson that Radical Republicans and moderate Republicans would be amenable to replacing Stanton with Jacob Dolson Cox, but he found the president to be no longer interested in appeasement. [22] On February 21, 1868, the president appointed Lorenzo Thomas, a brevet major general in the Army, as interim Secretary of War. Johnson thereupon informed the Senate of his decision. Thomas personally delivered the president's dismissal notice to Stanton, who rejected the legitimacy of the decision. Rather than vacate his office, Stanton barricaded himself inside and ordered Thomas arrested for violating the Tenure of Office Act. He also informed Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax and President Pro Tempore of the Senate Benjamin Wade of the situation. [23] Thomas remained under arrest for several days before being released, and having the charge against him dropped after Stanton realized that the case against Thomas would provide the courts with an opportunity to review the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act. [24]

Johnson's opponents in Congress were outraged by his actions the president's challenge to congressional authority—with regard to both the Tenure of Office Act and post-war reconstruction—had, in their estimation, been tolerated for long enough. [3] In swift response, an impeachment resolution was introduced in the House by Representatives Thaddeus Stevens and John Bingham. Expressing the widespread sentiment among House Republicans, Representative William D. Kelley (on February 22, 1868) declared:

Sir, the bloody and untilled fields of the ten unreconstructed states, the unsheeted ghosts of the two thousand murdered negroes in Texas, cry, if the dead ever evoke vengeance, for the punishment of Andrew Johnson. [25] [26]

On January 22, 1868, Rufus P. Spalding moved that the rules be suspended so that he could present a resolution resolving,

that the Committee on Reconstruction be authorized to inquire what combinations have been made or attempted to be made to obstruct the due execution of the laws, and to that end the committee have power to send for persons and papers and to examine witnesses on oath, and report to this House what action, if any, they may deem necessary, and that said committee have leave to report at any time. [27]

This motion was agreed to by a vote of 103–37, and then, after several subsequent motions (including ones to table the resolution or adjourn) were disagreed to, congress voted to approve the resolution 99–31. [27] This launched a new inquiry into Johnson run by the Committee on Reconstruction. [27]

Also on January 22, 1868, a one sentence resolution to impeach Johnson, written by John Covode, was also referred to the Committee on Reconstruction. The resolution read, "“Resolved, that Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, be impeached of high crimes and misdemeanors." [28] [29] [30]

On February 21, the day that Johnson attempted to replace Stanton with Lorenzo Thomas, Thaddeus Stevens submitted a resolution resolving that the evidence taken on impeachment by the previous impeachment inquiry run by the Committee on the Judiciary be referred to the Committee on Reconstruction, and that the committee "have leave to report at any time" was approved by the House. [27] On February 22, Stevens presented from the Committee on Reconstruction a report opining that Johnson should be impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors. [27]

On February 24, 1868, three days after Johnson's dismissal of Stanton, the House of Representatives voted 126 to 47 (with 17 members not voting) in favor of a resolution to impeach the president for high crimes and misdemeanors. Thaddeus Stevens addressed the House prior to the vote. "This is not to be the temporary triumph of a political party", he said, "but is to endure in its consequence until this whole continent shall be filled with a free and untrammeled people or shall be a nest of shrinking, cowardly slaves." [25] Almost all Republicans present supported impeachment, while every Democrat present voted against it. (Samuel Fenton Cary, an Independent Republican from Ohio, and Thomas E. Stewart, a Conservative Republican from New York, voted against impeachment.) [31]

Resolution providing for the impeachment of
President Andrew Johnson
February 24, 1868 Party Total votes [32] [31]
Democratic Republican
Yea Y 00 0 126 126
Nay 0 45 00 2 0 47

One week later, the House adopted 11 articles of impeachment against the president. The articles alleged that Johnson had: [33]

Officers of the trial Edit

Per the constitution's rules on impeachment trials of incumbent presidents, chief justice of the United States Salmon P. Chase presided over the trial. [16]

The House of Representatives appointed seven members to serve as House impeachment managers, equivalent to prosecutors. These seven members were John Bingham, George S. Boutwell, Benjamin Butler, John A. Logan, Thaddeus Stevens, Thomas Williams and James F. Wilson. [34] [35]

The president's defense team was made up of Henry Stanbery, William M. Evarts, Benjamin R. Curtis, Thomas A. R. Nelson and William S. Groesbeck. On the advice of counsel, the president did not appear at the trial. [16]

Pretrial Edit

On March 4, 1868, amid tremendous public attention and press coverage, the 11 Articles of Impeachment were presented to the Senate, which reconvened the following day as a court of impeachment, with Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presiding, and proceeded to develop a set of rules for the trial and its officers. [16] The extent of Chase's authority as presiding officer to render unilateral rulings was a frequent point of contention during the rules debate and trial. He initially maintained that deciding certain procedural questions on his own was his prerogative but after the Senate challenged several of his rulings, he gave up making rulings. [36] On one occasion, when he ruled that Johnson should be permitted to present evidence that Thomas' appointment to replace Stanton was intended to provide a test case to challenge the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act, the Senate reversed the ruling. [37]

