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When Elizabeth replaced Mary as queen, she re-established Protestantism as England's official religion. Although people were fined for not attending Protestant church services, little effort was made to persecute the many Catholics that still lived in England.
Some Protestants thought that the Anglican Church was still too much like the Catholic church. These people became known as Puritans. Some of the things Puritans complained about included: ministers wearing surplices (loose, white garments); people kneeling while taking Communion; ornaments, paintings and stained glass windows in churches; the playing of organ music during services and the celebrations of saints' days.
Puritans, deeply influenced by the writings of John Calvin, also disliked the power that the bishops had in the church. For example, many Puritans disapproved of bishops appointing church ministers. Instead, they suggested that ministers should be elected by the people who attended church services.
Elizabeth resisted these changes as she saw the Puritans as a threat to monarchical government. She feared that Puritans who complained about the wealth and power of bishops would eventually say the same thing about kings and queens. In time, the type of Protestant church established by Elizabeth in England became known as the Anglican Church.
Many Puritans preached in public. The idea of labouring men (and also women) preaching was deeply offensive to the ruling classes.
The pulpit was used for making government announcements... ministers were frequently instructed by the government to preach sermons slanted in a particular way.
From the very beginning a great number of Puritans lived here. Each of them had his own Bible, turning the pages and discussing the passages among themselves... they would start arguing about the meaning of passages from the Scriptures - men, women, boys, girls, rustics, labourers and idiots - and more often than not, it was said, it ended in violence.
People are governed by the pulpit more than the sword.
Mr Pryne... went up first on the scaffold, and his wife, immediately following, came up to him... and saluted each ear with a kiss... The executioner came towards him. Mr Pryne spoke these words to him, "Come, friend, come, burn me, cut me, I fear it not. I have learned to fear the fire of Hell, and not what man can do unto me." The executioner... heated his iron to
burn one cheek, and cut off one of his ears so close that he cut off a piece of his cheek.
King Charles... married a Catholic... he became a most submissive husband... all the Catholics were favoured... the Puritans were persecuted and many of them chose to abandon their native country... Those that could not flee were... fined, whipped and imprisoned.
What is the Anglican Church, and what do Anglicans believe?
The roots of the Anglican, or English, Church go back as far as the 2nd century, but the church traces its current structure and status back to the reign of King Henry VIII, who ruled from 1509 to 1547. The events that led to the formation of the state Anglican Church are a curious mix of ecclesiastical, political, and personal rivalries. Henry petitioned Pope Clement VII for an annulment of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon but was denied. When Protestant Thomas Cranmer became Archbishop of Canterbury, Henry saw his chance to bypass the Pope’s authority and get what he wanted. In 1531, Henry compelled the English clergy to accept him as head of the church in England. In 1532, Henry forced the national convocation to agree in The Submission of the Clergy that they would not promulgate any papal bull in England without the king’s consent. In 1534, Henry led Parliament to pass a series of laws depriving the Roman Catholic Church of any authority in England. The Act of Supremacy declared the king to be “the supreme head of the church in England,” thus giving Henry the same legal authority over the English church that the Pope exercised over the Roman Catholic Church.
The English church didn’t assert total independence from Rome until Henry VIII’s reign, and Henry himself made little true reform in the church. The true English Reformation began during the short reign of Henry’s son Edward VI and was spearheaded by Cranmer. There had been aspects of ecclesiastical independence throughout England’s history. The Saxon church, founded by Saint Augustine in 597, was under papal direction, but not without resistance. The various tribes of England had never fully submitted to Roman occupation, and when the Roman Legion was withdrawn, the Saxon church continued on an independent course. In 664, King Oswey of Northumbria called the Synod of Whitby to merge the Saxon and Celtic churches nominally under the Roman Catholic Church. The long history of English resistance laid the groundwork for Henry’s acts in the sixteenth century.
