Nereus II AC-10 - History

Nereus II AC-10 - History

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Nereus II
(AC-10: dp. 19,081 (f.); 1. 522'; b. 62'; dph. 36'9"; dr. 27'8"; s. 14 k.; ePI. 181; a. 4 4";cl. Proteus)

The second Nereus was laid down 4 December 1911 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va.; launched 26 April 1913, sponsored by Miss Anne 8eymour Jones, daughter of U.S. Representative W. A. Jones of Virginia; and commissioned 10 September 1913.

The new collier was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet and carried coal from east coast ports to U.S. naval bases in the Caribbean. After the United States entered World War II, Nereus was assigned to NOTS at its establishment 9 January 1918. Through the war she supplied American ships and bases with fuel to keep a steady flow of men, equipment and supplies flowing from the east coast to the front in France.

Detached from NOTS 12 September 1919, Nereus served with the Atlantic Fleet until decommissioned at Norfolk 30 June 1922. She was laid up there until struck from the Navy List 5 December 1940. Sold to the Aluminium Co., of Canada, 27 February 1941, Nereus operated out of Montreal carrying bauxite from the Caribbean to aluminum plants in the United States and Canada. On 10 December 1941 while steaming from St. Thomas, Virgin Islands with ore destined to be transformed into Allied fighting planes, Nereus sank, presumably after being torpedoed by a German U-boat.

USS Nereus (AC-10)

USS Nereus was one of four Proteus -class colliers built for the United States Navy before World War I. Named for Nereus, an aquatic deity from Greek mythology, she was the second U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. Nereus was laid down on 4 December 1911, and launched on 26 April 1913 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Newport News, Virginia, and commissioned on 10 September 1913.

1. Service history
Detached from Naval Overseas Transportation Service on 12 September 1919, Nereus served with the Atlantic Fleet until decommissioned at Norfolk on 30 June 1922. She was laid up there until struck from the Navy List on 5 December 1940. Sold to the Aluminium Company of Canada on 27 February 1941, Nereus operated out of Montreal carrying bauxite from the Caribbean to aluminum plants in the United States and Canada. Her master commanding officer was John Thomas Bennett of the Canadian Merchant Navy.

So, Where is the Bermuda Triangle?

The Bermuda Triangle, which is also called The Devil’s Triangle, is an area in the North Atlantic Ocean near the coast of North America just north of the Caribbean. It is not unanimous what its exact borders are however, most sources state that the three points of the triangle (the vertex?) touch Bermuda, Miami, and Puerto Rico. The proximity to Bermuda and its triangular shape give it the infamous name.

Fun Fact: The U.S. Board on Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle as an official name.

So, why exactly do so many people talk about it?

Detached from Naval Overseas Transportation Service on 12 September 1919, Nereus served with the Atlantic Fleet until decommissioned at Norfolk on 30 June 1922. She was laid up there until struck from the Navy List on 5 December 1940. Sold to the Aluminium Company of Canada on 27 February 1941, Nereus operated out of Montreal carrying bauxite from the Caribbean to aluminum plants in the United States and Canada. Her master (commanding officer) was John Thomas Bennett of the Canadian Merchant Navy.

Nereus was lost at sea sometime after 10 December 1941 while steaming from St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands (along the same route where her sister ship, Cyclops, had disappeared) with ore destined to make aluminum for Allied aircraft. Nereus was presumed sunk after being torpedoed by a German U-boat. However, there are no German U-boat claims for this vessel. [1]

The wreckage has never been located nor the actual cause of her disappearance determined. [2] A memorial listing for her crew can be found on the CWGC Halifax memorial. [3]

The initial presumption of the cause of her loss was that she was sunk by a German U-boat. No direct evidence, however, has been found to support this theory. The website] lists neither the Nereus nor the Proteus among the ships known to have been sunk by U-boats.

A Canadian website suggests Nereus ' s possible fate. [4] The website states that Rear Admiral George van Deurs, USN researched the losses of the Nereus and her sister ship Proteus and came to the conclusion that the colliers broke up in heavy seas following a storm. A contributing factor may have been that, as observed in other colliers of this type, the acidic coal they had carried had seriously eroded the ships' longitudinal support beams, thereby, making them extremely vulnerable to breakage under stress.