When it came time for senators to take the juror's oath, Thomas A. Hendricks questioned Benjamin Wade's impartiality and suggested that Wade abstain from voting due to a conflict of interest. As there was no constitutional provision at the time for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency (accomplished a century later by the Twenty-fifth Amendment), the office had been vacant since Johnson succeeded to the presidency. Therefore, Wade, as president pro tempore of the Senate, would, under the Presidential Succession Act then in force and effect, become president if Johnson were removed from office. Reviled by the Radical Republican majority, Hendricks withdrew his objection a day later and left the matter to Wade's own conscience he subsequently voted for conviction. [38] [39]

The trial was conducted mostly in open session, and the Senate chamber galleries were filled to capacity throughout. Public interest was so great that the Senate issued admission passes for the first time in its history. For each day of the trial, 1,000 color coded tickets were printed, granting admittance for a single day. [16] [40]

Testimony Edit

On the first day, Johnson's defense committee asked for 40 days to collect evidence and witnesses since the prosecution had had a longer amount of time to do so, but only 10 days were granted. The proceedings began on March 23. Senator Garrett Davis argued that because not all states were represented in the Senate the trial could not be held and that it should therefore be adjourned. The motion was voted down. After the charges against the president were made, Henry Stanbery asked for another 30 days to assemble evidence and summon witnesses, saying that in the 10 days previously granted there had only been enough time to prepare the president's reply. John A. Logan argued that the trial should begin immediately and that Stanbery was only trying to stall for time. The request was turned down in a vote 41 to 12. However, the Senate voted the next day to give the defense six more days to prepare evidence, which was accepted. [41]

The trial commenced again on March 30. Benjamin Butler opened for the prosecution with a three-hour speech reviewing historical impeachment trials, dating from King John of England. For days Butler spoke out against Johnson's violations of the Tenure of Office Act and further charged that the president had issued orders directly to Army officers without sending them through General Grant. The defense argued that Johnson had not violated the Tenure of Office Act because President Lincoln did not reappoint Stanton as Secretary of War at the beginning of his second term in 1865 and that he was, therefore, a leftover appointment from the 1860 cabinet, which removed his protection by the Tenure of Office Act. The prosecution called several witnesses in the course of the proceedings until April 9, when they rested their case. [42]

Benjamin Curtis called attention to the fact that after the House passed the Tenure of Office Act, the Senate had amended it, meaning that it had to return it to a Senate-House conference committee to resolve the differences. He followed up by quoting the minutes of those meetings, which revealed that while the House members made no notes about the fact, their sole purpose was to keep Stanton in office, and the Senate had disagreed. The defense then called their first witness, Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas. He did not provide adequate information in the defense's cause and Butler made attempts to use his information to the prosecution's advantage. The next witness was General William T. Sherman, who testified that President Johnson had offered to appoint Sherman to succeed Stanton as secretary of war in order to ensure that the department was effectively administered. This testimony damaged the prosecution, which expected Sherman to testify that Johnson offered to appoint Sherman for the purpose of obstructing the operation or overthrow, of the government. Sherman essentially affirmed that Johnson only wanted him to manage the department and not to execute directions to the military that would be contrary to the will of Congress. [43]

Verdict Edit

The Senate was composed of 54 members representing 27 states (10 former Confederate states had not yet been readmitted to representation in the Senate) at the time of the trial. At its conclusion, senators voted on three of the articles of impeachment. On each occasion the vote was 35–19, with 35 senators voting guilty and 19 not guilty. As the constitutional threshold for a conviction in an impeachment trial is a two-thirds majority guilty vote, 36 votes in this instance, Johnson was not convicted. He remained in office through the end of his term on March 4, 1869, though as a lame duck without influence on public policy. [1]

Seven Republican senators were concerned that the proceedings had been manipulated to give a one-sided presentation of the evidence. Senators William P. Fessenden, Joseph S. Fowler, James W. Grimes, John B. Henderson, Lyman Trumbull, Peter G. Van Winkle, [44] and Edmund G. Ross, who provided the decisive vote, [45] defied their party by voting against conviction. In addition to the aforementioned seven, three more Republicans James Dixon, James Rood Doolittle, Daniel Sheldon Norton, and all nine Democratic senators voted not guilty.

The first vote was taken on May 16 for the eleventh article. Prior to the vote, Samuel Pomeroy, the senior senator from Kansas, told the junior Kansas Senator Ross that if Ross voted for acquittal that Ross would become the subject of an investigation for bribery. [46] Afterward, in hopes of persuading at least one senator who voted not guilty to change his vote, the Senate adjourned for 10 days before continuing voting on the other articles. During the hiatus, under Butler's leadership, the House put through a resolution to investigate alleged "improper or corrupt means used to influence the determination of the Senate". Despite the Radical Republican leadership's heavy-handed efforts to change the outcome, when votes were cast on May 26 for the second and third articles, the results were the same as the first. After the trial, Butler conducted hearings on the widespread reports that Republican senators had been bribed to vote for Johnson's acquittal. In Butler's hearings, and in subsequent inquiries, there was increasing evidence that some acquittal votes were acquired by promises of patronage jobs and cash bribes. Political deals were struck as well. Grimes received assurances that acquittal would not be followed by presidential reprisals Johnson agreed to enforce the Reconstruction Acts, and to appoint General John Schofield to succeed Stanton. Nonetheless, the investigations never resulted in charges, much less convictions, against anyone. [47]