The doctrine of the Anglican Church is an interesting mix of Catholicism and Protestant Reformation theology. The Apostles’ Creed and Nicene Creed are authoritative declarations of belief for the Anglican Church and are typically recited in worship services. Interestingly, the church does not require individuals to agree with or accept all the statements of those creeds but encourages its members to join in the process of discovery. The 39 Articles, developed in the reign of Elizabeth I, laid out the Protestant doctrine and practice of the Anglican Church, but were deliberately written to be so vague that they were open to various interpretations by Protestants and Catholics. As in the Catholic Church, the celebration of the Eucharist is central to the worship service, along with the communal offering of prayer and praise through the recitation of the liturgy. In all liturgical churches, there is a danger of allowing the form of religious ceremony (Isaiah 29:13) to replace the personal application of faith (Psalm 51:16-17). This was a key point of contention by the Puritans and others who ultimately left the Anglican Church. Thomas Shepherd, who was expelled from the Anglican Church in 1630 for non-conformity, was a spiritual giant who was concerned that people distinguish between the work of grace in genuine conversion and the religious pretense that was common within the church. (Shepherd was one of the pivotal men in the founding of Harvard College and became a mentor of Jonathan Edwards, who was mightily used of God in the Great Awakening.)
The Anglican Communion has 80 million members worldwide in 38 different church organizations, including the Episcopal Church. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the recognized spiritual head of the church, though each church organization is self-governing under its own archbishop. In addition to those churches, the Continuing Anglican Communion, established in 1977, is composed of churches which share the historic Anglican faith but reject the changes in the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer as well as the ordination of women and gays/lesbians to the clergy, and have thus severed their ties with the main church. The Anglican Church in North America, formed in 2009, has broken ties with the Anglican Communion over the issue of homosexuality and does not recognize the Archbishop of Canterbury as their leader. Joining the Anglican Church in North America are the Church of Nigeria, the Church of Uganda, the Episcopal Church of South Sudan, the Sudan Episcopal Church, and others.
Brief Anglican Church History
The first phase of the Anglican Reformation (1531–1547) began over a personal dispute when King Henry VIII of England was denied papal support for the annulling of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. In response, both the king and the English parliament rejected papal primacy and asserted the supremacy of the crown over the church. Thus, King Henry VIII of England was established head over the Church of England. Little if any change in doctrine or practice was initially introduced.
During the reign of King Edward VI (1537–1553), he attempted to place the Church of England more firmly in the Protestant camp, both in theology and practice. However, his half-sister Mary, who was the next monarch on the throne, set about (often by force) bringing the Church back under papal rule. She failed, but her tactics left the church with widespread mistrust for Roman Catholicism that has endured in branches of Anglicanism for centuries.
When Queen Elizabeth I took the throne in 1558, she strongly influenced the shape of Anglicanism in the Church of England. Much of her influence is still seen today. Although decisively a Protestant church, under Elizabeth, the Church of England retained much of its pre-Reformation characteristics and offices, such as archbishop, dean, canon, and archdeacon. It also sought to be theologically flexible by permitting various interpretations and views. Lastly, the church focused on the uniformity of practice by emphasizing its Book of Common Prayer as the center of worship and by keeping many of the pre-Reformation customs and rules for clerical dress.
Anglican History Blog
Ask most people in an Episcopal congregation about the beginnings of the Episcopal Church after the Revolutionary War and they’ll tell you that “it was formed out of the Church of England.” Maybe in confirmation class some years ago you recall learning about Samuel Seabury, Bishop of Connecticut, who was the first Episcopalian bishop in America. And the rest is, well, church history.
Picture yourself an American member of the colonial Church of England (COE) during or after the Revolutionary War. Your church was part of the royal government, the same government that people were fighting against. Perhaps you felt more allegiance to the Crown than your fellow colonists. After all, the Church of England in the United States (remember “Anglican” wasn’t a term in common use until the 19th century) attracted members of the merchant class, civil servants, royal governors, and others with strong ties to England.
If you left during the Revolution to go to Canada or return to England you weren’t alone. About 40% of Anglicans did. For those who stayed on after the war, their church was a shadow of its former self. Where the COE was the established (government-subsidized) church, such as the southern colonies and parts of New York, the church was quickly dis-established and lands sold off. Clergy, who took an oath of loyalty to the King, were caught in a dilemma: do you remain faithful to your ordination vows and support the King or side with the colonists who were part of the Revolution?
All these and more problems faced those clergy and laity who remained in the church after the Revolution. To begin with, the church had no name. You couldn’t really call it the COE, since the colonies were free. There were no bishops in the colonies before the Revolution (there never were, as clergy traveled to England for ordination before the War) and there was no mechanism to consecrate any new ones. Church assets and property was lost to disestablishment and there were 40% fewer members to support the church.