Another theory is that the vessel's disappearance can be attributed to the Bermuda Triangle. [5]

Sulphur Queen

The SS Marine Sulphur Queen, a converted T2 tanker ship carrying molten sulfur (sulphur is the British spelling of sulfur) and 39 crew members, disappeared near the southern coast of Florida. It was last heard from on Feb. 4, 1963, when it sent a routine radio message. When it failed to make further communication, search crews were dispatched to locate it. After more than two weeks of looking, the rescue team only found a few shards of debris and life preservers, shown above. It's a bit unsettling that the Sulphur Queen vanished into "the Devil's Triangle," since folklore says that the king of the underworld reeks of sulfur — and what's that creepy shadow in the photo's background, anyway?

The First U.S. Naval Electric Propulsion Plant

This post provides a basic description of the turboelectric propulsion plant aboard the collier USS Jupiter (AC 3) in its original configuration. Much of this information was obtained from the textbook Practical Marine Engineering (1917) by Captain C.W. Dyson, USN. Additional information was obtained from an article in the 1941 SNAME transactions, titled “Alternating Current in the U.S. Navy,” which was written by LCDR H.G. Rickover, USN. Copies of the ship’s general plans for USS Jupiter in its original configuration as a collier are available on line at

Jupiter entered service in 1913 as one of a four ship class of colliers. It was, however, the only one of the four with an electric drive installation. The other three ships of the class were all lost at sea. USS Cyclops (AC 4) was lost in 1918 without a trace. USS Proteus (AC 9) and USS Nereus (AC 10) were lost in late 1941. Both were apparently sunk by German U-Boats. At the time, they had been sold to a Canadian company for use in carrying bauxite. Jupiter was later converted into the first US naval aircraft carrier USS Langley (CV 1) in 1920.

Off the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, 16 October 1913. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph. (NH 52365)

  • Length – 542’
  • Beam – 65’
  • Draft -27’8”
  • Displacement 19,360 Tons
  • Complement – 163 personnel

The plant was twin screw with a rating of approximately 6500 SHP. The ship had a sustained speed of approximately 15.5 knots. It represented the first significant application of AC power aboard a US naval vessel. It was essentially an experimental installation. Prior to 1932, all US Naval vessels utilized direct current (DC) in ship service distribution systems and most of the ship’s auxiliary and deck machinery was steam driven. Ship service power aboard Jupiter was supplied from three 35 kW turbine driven DC generators.

The steam turbine was invented in Great Britain by Charles Parsons in 1884. The first marine installation was aboard the SS Turbinia, launched in 1894. By the early 1900s, turbines could be found aboard several large passenger vessels. Several very significant technical obstacles had to be overcome in order to make steam turbines viable for marine applications. The first and most significant was that turbines operate most efficiently at high RPM, while propellers must operate at much lower speeds in order to avoid cavitation. A compromise between efficient turbine and propeller speeds was required. The approach at the time was to add stages to the turbine in order to make it operate more slowly so it could be connected directly to the propeller shaft which then had to be operated at higher than desirable speeds with a subsequent loss in propeller efficiency. Additionally, the turbine rotor diameters had to be quite large, as much as 12 feet in diameter aboard transatlantic liners in order to develop the torque necessary to turn the propeller shafts. By 1910, the navy had begun to experiment with electric and reduction gear drive in order to overcome these issues. However, reduction gear drives in naval vessels did not come to general use until after 1915. Jupiter’s sister ships, USS Cyclops and USS Proteus, were fitted with reciprocating steam engines, while USS Nereus had geared steam turbine drive.