Moreover, there is evidence that the prosecution attempted to bribe the senators voting for acquittal to switch their votes to conviction. Maine Senator Fessenden was offered the ministership to Great Britain. Prosecutor Butler said, "Tell [Kansas Senator Ross] that if he wants money there is a bushel of it here to be had." [48] Butler's investigation also boomeranged when it was discovered that Kansas Senator Pomeroy, who voted for conviction, had written a letter to Johnson's postmaster general seeking a $40,000 bribe for Pomeroy's acquittal vote along with three or four others in his caucus. [49] Butler was himself told by Wade that Wade would appoint Butler as secretary of state when Wade assumed the presidency after a Johnson conviction. [50] An opinion that Senator Ross was mercilessly persecuted for his courageous vote to sustain the independence of the presidency as a branch of the federal government is the subject of an entire chapter in President John F. Kennedy's book, Profiles in Courage. [51] That opinion has been rejected by some scholars, such as Ralph Roske, and endorsed by others, such as Avery Craven. [52] [53]

Not one of the Republican senators who voted for acquittal ever again served in an elected office. [54] Although they were under intense pressure to change their votes to conviction during the trial, afterward public opinion rapidly shifted around to their viewpoint. Some senators who voted for conviction, such as John Sherman and even Charles Sumner, later changed their minds. [52] [55] [56]

HISTORY CORNER: President Andrew Jackson, hero or villain?

Painting by Edward Percy Moran (1862-1935) of Brevet Major General Andrew Jackson leading his troops in a repulsing attack by 93rd Sutherland Highlanders in the Battle of New Orleans on Jan. 8, 1815, when American forces defeated the British in 30 minutes.

Andrew Jackson being sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall as the seventh U.S. president on March 4, 1829.

Attempted assassination of President Andrew Jackson at Capitol by Richard Lawrence on Jan. 30, 1835.

Protesters attempt to tear down an Andrew Jackson statue at Lafayette Square in front of the White House on June 22, 2020.

Andrew Jackson was supposedly born in this cabin in the Waxhaws region somewhere on the North/South Carolina border, the exact location unknown.

When only 13, Andrew Jackson was slashed in the face and hand with a sword wielded by a British officer because he refused to polish the officer’s muddy boots.

Andrew Jackson fought in 14 battles and wars, including the War of 1812 and the Indian Wars.

The Trail of Tears, painted by Robert Lindneux depicting Cherokee Indians forced to leave their traditional homelands in the Southeast and (with other tribes) relocate to Oklahoma, a tragedy authorized by Andrew Jackson.

Trail of Tears — an unhappy legacy of President Andrew Jackson — shown on this map, which should include the sea route from Florida to New Orleans for relocated Seminoles.

Andrew Jackson’s carriage, considered a status symbol in those days, on display at his home The Hermitage in Nashville, Tenn.

Tomb of Andrew Jackson, seventh president of the U.S., at The Hermitage in Nashville, Tenn.

President Andrew Jackson’s plantation home in Tennessee.

Andrew Jackson had a rough day on March 4, 1829, when he was sworn in as the seventh president of the United States by Chief Justice John Marshall.

His predecessor, John Quincy Adams, refused to attend the inauguration. The New England elite hated him, but rural folks and westerners loved him.

Adams ordered the military not to participate in the inaugural parade, so a rough-and-tumble militia jumped in to take their place and guarded the presidential carriage down Pennsylvania Avenue.

Jackson had recently lost his wife so there was no first lady and the open house inaugural party at the White House was a disaster.

Washington socialite Margaret Bayard Smith was delayed attending for hours because of the mob of Jackson supporters and was stunned when she finally got there.

“What a scene did we witness!” she wrote in a letter to a friend. “The majesty of the People had disappeared, and a rabble, a mob of boys, negros, children, scrambling fighting, romping. What a pity, what a pity! No arrangement had been made, no police officers placed on duty and the whole house had been inundated by the rabble mob. We came too late.”

President Jackson, fearing being crushed by the mob, was spirited out of a back window and spent the night in a hotel.

It took the White House staff to restore order — cutting off the booze, then after the stoned guests were gone, deal with the Oriental rugs ruined by muddy boots, and clean up the broken glasses.

It was no way to start a presidency for the hero of the Battle of New Orleans where he fought alongside his troops and earned the affectionate sobriquet “Old Hickory.”

Today, his image is on the $20 bill — and some want it removed.

Jackson was a man of his times and times have changed. That leaves his legacy a mixed one today.

Presidents Teddy Roosevelt, LBJ, Reagan and Trump all admired him and visited his tomb at Jackson’s plantation home The Hermitage near Nashville, Tenn., to honor the seventh U.S. president with a floral wreath.

But in Lafayette Square in front of the White House, five vandals attempted to tear down Andrew Jackson’s equestrian statue in June 2020. They were caught and one of them later posted on Twitter, “Tearing down statues of traitors to the nation is a service to this nation not a crime…Death to all Confederate Statues!”

What did Andrew Jackson do nearly 200 years ago that riles his detractors so much today, while others call him an American patriot and hero?