The old COE brought its liturgical tradition with it from England, and used the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. What liturgical tradition would the new church use? How could the church use a prayer book that contained prayers for the King?
These questions were on the minds of soon-to-be-Episcopalians in the colonies.
A Pennsylvania rector, the Rev. William White, of Christ and St. Peter’s Churches in Philadelphia, stepped up and proposed several solutions including some thoughts on bishops, tradition, and how this new church should be governed. During that time a name for the new church was proposed as well.
The Rev. White was born in Pennsylvania in 1742 and ordained in London in 1770. He returned to Philadelphia in 1772 and served as the assistant at Christ Church and later became rector of both Christ Church and its sister church, St. Peter’s. While was sympathetic to the Revolution and served as chaplain to the Continental Congress (he would eventually become the United States Senate Chaplain).
In 1782 White wrote The Case of the Episcopal Churches in the United States Considered (available from here) where he addressed a number of issues. He began by acknowledging the spiritual connection with the COE but noted that the Revolutionary War dissolved any allegiance to it. White’s masterful argument for the development of an American church modeled on some features of the COE was based on very Anglican principles. The frotispiece of the work quotes the great English theologian Hooker:
To make new articles of faith and doctrine, no man thinketh it lawful new laws of government, what commonwealth or church is there which maketh not at one time or another?
White continues his argument by noting that the authority for a national church to set its own tradition is found in the Articles of Religion, namely Article 35, which states:
Every particular or national Church hath authority to ordain, change, and abolish, Ceremonies or Rite of the Church ordained only by man’s authority, so that all things may be done to edifying.
It was, therefore, not only the right thing to do, but a very Anglican thing to do to incorporate the tradition of the COE into the new church without being governed by or swearing allegiance to it.
So where did the name Episcopal come from? The word episcopal is derived from the Greek episkopos and means overseer. The term “episcopal” was used to mean bishops, and to distinguish the Church of England model of governance, i.e. bishops, from other Protestant models of governance that did not have an episcopal form of governance, such as the Presbyterians or the Puritans. “Protestant Episcopal” was used in the colonies around 1780 to differentiate the new church from Roman Catholic churches, especially in the former Roman Catholic colony of Maryland. (Holmes, A Brief History of the Episcopal Church, page 50)
The concept of bishops was a contentious one for the colonies, as bishops implied the authority of the King, and, after all, isn’t that why there was a revolution? If there was never a Church of England bishop in the colonies before the war, why start now?
In the next post on this subject we’ll talk more about bishops, and how the new church eventually got some.
The Martyrdom of Thomas Cranmer
On March 21, 1556 Thomas Cranmer was executed in Oxford, after giving his final speech at St. Mary’s Church, Oxford. It was expected that Cranmer would recant and urge his fellow Protestants to return to the Roman Catholic faith. Cranmer, of course, repudiated the Pope and Roman Catholicism, and became a martyr. The images here are from Foxe’s Acts and Monuments which graphically described the Marian-era burnings for generations of Protestants to come.
As the 21st draws near, watch a short video below about the final speech. We’ll have some more Cranmer-related posts up over the next few weeks.
The Execution of Thomas Cranmer
Merciful God, who through the work of Thomas Cranmer didst renew the worship of thy Church by restoring the language of the people, and through whose death didst reveal thy power in human weakness: Grant that by thy grace we may always worship thee in spirit and in truth through Jesus Christ, our only Mediator and Advocate, who livest and reignest with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.
Oxford History of Anglicanism
The Oxford History of Anglicanism is a major new and unprecedented international study of the identity and historical influence of one of the world's largest versions of Christianity. This global study of Anglicanism from the sixteenth century looks at how was Anglican identity constructed and contested at various periods since the sixteenth century and what was its historical influence during the past six centuries. It explores not just the ecclesiastical and theological aspects of global Anglicanism, but also the political, social, economic, and cultural influences of this form of Christianity that has been historically significant in western culture, and a burgeoning force in non-western societies today. The chapters are written by international experts in their various historical fields which includes the most recent research in their areas, as well as original research. The series forms an invaluable reference for both scholars and interested non-specialists.