Jupiter’s basic propulsion system consisted of a single 5000 kW AC main turbo-generator driven by a Curtis turbine, two AC induction motors, two water cooled rheostats, and one main switchboard. Excitation for the main generator was obtained from one of the ship’s 35 kW DC ship service turbo-generators. Available information indicates that the total weight of Jupiter’s propulsion plant was 166.5 tons. By comparison, the plant aboard her sister ship USS Cyclops (AC 4) which was propelled by twin reciprocating steam engines, weighed 260.8 tons. The arrangement of the machinery in the engine room is shown in the following diagram:

This drawing shows the machinery arrangement on the lower level of Jupiter’s engine room. The port and starboard main propulsion motors and shaft lines can be clearly seen. The motors were located in water tight pits. The main turbo generator set was located on the centerline with the generator located forward of the turbine and the turbine located forward of the main condenser. The three 35 kW DC ship service turbo generators are shown on the starboard side. The two water cooled rheostats were located near the forward bulkhead of the space. The main switchboard and propulsion controls were on the upper level above the rheostats. The propulsion control functions were all performed separately by manually operated switches and levers.

The generator and motors essentially functioned as an electric reduction gear for the main steam turbine. The generator was fitted with two poles, while each motor had 36 poles. This provided a speed reduction of approximately eighteen to one, although the slip of the induction motors resulted in a decrease in RPM of approximately 10% below synchronous speed. As an example, with a turbine speed of 1800 RPM, the actual motor output speed would have been approximately 100 x 90% = 90RPM. After the motors had been started, all changes in motor speed were accomplished by changes in turbine speed, which resulted in a change in generator output frequency. Because both motors were connected to the same generator, the motors could not be varied independently in speed. However, it was possible to operate on a single propulsion motor with significant losses due to wind milling from the idle propeller.

The propulsion motors were of the wound rotor induction type. The motor rotors were fitted with three phase windings which were fitted with external leads via collector rings to the water cooled rheostats. The rheostats were used in order to provide increased torque during starting, reversing and maneuvering operations. The original intent of development of an AC motor of this type was to permit independent control of motor speed and to provide high starting torque without the necessity to vary input frequency. For many years, it found applications on deck machinery aboard ships with AC distribution systems. The only application of a wound motor induction motor that I ever encountered was when I served aboard a minesweeper where it was utilized on the deck winch that was used for streaming and recovering minesweeping gear. The need for propulsion motors of this type has since gone away due to the advent of solid state control devices. Most AC propulsion plants aboard ships built since 1940 have utilized synchronous type AC propulsion motors. DDG 1000, which is under construction, is propelled by four advanced induction motors (AIM), two per shaft. Modern electric drive ships make use of integrated power plants with multiple AC generators supplying both propulsion and ship service power from the same bus. Note that integrated power plants were not practical for many years because of the need to vary generator speed and output frequency in order to control propulsion motor speed.

The Jupiter propulsion plant had two basic operating modes.

  1. Maneuvering – In this mode, the rheostats were kept into the rotor circuits on both motors in order to provide increased torque during starting and reversing operations. Continuous operation in this mode was uneconomical because of losses associated with the rheostats.
  2. Cruising – Once the ship had settled down to economical cruising, the operator could cut the rheostats out of the circuit by means of a short circuiting device. All speed changes were then accomplished by varying the main turbo generator speed and output frequency by means of the main turbine governor. As previously mentioned, both motors had to be operated at the same speed, although operation was possible on a single motor with the other motor disabled.

In its original configuration Jupiter was fitted with two double ended coal fired Scotch fire tube boilers that supplied saturated steam at 190 psi. The following illustration shows one of Jupiter’s original boilers being lifted on board during construction:

One of Jupiter’s boilers being lifted aboard for installation while fitting out at Navy Yard Mare Island, circa 1912-13. Navy Yard Mare Island photo (NavSource)

Jupiter was converted into the first U.S. aircraft carrier at the Norfolk, VA, Navy Yard for the purpose of conducting experiments in seaborne aviation. The conversion was authorized by Congress in 1919. The ship was decommissioned in March, 1920 and her name was changed to USS Langley (CV 1). The ship was recommissioned as USS Langley (CV 1) in March, 1922. It is assumed that the ship was converted to burn oil during the conversion but this is not specifically stated in any available records. In addition, records indicate that Langley was refitted with three Bureau Type express boilers. Although no specific description of this installation can be found a memorandum written by Langley’s executive officer on 1 February 1923 describing the normal ship’s routine specifically states that all aviation operations will be accomplished with 3 boilers on the line. A change over to water tube boilers would have probably been desirable because the original Scotch fire tube boilers were very sluggish in response to the frequent changes in steam demand that the ship would experience in its’ aircraft carrier role.