Some of his attitudes were formed at an early age. When he was only 13 in 1781, he learned to hate the British after he and his brothers volunteered for the local militia, encouraged by their mother, and served as couriers.

The boys had lost their dad years earlier in a logging accident while clearing land.

Eldest brother Hugh died of exhaustion in the Battle of Stono Ferry near Charleston, S.C., Andrew and his other older brother, Robert, were captured by the Red Coats while staying at the home of friends.

When 13-year-old Andrew refused to polish a British officer’s muddy boots, the officer slashed him with a sabre, cutting his face, and down to the bone on his left hand.

Both boys contracted smallpox while in captivity and were seriously ill, but their mother arranged for their release in a prisoner exchange. Days after arriving home, Robert died, but Andrew survived.

Then his mother died of cholera contracted from treating American POWs aboard a British ship.

Andrew was an orphan at age 14, and blamed the deaths of his mother and brothers on the British.

During the next dozen years, he was raised by his uncles, worked as a saddle maker and schoolteacher before studying law.

He was admitted to the bar and became a successful lawyer, and also met Rachel Donelson Robards and married her.

They were a devoted couple and established their cotton plantation home called The Hermitage near Nashville. They had no children and sadly she died three months before her husband was sworn in as president.

Jackson became wealthy on the plantation and had about 160 slaves — not unlike other big plantation owners of those times. Reports say he was a harsh master.

A History Channel account says, “Records show he beat his enslaved workers, including doling out a brutal public whipping to a woman he felt had been ‘putting on airs.’"

“And when any of them ran away, he pursued them and put them in chains when they were recovered. In an 1804 newspaper advertisement for a 30-year-old runaway named Tom, he offered an extra $10 for every 100 lashes doled out to the escapee.”

U.S. presidents who owned slaves included Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler, Polk, Taylor, Andrew Johnson and Grant. Washington and Jefferson had the most — about 600 each.

In 1796, Jackson was a member of the convention that established the Tennessee Constitution, became Tennessee’s first congressman and the following year was elected senator — but resigned eight months later.

He was appointed a circuit judge on the Tennessee superior court, serving for the next six years.

He became a rising star on the political stage and ran for president in the 1824 elections, but after a contentious campaign lost to John Quincy Adams, who received support from another candidate — Speaker of the House Henry Clay.

Jackson charged Adams with corruption and announced he’d run again. That split the Democratic-Republican Party in two and gave birth to today’s Democratic Party — the world’s oldest existing voter-based political party.

(The other half was called the Whig Party that became the Republican Party in 1854, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay.)

Jackson was called a “Jackass” by opponents, but he liked it — and adopted the animal as the emblem for the Democratic Party.

Though he had little military training, Jackson was given the rank of General in the Tennessee militia and his earliest military exploits were against the Indians.

During the 1812 war, he battled the Upper Creek Indians who were allied with the British. At the battle of Horseshoe Bend in east central Alabama, his troops killed some 800 Creek warriors, after which the U.S. acquired 20 million acres of Indian land in today’s Georgia and Alabama.

Jackson was then promoted to major general by the U.S. military.

Next, without official orders, he marched his troops into Florida, then owned by Spain and eventually forced the Spanish to cede the territory to the U.S.

Jackson participated in 14 battles and wars during his military career, with the most historic being the Battle of New Orleans on Jan. 8, 1815, when he drove away the British trying to capture the city — even though the Americans were outmanned two-to-one.

The 3,000 British troops suffered 2,000 casualties in a battle that lasted only about 30 minutes.

What neither side knew at the time due to slow communications was that the 1812 War was already over, with the U.S. and Britain having signed the Treaty of Ghent 14 days earlier in Belgium.

During that campaign, Jackson’s troops affectionately called him “Old Hickory,” because he was “as tough as old hickory wood.”

In 1830, President Jackson signed into law the Indian Removal Act — opposed by the Whigs — that removed the Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole and Cherokee Indians from their ancestral homes in the Southeast to Indian reservations in Oklahoma, with thousands dying from exhaustion, starvation and disease along the “Trail of Tears.”

It was a dark time in American history.

The military victory at New Orleans made Andrew Jackson a national hero, and the next 13 years was a march to the White House.

As president, Jackson bucked the establishment, became known as a populist, fought big banking, established the principle that states may not disregard federal law, and unfortunately signed the Indian Removal Act.

He died in 1845 and is buried at The Hermitage.

His legacy will probably always be a subject of debate because of a number of his actions acceptable in those times are not acceptable in today’s world.

One hundred years from now, how will history judge the America of the early 21st century?

Contact Syd Albright at [email protected]

Andrew Jackson and paper money…

President Jackson only trusted gold and silver as currency and shut down the Second Bank of the United States in part because of its ability to manipulate paper money. It’s ironic that Jackson not only appears on the $20 bill, but his portrait in the past has also appeared on $5, $10, $50 and $10,000 denominations in addition to the Confederate $1,000 bill.