Coming Home to Rome
Other Anglicans tried to create an alternative structure, the Traditional Anglican Communion (TAC), which grew to represent 400,000 Anglicans in 40 countries worldwide. But as tensions grew in the Anglican Communion, TAC petitioned the Catholic Church in October 2007 for "full, corporate, and sacramental union." That petition became the basis for Pope Benedict's action on October 20, 2009.
Under the new procedure, "personal ordinariates" (essentially, dioceses without geographical boundaries) will be formed. The bishops will normally be former Anglicans, though, respecting the tradition of both the Catholic and the Orthodox Churches, candidates for bishop must be unmarried. While the Catholic Church does not recognize the validity of Anglican Holy Orders, the new structure allows married Anglican priests to request ordination as Catholic priests once they have entered the Catholic Church. Former Anglican parishes will be allowed to preserve "elements of the distinctive Anglican spiritual and liturgical patrimony."
This canonical structure is open to all in the Anglican Communion (currently 77 million strong), including the Episcopal Church in the United States (approximately 2.2 million).
RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY IN EARLY AMERICA
Philadelphia was America ’ s largest city during the revolutionary period and its most diverse. It offered its visitors a wide range of experiences including religious experiences. John Adams represented Massachusetts during the First Continental Congress held in Philadelphia in 1774, and he savored the new opportunities he found there. On Sundays he often visited various churches, recording his impressions in his diary, as in these excerpts.
11 September 1774. Mr. Reed was so kind as to wait on us to Mr. Sprouts Meeting, where we heard Mr. Spencer. These Ministers all preach without Notes. We had an Opportunity of seeing the Custom of the Presbyterians in administering the Sacrament. The Communicants all came to a row of Seats, placed on each Side of a narrow Table spread in the Middle of the alley reaching from the Deacons Seat to the front of the House. Three setts of Persons of both sexes, came in Succession. Each new sett had the Bread and the Cup given to them by a new Minister. Each Communicant has a token, which he delivers to the Deacons or Elders, I dont know which they call em.
9 October 1774. Went to hear Dr. Allison, an Aged Gentleman. It was Sacrament Day and he gave us a sacramental Discourse. This Dr. Allison is a Man of Abilities and Worth, but I hear no Preachers here like ours in Boston, excepting Mr. Duche. Coombs indeed is a good Speaker, but not an original, but a Copy of Duche. Went in the Afternoon to the Romish Chappell and heard a good discourse upon the Duty of Parents to their Children, founded in Justice and Charity. The Scenery and the Musick is so callculated to take in Mankind that I wonder, the Reformation ever succeeded. The Paintings, the Bells, the Candles, the Gold and Silver. Our Saviour on the Cross, over the Altar, at full Length, and all his Wounds a bleeding. The Chanting is exquisitely soft and sweet.
23 October 1774. In the Afternoon I went to the Baptist Church and heard a trans Alleganian — a Preacher, from the back Parts of Virginia, behind the Allegany Mountains. He preached an hour and an half. No Learning — No Grace of Action or Utterance — but an honest Zeal. . . . In the Evening I went to the Methodist Meeting and heard Mr. Webb, the old soldier, who first came to America, in the Character of Quarter Master under Gen. Braddock. He is one of the most fluent, eloquent Men I ever heard. He reaches the Imagination and touches the Passions, very well, and expresses himself with great Propriety. The Singing here is very sweet and soft indeed. The first Musick I have heard in any Society, except the Moravians, and once at Church with the organ.
Source: L. H. Butterfield, ed., The Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, 1771 – 1781, volume 2 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961), pp. 131 – 132, 149 – 150, 156.
Bishops. One key problem for American Anglicans was that there was no American bishop. This fact greatly impeded the growth of the religion. In order to become priests men had to be ordained by a bishop in a ceremony called the laying on of hands. The ritual symbolized the connection of all priests, through their bishops, with the entire line of priests and bishops stretching in an unbroken chain back to Christ and his apostles, thought by Anglicans to be the first bishops of the church. Since there were no bishops in America, men who wanted to become priests had to travel to England for training and ordination. While this meant that Anglican priests could be well educated and worldly, something that often appealed to the parishioners they eventually served, it also meant that relatively few priests were ordained. The cost of ordination, in time and money, was simply too high. From time to time since the late 1600s, some men had advocated the appointment of a bishop who would reside in America and care for the church there. These arguments went nowhere before the revolutionary period, when they began to be advanced more seriously. In 1758 Thomas Seeker became the archbishop of Canterbury, the highest ranking cleric in the Anglican Church. Seeker was deeply interested in the colonial church and wanted to strengthen it by appointing its own bishop. He supported other actions designed to improve the church ’ s situation, such as the establishment of yearly meetings of priests in each colony, starting with New Jersey in 1758. These conventions began to agitate for an American bishop. This combined with a renewed missionary push into New England to ignite the suspicions of non-Anglicans about the purpose of a bishop. Many Congregationalists resented the notion that they needed missionaries. They thought the elegant lifestyle of the Reverend East Apthorp, the missionary who arrived to serve Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1760, was a sign of the decadent society that Anglicanism would produce. They also feared that Anglicans sought political as well as religious power, and their suspicions soon became part of the wider apprehension about British imperialism and oppression.