Under reconstruction from the collier JUPITER at Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Virginia, circa late 1921. (NHHC Photo # NH 93538)

  • Reduction in displacement from 19,360 to 11,500 tons
  • Full load draft reduced from 27’8” to 18’11’
  • Complement increased from 163 to 468 personnel

A major problem associated with the conversion was smoke dispersal. Jupiter was originally fitted with a single funnel however this was later changed to two funnels. The funnels were located to port and starboard. Obviously this configuration was unsuitable for carrier operations. Therefore, Langley was refitted with a short folding funnel to port and a smoke opening below the flight deck level to starboard. In theory either could be used, depending upon the wind. The starboard opening was fitted with water sprays for cooling. Problems were experienced with this installation and the ship was eventually retrofitted with a pair of hinged funnels on the port side.

Due to the success of the Jupiter installation, AC propulsion systems were subsequently utilized in six battleships that entered service between 1918 and 1923, plus USS Lexington (CV 2) and USS Saratoga (CV 3), both of which entered service in 1927 with four screw plants rated at 180,000 SHP. All subsequent steam turbine installations aboard US naval vessels built after 1927 utilized gear drive, an exception being the 124 destroyer escorts of the Buckley (DE 102) and Rudderow (DE 224) classes that were built during World War II. These plants followed the same general lines as those aboard the 481 MARAD T-2 commercial tankers which entered service during the war. The reason for the use of electric drive aboard these ships was limitations in available gear manufacturing capacity and priority had to be given to destroyers and large combatants which had much higher power requirements. In recent years, electric drive has experienced a rebirth with integrated plants aboard cruise liners, some naval auxiliaries, and the upcoming USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) which just completed acceptance trials. When compared to gear drive electric drive has some disadvantages, including greater cost and complexity, increased space requirements and lower transmission efficiency. However, it is very suitable for ships with large auxiliary loads that spend extended periods at low cruising speeds. The use of integrated electric drive has become virtually universal in the cruise liner industry.

By the mid 1930s, a number of large aircraft carriers had joined the fleet and due to her small size and slow speed Langley was no longer needed as a carrier. In 1937, the ship was converted into a seaplane tender (AV-3). The ship was sunk by Japanese aircraft off the coast of Java in 1942.

In summary, Langley played a very important part in the development of naval aviation and its propulsion plant served as a model for future development.

George W. Stewart is a retired US Navy Captain. He is a 1956 graduate of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy. During his 30 year naval career, he held two ship commands and served a total of 8 years on naval material inspection boards, during which he conducted trials and inspections aboard over 200 naval vessels. Since his retirement from active naval service in 1986 he has been employed in the ship design industry where he has specialized in the development of concept designs of propulsion and powering systems, some of which have entered active service. He currently holds the title of Chief Marine Engineer at Marine Design Dynamics.

The A-10 Thunderbolt II, affectionately nicknamed “The Warthog,” was developed for the United States Air Force by the OEM Team from Fairchild Republic Company, now a part of Northrop Grumman Corporation Aeronautics Systems Eastern Region located in Bethpage NY and St. Augustine FL. Following in the footsteps of the legendary P-47 Thunderbolt, the OEM Team was awarded a study contract in the 1960s to define requirements for a new Close Air Support aircraft, rugged and survivable, to protect combat troops on the ground. This initial study was followed up by a prototype development contract for the A-X, and a final flyoff competition resulting in the selection of the A-10 Thunderbolt II.

Selection of the A-10 Thunderbolt II for this mission was based on the dramatic low altitude maneuverability, lethality, “get home safe” survivability, and mission capable maintainability designed into the jet by the OEM team. This design features a titanium “bathtub” that protects the pilot from injury, and dually redundant flight control systems that allow the pilot to fly the aircraft out of enemy range, despite severe damage such as complete loss of hydraulic capability. These features have been utilized to great effect in both the Desert Storm conflict of the 1990’s and in the more recent Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and Global War on Terror engagements.