Presidential campaign slander…

Like all presidential campaigns, Andrew Jackson’s 1828 White House bid brought scurrilous gossip from his opponents. They accused his wife Rachel of adultery based on a troubled first marriage to Lewis Robards nearly 30 years earlier. In the early 1790s, she separated from him because he was a pathologically jealous and abusive husband. Mistakenly believing that he’d divorced her, she married Andrew Jackson. The matter had long been settled, and the Jacksons had remarried but that didn’t stop the slander. The stress and depression, plus underlying health issues caused Rachel’s death just before Andrew Jackson was sworn in.

French pirate helps Jackson against British…

In the early 1800s, French pirate Jean Lafitte was prowling the Caribbean looking for Spanish merchant ships to attack, while operating a successful smuggling business. U.S. Naval ships captured him and his fleet. Then he helped General Andrew Jackson defend New Orleans against the British in the War of 1812. Later, he and his ruffian crew were given full pardons for their prior criminal activities.

What! — no guns?

When 2,500 Kentuckians arrived in New Orleans to help General Andrew Jackson fight the British in early January 1815, two-thirds came unarmed — expecting to receive guns from Jackson. However, there weren’t enough to go around. “I don’t believe it,” Jackson supposedly said. “I have never seen a Kentuckian without a gun and a pack of cards and a bottle of whiskey in my life!”

Warfare’s first steam-powered warship…

In January 1815, Secretary of War James Monroe sent crucial firearms for Andrew Jackson’s troops down the Mississippi in a flat-bottomed steamboat called the Enterprise, captained by Henry Miller Shreve (Shreveport, La. — originally Shreve Town). They had to sail through enemy territory to Fort Philipps 80 miles downriver from New Orleans, where the troops were holed up. They made it — and it’s believed to be the first time a steam-powered warship was used in a war.

Andrew Jackson's Cabinet

On March 10, 1829, President Andrew Jackson moved into the White House. Fifteen years earlier, the British had burned the White House during the War of 1812. Presidents James Madison and James Monroe oversaw the rebuilding of the Executive Mansion, but presidents made important changes and updates to the building over the next several administrations. John Quincy Adams, Jackson’s predecessor, established the southeast rooms of the second floor (where the Lincoln Bedroom is today) as the president’s domain—the location of the president’s office remained unchanged for over seventy years. Jackson also transformed the office of the presidency, including the role of the cabinet, by wielding executive authority that went unmatched until the Civil War.

Jackson made several important changes to the White House as well. In 1829, the East Room on the State Floor remained unfinished. Jackson ordered the space decorated and outfitted with formal furnishings. Jackson also left his mark on the private residence on the Second Floor of the Executive Mansion. When he moved to Washington, D.C., Jackson brought his extended family with him. Jack Donelson, Jackson’s nephew, came to serve as Jackson’s aide and secretary. Because Jackson was a widower, Jack’s wife, Emily, served as the official hostess of the White House for most of Jackson’s administration. Jack and Emily’s ever-growing brood of children romped through the halls and added a touch of levity to the house. Major William Lewis and Ralph E.W. Earl, Jackson’s oldest friends, also lived on the Second Floor.

They each had their own spheres of influence. In the northwest corner of the second floor, the Donelson family shared a suite of rooms (today the Private Dining Room). The yellow bedroom (today’s West and East bedrooms) served as a ladies’ space during larger events. If women needed a moment of rest, to use the restroom, or to freshen up, they retreated to the yellow bedroom, which was outfitted with elegant mahogany furniture, washstands, and “close stools” or chamber pots. Across the hall, was the circular green room which Emily used to host received morning callers (today’s Yellow Oval Room). 1

The Great Cheese: Jacksonian Democracy Enjoys a Special Treat, 1837. This painting by Peter Waddell depicts the 1,400 lb cheese gifted to President Jackson by supporters in New York in the newly finished East Room.

Peter Waddell for the White House Historical Association.

Farther down the hall on the north side, Mr. Earl had a bedroom (today the Queen’s Bedroom) where he painted the portraits of the Jackson family and replicas to sell. Next door, Jack Donelson had a narrow room, where he worked long hours before locking the door to his office at night. 2

Aside from the green circular room, Jackson controlled the south side of the floor. On the western half of the floor, Jackson had his dressing room, bedroom (today the Master Bedroom), and sitting room. On the eastern half, he had an audience room, his office, and the clerks’ office. These rooms all served very different functions and Jackson generally left the green circular room and the yellow bedroom free for ladies’ use. Jackson welcomed his closest advisors, including Francis Blair, Thomas Benton, Martin Van Buren, and Major Lewis, into the sitting room (today the Living Room) for late-night conversations. Reclined in comfortable armchairs around the fire, the men discussed Indian Removal, the fight against the Second Bank of the United States, and Jackson’s reelection campaign. 3

Jackson greeted callers and office seekers in the audience room (today the Treaty Room). This room had a plush carpet, perhaps a dozen side chairs, a few armchairs, floor-to-ceiling curtains, and a decorative fire screen. This space was designed to hold several people waiting to speak with the president but did not provide the familiarity of a parlor or sitting room.

A floorplan of the second floor of the Executive Mansion during Jackson’s presidency.

Created by Dr. Lindsay M. Chervinsky, 2020.