Debate. The end of the Seven Years ’ War only increased these fears. The acquisition of Canada from France as part of the peace settlement along with the cost of the war led Britain to reassess the organization and management of its colonies. Seeker took the opportunity to petition for a bishop. At the same time, in 1763, Jonathan Mayhew, one of the leading Congregational ministers of Boston, published an attack on the Anglican missionary effort that provoked a lengthy debate in the colonial newspapers about Anglicans and their motives. The debate was quite inflammatory. John Adams, for one, thought the fear of bishops was widespread and significant for the coming of revolution. He wrote that “ the apprehension of Episcopacy contributed . as much as any other cause, to arouse the attention not only of the inquiring mind, but of the common people, and urge them to close thinking on the constitutional authority of parliament over the colonies. ” Antiepiscopal feeling soon merged with even older and deeper antipapist prejudice, as rumors spread in the late 1760s over the religious plans for Catholic Quebec. As a Roman Catholic bishop arrived there, and later Britain guaranteed Catholic freedom of worship in the 1774 Quebec Act, non-Anglicans throughout the thirteen colonies came to fear for their own religious liberty. As political events developed at the same time, freedom from a central religious authority came to be one of the principal values of the independence movement. The more Americans committed themselves to the cause of religious freedom, the fewer were interested in Anglicanism ’ s royalist politics or episcopal hierarchy.
Decline. The long decline of Anglicanism can be seen in the series of events that ended in the 1786 disestablishment of the church in Virginia, its stronghold. At the center of the process was a cultural revolution as profound as the political one occurring at the same time. The revivals in the Virginia backcountry had swelled the numbers of Presbyterians, Methodists, and especially Baptists in Virginia in the 1750s and 1760s. While Anglican numbers probably grew as well in these years, they hardly kept pace with the explosive growth of the other groups. Revivalism ’ s growth presented a fundamental challenge to the social order of the colony. Virginia society rested on a close connection between genteel planters and the church. This order broke down as individuals left the established parishes and formed their own churches led by lay preachers. Revivalistic enthusiasm became a model for acceptable behavior, however impolite it appeared to the gentry. The itinerant minister became the chief moral spokesman, replacing a weak, often nonexistent Anglican priest. Baptist ministers gained adherents from people, mainly on the frontier, who were also challenging the political arrangements that concentrated power in the hands of Tidewater plantation owners. The political conflict between these groups paralleled the religious developments of the same time. As their influence spread through the 1770s, the Baptists came to offer an alternative social order, based on egalitarian fellowship rather than hierarchy and having love rather than deference as its core value. As the American Revolution developed, the Baptist alternative was poised to become the dominant pattern for the new nation.
Brief History of Anglican Church of India (CIPBC)
The Church of India (CIPBC) (formerly the Church of England in India) is the original Anglican Church in India. The Anglican presence in India dates back four hundred years ago to 1600, when Queen Elizabeth I, was still on the throne of England. From that time until within living memory British Chaplains and missionaries arrived in ever increasing number, and were territory included not only India the first to minister to the expatriate British community and later to bring the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the Indian people themselves.
For the next ninety years that is until 1927 the Church of India was a Province of the Church of England, under the authority of the Crown and the British Parliament. Arising from the enactment of the Indian Church Measure, 1927 and the Indian Church Act, 1927 for the dissolution of its legal connection with the Church of England, the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon formed the ecclesiastical Province. It was the time it governed by its own very comprehensive “Constitution, Canons and Rules are binding on all members of the Anglican Church of India, that is all the clergy and lay people as well. It was the Government Church under Ecclesiastical department and Crown was the trustee of the Anglican Church.