In 1987, the A-10 OEM Team ® and all A-10 assets were acquired by Grumman Corporation from Fairchild Republic Company, and are now part of the Northrop Grumman Aeronautics Systems, presently partnered with Lockheed Martin Systems Integration as a member of the A-10 Prime Team.

The OEM Team has maintained continuous involvement in the modernization of the jet, integrating the Inertial Navigation System in the 1970s, developing and installing the Low Altitude Safety and Targeting Enhancement ground collision avoidance system in the 1980s, and the Night Vision Imaging System in the 1990s, and has demonstrated particular leadership in the planning and analysis required for managing the structural integrity of the airframe through the various changes in flight maneuver spectra, mission, and force structure.

The A-10 Aircraft Structural Integrity Program began with the initial A-10 OEM development contract, with the definition of materials and processes, design analyses, component and full scale testing, and data collection and analysis on an aircraft by aircraft basis, to validate analyses and accurately predict fatigue damage for the optimization of inspection intervals and maximization of aircraft availability. The A-10 OEM Team continues to be a key member of the A-10 ASIP Team, providing loads and structures analysis, performing full scale and component testing, developing structural reinforcements and non-destructive inspection techniques to prevent structural failure, analyzing manufacturing methods for aircraft improvements and providing overall weapons system expertise for the support of the warfighter.

A-10 Thunderbolt II Specifications

Primary Function: A-10 — close air support, OA-10 – airborne forward air control

Contractor: Fairchild Republic Co. (FRC acquired in 1987, now part of Northrop Grumman ISER)

Power Plant: Two General Electric TF34-GE-1 00 turbofans

Thrust: 9,065 pounds each engine

Wingspan: 57 feet, 6 inches (17.42 meters)

Length: 53 feet, 4 inches (16.16 meters)

Height: 14 feet, 8 inches (4.42 meters)

Weight: 29,000 pounds (13,154 kilograms)

Maximum Takeoff Weight: 51,000 pounds (22,950 kilograms)

Fuel Capacity: 11,000 pounds (7,257 kilograms)

Payload: 16,000 pounds (7,257 kilograms)

Speed: 420 miles per hour (Mach 0.56)

Range: 800 miles (695 nautical miles)

Ceiling: 45,000 feet (13,636 meters)

Armament: One 30 mm GAU-8/A seven-barrel Gatling gun up to 16,000 pounds (7,200 kilograms) of mixed ordnance on eight under-wing and three under-fuselage pylon stations, including 500 pound (225 kilograms) Mk-82 and 2,000 pounds (900 kilograms) Mk-84 series low/high drag bombs, incendiary cluster bombs, combined effects munitions, mine dispensing munitions, AGM-65 Maverick missiles and laser-guided/electro-optically guided bombs infrared countermeasure flares electronic countermeasure chaff jammer pods 2.75-inch (6.99 centimeters) rockets illumination flares and AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles.

Initial Operating Capability: A-10A, 1977 A-10C, 2007

Inventory: Active force, A-10, 143 and OA-10, 70 Reserve, A-10, 46 and OA-10, 6 ANG, A-10, 84 and OA-10, 18

How to Identify the Manufacture Date of an Aria Guitar?

To identify the manufacture date of an Aria guitar, first locate the serial number, which is likely located on the back of the neck on an electric or in the body of an acoustic guitar. If a serial number is not present, the guitar was likely manufactured prior to the mid-1970s.

Once located, the serial number offers clues as to when the guitar was manufactured, and the first few digits are especially important, as the numbers changed over a few decades.

  • Aria guitars manufactured in the 1970s typically feature a serial number with the first two digits of the manufacture year. For example, a serial number that begins in 77 was likely manufactured in 1977.
  • Aria guitars manufactured in the 1980s typically only used the first digit of the serial number to denote the date. For example, a serial number that begins with a 1 was likely manufactured in 1981.
  • Aria guitars manufactured after 1987 became quite specific, with serial numbers identifying the manufacture date with the first two digits and the week of the year with the third and fourth digits. A serial number beginning with 8910 likely means the 10th week of 1989.