Jackson also visited Donelson or Earl’s offices whenever he needed to consult with his aides or conduct a more private meeting. For example, in June 1832, Jackson worked with Donelson, Secretary of the Navy Levi Woodbury, Postmaster General Amos Kendall, and Attorney General Roger Taney to draft a veto message concerning the legislation that would recharter the Second Bank of the United States. While his secretaries and aides toiled for three days in Earl’s office crafting the text of the message, Jackson wandering back and forth across the hall, occasionally stopping in to check on their progress. 4

Finally, Jackson hosted secretaries and official cabinet meetings in his office. Relatively little evidence remains that describes the furniture or décor used in this space. The 1825 inventory taken after Monroe left office lists a large pine clothes-press, four door screens, and a sheet iron hearth cover. 5 Receipts suggest that Jackson purchased silk curtains and gilded-eagle cornices for the windows, and an iron stove stood in the corner to heat the room. There were likely bookcases and cabinets, a long table for members of the cabinet, and maps. An expensive rubber-faced oilcloth covered the floor and wallpaper on the walls. 6 When Martin Van Buren took office in 1837, he ordered all carpets pulled up and replaced, and new upholstery for much of the furniture. The 1840 inventory suggests that the “President’s Parlor” had sixteen chairs and a carpet. 7 Perhaps the existing furniture in the president’s office had been worn from use.

The January 1, 1849 inventory included “2 sets window curtains and fixtures, 2 presses with drawers, 1 set mahogany bookshelves, 1 office table, walnut, 1 old sideboard, 1 center table, pine, 1 carpet and rug, 1 sofa, 12 chairs, mahogany, 2 arm chairs, 1 mantle glass, 1 clock with glass cover, 1 large map with mahogany rack.” 8 While the exact items were updated between Jackson and James K. Polk’s tenure, the 1849 inventory provides a good impression of the room and its purpose.

This lithograph by A. Ducôte is from a drawing by French illustrator Auguste Hervieu of President Andrew Jackson on horseback from 1829. President Jackson bred horses at his home near Nashville, Tennessee, The Hermitage, and kept a racing stable at the White House. Jackson had horses named Bolivia, Lady Nashville, Emilie, and Busiris.

What do these spaces reveal about Jackson’s presidential leadership and style of governing? Jackson was a demanding, divisive personality. He insisted on complete obedience from his subordinates and took disagreement personally. While slow to trust newcomers, once he accepted someone into his inner circle, he was intensely loyal, even standing by friends and family members when it was politically unwise. 9

Jackson's cabinet experience reflected these expectations for his trusted confidants. He had three distinct cabinet phases. The first cabinet came into office after his inauguration and met in Jackson’s office. Gatherings in the official meeting place reflected the institutional role of this advisory body. While all the secretaries were ardent Jackson supporters, the cabinet fractured over Secretary of War John Eaton’s wife, Margaret. Rumors quickly swirled around Washington that “Peggy” and John had engaged in an affair while she was still married to her former husband, John Timberlake, resulting in an unexpected pregnancy. 10 After Timberlake committed suicide in North Africa, Margaret and John quickly married before the customary mourning period had passed. Margaret’s personality did not help her reputation. She was notoriously outspoken, flirtatious, and defied nineteenth-century gender expectations. As a result, the elite women of Washington, including the wives of the other secretaries, refused to socialize with Margaret and ignored her at official state events. 11

Jackson was outraged at the treatment—John Eaton was one of his closest friends, confidants, and former campaign manager, and Jackson warmed to Margaret’s attention. Furthermore, the attacks on Margaret reminded him of the insults levied against his late wife, Rachel. Rachel died shortly after the election and Jackson blamed John Quincy Adams and his supporters for her early death. He would not allow political opponents to slander another women in his official family. Jackson demanded that the secretaries recognize Margaret and forced their wives to welcome her into the political circle. On September 10, 1829, Jackson convened a cabinet meeting in his office and insisted that Margaret was “as chaste as a virgin!” 12 When the secretaries refused to agree, the cabinet could not fulfill is dual responsibilities as the president’s advisors and his official family at social events, and thus was irreparably broken. 13

While the cabinet fractured over Margaret Eaton’s reputation and her reception in social circles, Jackson increasingly turned to a group of advisors known as the “Kitchen Cabinet.” The Kitchen Cabinet included current cabinet secretaries, like Van Buren and Eaton, future secretaries, like Taney and Kendall, and then a mix of friends and Democratic Party associates. For example, Francis Preston Blair was editor of the Washington Globe newspaper, which served as Jackson and the Democratic Party’s official mouthpiece. He worked closely with Jackson to craft the announcements that lauded the president’s behavior and attacked his opponents. 14 Dependent on Jackson for political connections and prestige, advisors like Kendall and Blair were deeply devoted to the president and his agenda.

Jackson’s interactions with this group reflected its lack of official position or institutional origin—the Kitchen Cabinet did not replace the actual cabinet in the executive branch. As a widower, Jackson sought out warm, familial environments and frequently visited the Blair House right across Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House, spending the evening in their parlor or holed up in Blair’s office talking political strategy. Blair was also a regular presence at the White House, quietly walking up the back set of stairs and visiting with Jackson in his office or spending the evening in the president’s sitting room. 15

An avid horseman, Jackson also conducted business on horseback. He often held his most important conversations with Van Buren on their frequent rides around the city. 16 On one of these rides, Van Buren proposed a solution to Jackson’s official cabinet problem. Eaton would resign from the cabinet and run for a Tennessee Senate seat, removing the source of agitation in the cabinet. Van Buren would also resign to give Jackson cover to dismiss the rest of the cabinet. In return, Jackson would nominate Van Buren to serve as United States Minister to Great Britain. 17 After initially protesting, Jackson agreed to this plan and Van Buren and Eaton resigned on April 19, 1831. The next day, Jackson forced Ingram, Berrien, and Branch to resign as well.