It was described through the Acts and Measure cited above that the legal and administrative relations and connection with the Church of England were no more. The Anglican Church in India became autonomous Church body and followed the same Creeds, traditions, the Sacraments and Holy orders of men.
The modern world has changed the mind of religious leaders of the Church of England while the cool approval for women ordination was given by the Canterbury. Gradually the Church of England has adopted corner for same sex marriages and admission of same sex (gay) to the Holy Order of Priest-hood and Episcopates.
Indeed within a short time, 15 (of 35) Primates had declared that communion with Ingham and New Westminster was broken or badly damaged. The 15 Primates said that New West’s Bishop contemptuously ignored the Primates recent rejection of liturgies for same sex couples and Archbishop of Canterbury Williams earlier warnings that any repudiation of the Lambeth resolution would endanger "sacramental unity".
Liberal Canadian Primate Peers recently joined other Primates in endorsing a Pastoral letter that rejected public same-sex blessing rites, but later denied that the Pastoral was a direct and unanimous repudiation of such rites. One conservative leader thought that Peers should be reprimanded for his "bad faith", but the Primate is probably not worried: he retires in 2004. In 1987 the Anglican Church in Australia (ACA) split into two separate denominations. The larger part, the ACA, abandoned the traditional faith of the Church of England, but kept the property without any resolution. The smaller part, the Anglican Catholic Church, has for the moment lost that property, but was kept the traditional Anglican Faith. The case is different for the Anglican Church in India. It was Government Church and the Church properties were governed by Acts of Parliaments, Statutory Rules, Royal Charters and Gazette Notifications.
The Anglican Communion divided throughout the world. The Church of England has not maintained unity under the leadership of Archbishop of Canterbury because of change in biblical facts. The sufficient teaching of St. Paul is provided in New Testament of the Holy Bible keep the women and same sex away from the holy order of Priesthood and Episcopates.
What does it mean to be an Anglican? What holds the Anglican Communion together? A common Faith and Practice? Not any longer, when the official definition (by the Eames Commission) says that it is now only an "impaired Communion" (which must qualify as the ecclesiastical oxymoron of the decade). So what does hold it together – The Book of Common Prayer? Because that compendium of doctrine and worship. We generally talk for the Faith and doctrine, Creeds and rituals Sacraments and apostolic Ministry in traditional way. A commonly held summery of the Faith, such as the Lambeth Quadrilateral (Scripture, Creeds, Sacraments, Apostolic Ministry) or the Vincentian Canon? Obviously not, since certain items have been abandoned unilaterally by section of the Communion (which is why it is now "impaired".
The Anglican Church of India (CIPBC) is autonomous Church body having it's nine Bishops in valid apostolic succession. It has good relations to other Traditional Anglican denominations who continued in valid apostolic succession. The Anglican Church of India is affiliated to the Worldwide Traditional Anglican Communion of about 42 Anglican Churches. The Most Rev. John Hepworth is Primate of the Traditional Anglican Communion.
What Is the History of the Anglican Church?
The Anglican church began with King Henry VIII's disassociation with the Roman Catholic Church. Anglicanism continued to develop in the 1600s in England before spreading to other colonies.
In the sixteenth century, when the Protestant Reformation was beginning to take place in continental Europe, King Henry VIII had already been showing discontent with the Pope. The final straw was the Pope refusing to grant Henry a divorce upon this, the king made himself the head of the Church of England, with more authority than the Pope. However, the only major change that occurred was disassociation with Rome.
While Anglicanism began to adopt Protestant doctrine under King Edward VI, the religion didn't distinguish itself significantly until the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. She appointed bishops and introduced the first Book of Common Prayer. Therefore, she was the first to truly organize Anglicanism into a new church. Anglicanism still caused some turmoil within the nation the church's insistence on Scotland adopting the new book of prayer was one of the factors that caused the English Civil War.
Anglicanism eventually spread to other British colonies. The Anglican Church had a notable presence in the American colonies prior to the Revolutionary War, until those congregations evolved into the separate Episcopalian church.. However, the church did not participate earnestly in missionary work overseas until the 1800s. Around this time, Anglicanism's doctrines were still changing, accepting Catholic and other theologians' influence.