Locating and dissecting the serial number is a great first step in identifying the manufacture date of an Aria guitar. While not always exact, the serial number is a useful tool.

VII. Canadian Pacific Ships Lost or Damaged in Action

Two Canadian Pacific losses, Princess Marguerite and Empress of Asia, were Canadian-registry and are included in that list as well. The remaining vessels listed below were registered in Great Britain. Niagara was only part-owned by Canadian Pacific. Montrose was converted into an auxiliary cruiser by the Royal Navy and lost as the warship HMS Forfar, and is included here only for convenience. In total, Canadian Pacific lost eleven ships in action twelve including Montrose.
Date Ship GRT Cause of Loss or Damage Position Area Casualties and Notes
5 Feb 1940 Beaverburn 9,874 Lost. Torpedoed by U-41 while in convoy OA 84. 49-20N 10-07W North Atlantic
18 June 1940 Niagara 13,415 Lost. Struck mine and sank. 35-53S 174-53E Off New Zealand
28 Oct 1940 Empress of Britain 42,348 Lost. Torpedoed by U-32 after being bombed by German aircraft. 55-16N 09-50W Off Ireland
5 Nov 1940 Beaverford 10,042 Lost. Sunk by German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer from convoy HX 84. 52-26N 32-34W North Atlantic
9 Nov 1940 Empress of Japan 26,032 Damaged. Bombed by German aircraft. 53-54N 14-28W North Atlantic
2 Dec 1940 Montrose 16,402 Lost. Torpedoed by U-99 after detaching from convoy HX 90 to go to convoy OB 251. 54-35N 18-18W North Atlantic Montrose had been converted into an Armed Merchant Cruiser and was serving in the Royal Navy as HMS Forfar when lost.
25 Mar 1941 Beaverbrae 9,956 Lost. Bombed by German aircraft. 60-12N 09-00W North Atlantic
1 April 1941 Beaverdale 9,957 Lost. Torpedoed and shelled by U-48. 60-50N 29-19W North Atlantic Twenty-one persons were killed.
5 Feb 1942 Empress of Asia 16,909 Lost. Bombed by Japanese aircraft. Not known Off Singapore Seven persons were killed and 153 taken prisoner of 2,200 on board.
17 Aug 1942 Princess Marguerite 5,875 Lost. Torpedoed by U-83. 32-03N 32-47E Mediterranean Sea Forty-nine persons were killed out of over 1,000 on board. HMS Hero rescued the survivors.
10 Oct 1942 Duchess of Atholl 20,119 Lost. Torpedoed by U-178. 07-03S 11-12W South Atlantic
13 Mar 1943 Empress of Canada 21,517 Lost. Torpedoed by Italian submarine Da Vinci. 01-13S 09-57W Central Atlantic US Navy records state that there were 1,477 survivors of 1,892 persons on board. British sources state that 392 persons died. HMS Corinthian rescued the survivors.
14 Mar 1943 Duchess of York 20,021 Damaged. Bombed by German aircraft. Not known Off Cape Finisterre
11 July 1943 Duchess of York 20,021 Lost. Bombed by German aircraft while in convoy OS 51. 41-18N 15-24W North Atlantic There were 819 survivors out of 908 persons on board. HMCS Iroquois picked up 628 of the survivors.

Instruction Manuals & Product History

Select a firearm below to view its Instruction Manual, Serial Number and Caliber History.