After Jackson purged his cabinet, he entered the third phase eased by the Eatons’ departure from Washington, D.C. But the president remained stubbornly assured that he was right about Margaret Eaton. Former Secretary of the Treasury Samuel Ingham confessed in a letter to former Attorney General John Berrien that Jackson’s plan was “to have no body about the Govt & neither in his favor who is not decidedly for V.B. & Mrs E.” 18

While the secretaries acquiesced to Jackson’s demands that they recognize Margaret Eaton, they proved more intransigent on other political issues. Jackson cycled through a series of appointees trying to find secretaries that would help him defeat the Second Bank of the United States and implement Indian removal without complaint. As a result, Jackson continued to rely on both his official cabinet and advisors outside the administration, depending on the issue at hand. On Tuesdays, Jackson gathered his secretaries in his office for official meetings, although on rare occasions, when he was ill, the secretaries assembled in his bedchambers. 19

When Jackson needed assistance the secretaries could not provide or they disagreed with him, he turned to advisors in the Kitchen Cabinet who might be more helpful. He sought their advice at their homes, through written correspondence, and in a number of more private spaces in the White House. Reflecting on the overlapping roles of the official and the Kitchen Cabinet, historian Richard Latner observed that Jackson created a prototype of the modern White House by crafting a “White House staff” that worked alongside, and often competed with, the cabinet officials. 20

Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837, seeking to act as the direct representative of the common man.

More nearly than any of his predecessors, Andrew Jackson was elected by popular vote as President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man.

Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received sporadic education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honor, he engaged in brawls, and in a duel killed a man who cast an unjustified slur on his wife Rachel.

Jackson prospered sufficiently to buy slaves and to build a mansion, the Hermitage, near Nashville. He was the first man elected from Tennessee to the House of Representatives, and he served briefly in the Senate. A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans.

In 1824 some state political factions rallied around Jackson by 1828 enough had joined “Old Hickory” to win numerous state elections and control of the Federal administration in Washington.

In his first Annual Message to Congress, Jackson recommended eliminating the Electoral College. He also tried to democratize Federal officeholding. Already state machines were being built on patronage, and a New York Senator openly proclaimed “that to the victors belong the spoils. . . . ”

Jackson took a milder view. Decrying officeholders who seemed to enjoy life tenure, he believed Government duties could be “so plain and simple” that offices should rotate among deserving applicants.

As national politics polarized around Jackson and his opposition, two parties grew out of the old Republican Party–the Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, adhering to Jackson and the National Republicans, or Whigs, opposing him.

Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whig leaders proclaimed themselves defenders of popular liberties against the usurpation of Jackson. Hostile cartoonists portrayed him as King Andrew I.

Behind their accusations lay the fact that Jackson, unlike previous Presidents, did not defer to Congress in policy-making but used his power of the veto and his party leadership to assume command.

The greatest party battle centered around the Second Bank of the United States, a private corporation but virtually a Government-sponsored monopoly. When Jackson appeared hostile toward it, the Bank threw its power against him.

Clay and Webster, who had acted as attorneys for the Bank, led the fight for its recharter in Congress. “The bank,” Jackson told Martin Van Buren, “is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!” Jackson, in vetoing the recharter bill, charged the Bank with undue economic privilege.

His views won approval from the American electorate in 1832 he polled more than 56 percent of the popular vote and almost five times as many electoral votes as Clay.

Jackson met head-on the challenge of John C. Calhoun, leader of forces trying to rid themselves of a high protective tariff.

When South Carolina undertook to nullify the tariff, Jackson ordered armed forces to Charleston and privately threatened to hang Calhoun. Violence seemed imminent until Clay negotiated a compromise: tariffs were lowered and South Carolina dropped nullification.

In January of 1832, while the President was dining with friends at the White House, someone whispered to him that the Senate had rejected the nomination of Martin Van Buren as Minister to England. Jackson jumped to his feet and exclaimed, “By the Eternal! I’ll smash them!” So he did. His favorite, Van Buren, became Vice President, and succeeded to the Presidency when “Old Hickory” retired to the Hermitage, where he died in June 1845.

First Term

March 4, 1829: Andrew Jackson is inaugurated as President of the United States. During his inauguration he speaks about restraining the federal government, promoting states rights, fair treatment of Native Americans and reform of civil service.

January 17-27, 1830: The Webster-Hayne debates transfix the Senate as they debate the U.S. Constitution and States&rsquo Rights.

April 8, 1830: The government of Mexico bans slavery and further settlement in its northern territory of Texas. The enrages the settlers who had began to colonize the area after Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821.