10/22 Magnum (manufactured from 1998 to 2006) (Out of Production)
44 Carbine (manufactured from 1961 to 1974) (Out of Production)
44 Carbine (manufactured from 1975 to 1985) (Out of Production)
77/22 & 77/17
77/22 Hornet
77/50 (manufactured from 1997 to 2004) (Out of Production)
AR-556 with Fixed Magazine
AR-Lower Elite
Deerfield (manufactured from 2000 to 2006) (Out of Production)
Guide Gun
M77 (manufactured from 1968 to 1984) (Out of Production)
M77 (manufactured from 1985 to 1992) (Out of Production)
M77 Mark II (including Frontier Models) (manufactured from 1989 to 2013) (Out of Production)
M77 Mark II Deluxe/Express (manufactured from 1992 to 2002) (Out of Production)
M77 Mark II Magnum (manufactured from 1992 to 2010) (Out of Production)
Mini-14 (manufactured from 1974 to 1977) (Out of Production)
Mini-14 (manufactured from 1978 to 2004) (Out of Production)
Mini-14 Ranch (manufactured from 1982 to 2004) (Out of Production)
Mini-14 Ranch Rifle (manufactured from 2005 to present)
Mini Thirty (manufactured from 1986 to 2004) (Out of Production)
Mini Thirty (manufactured from 2005 to present)
Model 96 - 96/22 and 96/17 (manufactured from 1996 to 2009) (Out of Production)
Model 96 - 96/44 (manufactured from 1996 to 2007) (Out of Production)
No. 1
PC Carbine
No. 3 (manufactured from 1973 to 1986) (Out of Production)
Ruger American Rifle
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Ruger PC9 Carbine - 9mm (manufactured from 1996 to 2006) (Out of Production)
Ruger PC4 Carbine - 40 Caliber (manufactured from 1996 to 2006) (Out of Production)
Ruger Precision Rifle
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Ruger Scout Rifle
SR-22 Rifle
Red Label Over-and-Under
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Red Label Over-and-Under 12 Gauge (manufactured from 1995 to 2011) (Out of Production)
Red Label Over-and-Under 20 Gauge (manufactured from 1978 to 1995) (Out of Production)
Red Label Over-and-Under 20 Gauge (manufactured from 1996 to 2011) (Out of Production)
Red Label Over-and-Under 28 Gauge (manufactured from 1995 to 2011) (Out of Production)
Trap Shotgun - 12 Gauge (manufactured 2001) (Out of Production)
Woodside - 12 Gauge (manufactured from 1995 - 2002) (Out of Production)
22/45 (manufactured from 1992 to 2005) (Out of Production)
22/45 Mark III (manufactured from 2004 to 2016) (Out of Production)
22/45 Lite (manufactured from 2012 to 2016) (Out of Production)
22/45 Mark III Hunter (manufactured from 2004 to 2012) (Out of Production)
22 Charger Pistol (manufactured from 2008 to 2013) (Out of Production)
22 Charger Pistol
AR-556 Pistol
Hawkeye Single-Shot (manufactured from 1963 to 1964) (Out of Production)
LC9 (Out of Production)
LC9s Pro
Mark I (manufactured from 1949 to 1982) (Out of Production)
Mark II (manufactured from 1982 to 2005) (Out of Production)
Mark III (manufactured from 2004 to 2016) (Out of Production)
Mark III Hunter (manufactured from 2004 to 2016) (Out of Production)
Mark IV (including 22/45)
P345 - Manual Safety Model (Out of Production)
P345D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 2004 to 2009) (Out of Production)
P85 / P85 MKII (manufactured from 1987 to 1992) (Out of Production)
P89 - Manual Safety Model (manufactured from 1993 to 2009) (Out of Production)
P89D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1993 to 2009) (Out of Production)
P89DAO - Double-Action Only (manufactured from 1993 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P90 - Manual Safety Model (manufactured from 1991 to 2010) (Out of Production)
P90D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1991 to 2009) (Out of Production)
P91D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1992 to 1994) (Out of Production)
P91DAO - Double-Action Only (manufactured from 1992 to 1994) (Out of Production)
P93D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1994 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P93DAO - Double-Action Only (manufactured from 1994 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P94 - Manual Safety Model (manufactured from 1994 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P94D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1994 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P94DAO - Double-Action Only (manufactured from 1994 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P944 - Manual Safety Model (manufactured from 1995 to 2010) (Out of Production)
P944D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1995 to 2009) (Out of Production)
P944DAO - Double-Action Only (manufactured from 1995 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P95 - Manual Safety Model (manufactured from 2001-2005) (Out of Production)
P95D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1996-2005) (Out of Production)
P95DAO - Double-Action Only (manufactured from 1996 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P95DPR - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1995 to 2009) (Out of Production)
P95PR - Manual Safety Model (manufactured from 2005 to 2013) (Out of Production)
P97D - Decocker Model (manufactured from 1999 - 2004) (Out of Production)
P97DAO - Double-Action Only (manufactured from 1999 - 2004) (Out of Production)
Ruger American Pistol
Ruger American Pistol - Pro Model
LCR - 38 Special +P
LCR - 357 Magnum
LCR - 22 LR and 22 WMR
LCR - 9mm Luger
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New Model Single-Six - Colorado Centennial Special Model (Out of Production)
New Model Single-Six - SSM (manufactured from 1984-2015) (Out of Production)
New Model Blackhawk - 30 Carbine
New Model Blackhawk - S32X Special Model (Out of Production)
New Model Blackhawk - 357 Magnum (includes Bisley Models and 50th Anniversary Model)
New Model Blackhawk - 357 Maximum (manufactured from 1982 to 1984) (Out of Production)
New Model Blackhawk - S3840 Special Model (Out of Production)
New Model Blackhawk - 41 Mag (includes Bisley Models)
New Model Blackhawk - 44 Magnum 50th Anniversary Model (Out of Production)
New Model Blackhawk - 45 (includes Bisley Models)
New Model Super Blackhawk (includes Bisley Models and 50th Anniversary Model)
New Model Super Blackhawk Hunter
New Bearcat (includes 50th Anniversary Model)
Old Army Cap & Ball - Blued (manufactured from 1972 to 2008) (Out of Production)
Old Army Cap & Ball - Stainless (manufactured from 1975 to 2008) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Single-Six - Standard Model (manufactured from 1953 to 1973) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Single-Six - Aluminum Model (manufactured from 1956 to 1959) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Single-Six - Magnum Model (manufactured from 1959 to 1969) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Super Single-Six (manufactured from 1964 to 1972) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Blackhawk - 30 Caliber (manufactured from 1968 to 1973) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Blackhawk - 357 Caliber (manufactured from 1955 to 1973) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Blackhawk - 41 Caliber (manufactured from 1965 to 1973) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Blackhawk - 44 Caliber (manufactured from 1956 to 1962) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Blackhawk - 45 Caliber (manufactured from 1971 to 1973) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Super Blackhawk - 44 Caliber (manufactured from 1959 to 1973) (Out of Production)
"Old Model" Bearcat & Super Bearcat (manufactured from 1958 to 1974) (Out of Production)
Security-Six, Speed-Six, Police Service-Six (manufactured from 1972 to 1988) (Out of Production)
SP101 - 22 LR
Super Redhawk (includes Alaskan Models)
Vaquero (manufactured from 1993 to 2005 - includes Bisley-Vaquero Models) (Out of Production)
New Vaquero (manufactured from 2005 to present)

For details on your specific serial number you may contact our Service Departments at 336-949-5200.

For serial numbers manufactured prior to our electronic records or for a Letter of Authenticity, please download and mail in the Request for Letter of Authenticity form. Please Note: The Letter of Authenticity lists the serial number, ship date, model and caliber. We are unable to provide any information beyond that.

All prices on this website are suggested only. At Sturm, Ruger & Co., Inc., we list suggested retail prices because we feel this information is an aid to our customers in examining our products. Sturm, Ruger & Co., Inc. does not sell firearms directly to consumers. Ruger products are stocked and sold by thousands of federally licensed independent retailers in the United States and in many foreign countries. We believe there are many benefits to purchasing firearms from a specialty firearms store where you can receive the advice and knowledge of an experienced retailer. All specifications and prices are subject to change without notice. Sturm, Ruger & Co., Inc. reserves the right to change the prices, specifications, or availability of its products at any time without notice. Typographic, photographic, and/or descriptive errors are subject to correction. We apologize for any inconvenience.

Sturm, Ruger & Co., Inc. is one of the nation's leading manufacturers of rugged, reliable firearms for the commercial sporting market. With products made in America, Ruger offers consumers almost 800 variations of more than 40 product lines. For more than 70 years, Ruger has been a model of corporate and community responsibility. Our motto, "Arms Makers for Responsible Citizens®," echoes our commitment to these principles as we work hard to deliver quality and innovative firearms.

Rugged, Reliable Firearms ®