April 13, 1830: President Jackson was invited to a dinner to honor Thomas Jefferson by Senators Benton and Hayne. The dinner was really to see where Andrew Jackson stood on nullification. During the dinner the senators raise their glass toasting to South Carolina&rsquos stance on nullification. Andrew Jackson then looks at his Vice President John C. Calhoun and sayd, &ldquoOur Union Must Be Preserved.&rdquo

May 28, 1830: Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act that sends 5 civilized Indian tribes west of the Mississippi River. This results in tens of thousands of Indians dying due to hunger, exposure, and disease.

May 30, 1830: Andrew Jackson learns that his Vice President John C. Calhoun was in favor of punishing him during the Seminole War. Jackson writes Calhoun a letter saying &ldquoUnderstanding you now, no further communication with you on this subject is necessary.&rdquo It is the beginning of the end of their relationship.

May 31, 1830: Jackson signs a bill for funding new construction on the Cumberland Road.

December 8, 1830: Jackson vetoes a federal funding bill of a 60-mile road in Kentucky.

February 15, 1831: John Calhoun orders a pamphlet containing correspondence about Jackson during the Seminole War be published. This further divides the two men.

April 7, 1831: Secretary of War John Eaton resigns and Jackson appoints him as Governor of Florida which ends the Eaton Affair.

April 11, 1831: Jackson begins to reorganize his cabinet by placing anti-Calhoun men in vacant positions.

September 26, 1831: The Anti-Masonic Party becomes the first political party to hold a presidential nominating convention. It also becomes the first third party to field a presidential candidate.

December 12, 1831: The National Republican Party nominates Henry Clay as their candidate.

March 3, 1832: The Supreme Court rules in Worcester v. Georgia in favor of Cherokees not being removed. Georgia ignores the courts order with Jackson permission. Cherokee were then removed.

April 6 &ndash August 2, 1832: Trying to reclaim lands that had been lost in the War of 1812 the Sac and Fox tribe led by their leader Black Hawk begin guerilla attacks that become known as Black Hawk War. Black Hawk is capture and presented to Jackson. Jackson then sends him back to the West.

May 21-22, 1832: The Democratic Party holds a convention and officially nominated Andrew Jackson for President.

July 10, 1832: Jackson vetoes the charter for the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson did it despite Congress approving and the bank keeping inflation down. He received much pushback for this decision.

July 14, 1832: Congress passes the Tariff of 1832 which enrages the nullifiers in South Carolina.

August 28, 1832: John C. Calhoun writes a letter to South Carolina&rsquos Governor in which he reaffirms the Doctrine of Nullifications as an essential state route.

October 22, 1832: Governor James Hamilton calls a state convention to discuss the issue of nullification.

October 29, 1832: President Jackson places U.S. forts on high alert and places General Winfield Scott in charge of the army in South Carolina.

November 19-27, 1832: South Carolina adopts the Ordinance of Nullification that overturns tariffs of 1828 and 1832. The ordinance also rules that all state office holders swear allegiance to South Carolina and prohibits any appeals involving the ordinance from being made to the federal court.

December 4, 1832: Jackson again recommends that Congress lower the tarriff rates at his Annual Message to Congress.

December 5, 1832: Jackson easily wins reelection.

December 10, 1832: Andrew Jackson issues the Proclamation To The People Of South Carolina stating that Disunion is treason.

December 20, 1832: John C. Calhoun is elected to the Senate and resigns as Vice President.

January 16, 1833: Jackson asks Congress to grant him authority to use military force in South Carolina if necessary.

January 21, 1833: South Carolina suspends the Ordinance of Nullifications.

February 20, 1833: Congress passes the Force Bill authorizing the use of military power to enforce federal law. Jackson vows to try Calhoun for treason.

March 1, 1833: Congress passes the Compromise Tariff Bill that reduces all tariffs for 10 years.

President Andrew Jackson - HISTORY

Andrew Jackson, known as "Old Hickory" to some folks, was the seventh President of the United States. While he was in the executive office, he oversaw the removal of the Native American tribes to the west of the Mississippi River. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 led to what the Cherokee call "The Trail of Tears. Also he is the President who vetoed the rechartering of the 2nd National Bank that lead to the creation of the Whig Party. Below you will find resources and information about the life and work of Andrew Jackson.

Time in Office:

March 4, 1829 to March 3, 1837

Events while in Office:

Estate of James Smithson funded the establishment of the Smithsonian.

About 2,000 of Jackson's supporters given government jobs. Jackson also set up a "kitchen cabinet" of informal advisers.

Samuel F. Smith wrote "My Country, 'tis of Thee."

Jackson vetoed the rechartering of 2nd National Bank leading to the creation of the Whig Party.

South Carolina attempted to nullify federal tariff laws. Federal troops sent to South Carolina on December 10.

U.S. became debt free (briefly) for the only time in history.

6000 Mexicans defeated 190 Americans in 12 days at the Alamo on March 6.

The Specie Circular ordered that gold and silver were the only currency acceptable for the purchase of federal lands, issued on July 11.

Jackson signs Treaty of New Echota with unrecognized leaders of Cherokee Nation, which allows him to force the Cherokees to move to land in what is now Oklahoma. 4,000 Native Americans die on this journey, also known as the Trail of Tears.

Watch the video: The President Meets Andrew Jackson - The President Show. Comedy Central


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